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4. Forms of Energy Reference Sheet
- is the ability to do work or cause change
- can be changed from one form to another
- cannot be created or destroyed
1) Mechanical- the energy of objects that can move and position of an object
a. KE + PE = ME
b. Sound Waves
2) Thermal- is kinetic energy within the particles that make up matter
a. Steam
3) Chemical- the energy of a compound that changes as its atoms are rearranged.
a. Food (chemical compounds)
4) Electrical- is the energy of moving electrons (charged particles)
a. Amplifier
b. electronics
5) Sound/ Acoustic- energy that makes air particles vibrate
a. Guitar
6) Light/Radiant- produced by the vibrations of electrically charged particles
a. Energy used to cook food in a microwave
7) Nuclear- comes from changes in the nucleus of an atom
a. Fusion and fission
b. Sun Light
Forms of Energy
Energy is found in different forms including light, heat, chemical, and motion. There are many
forms of energy, but they can all be put into two categories: potential and kinetic.
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy
Potential energy is stored energy and the energy of
Kinetic energy is motion —of waves, electrons, atoms,
position — gravitational energy. There are several forms
molecules, substances, and objects.
of potential energy.
Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of atoms
and molecules. Batteries, biomass, petroleum, natural
gas, and coal are examples of stored chemical energy.
Chemical energy is converted to thermal energy when we
burn wood in a fireplace or burn gasoline in a car's
Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in
transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays,
gamma rays and radio waves. Light is one type of radiant
energy. Sunshine is radiant energy, which provides the fuel and
warmth that make life on Earth possible.
Thermal Energy, or heat, is the vibration and movement of the
atoms and molecules within substances. As an object is heated
Mechanical Energy is energy stored in objects by tension. up, its atoms and molecules move and collide faster.
Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are
Geothermal energy is the thermal energy in the Earth.
examples of stored mechanical energy.
Motion Energy is energy stored in the movement of objects.
Nuclear Energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom The faster they move, the more energy is stored. It takes
— the energy that holds the nucleus together. Very large energy to get an object moving, and energy is released when an
amounts of energy can be released when the nuclei are object slows down. Wind is an example of motion energy. A
combined or split apart. Nuclear power plants split the
dramatic example of motion is a car crash, when the car comes
nuclei of uranium atoms in a process called fission. The to a total stop and releases all its motion energy at once in an
sun combines the nuclei of hydrogen atoms in a process uncontrolled instant.
called fusion.
Sound is the movement of energy through substances in
Gravitational Energy is energy stored in an object's
height. The higher and heavier the object, the more
gravitational energy is stored. When you ride a bicycle
down a steep hill and pick up speed, the gravitational
energy is being converted to motion energy. Hydropower
is another example of gravitational energy, where the
dam "piles" up water from a river into a reservoir.
longitudinal (compression/rarefaction) waves. Sound is
produced when a force causes an object or substance to vibrate
— the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave.
Typically, the energy in sound is far less than other forms of
Electrical Energy is delivered by tiny charged particles called
electrons, typically moving through a wire. Lightning is an
example of electrical energy in nature, so powerful that it is not
confined to a wire.
Name the start of the Transformation of each:
Battery: Chemical
Windmill: Mechanical
Satellite Dish: Radiant
Curling Iron: Electrical
Nuclear Power Plant: Nuclear
Tractor on a farm: Chemical
How do we get electricity to our house?
Chemical  Thermal Mechanical  Electrical