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Early Imperialism Level 2 Essential Questions Why did the United States engage in imperialism? How did the U.S. gain territories world wide? Vocabulary Imperialism: the process by which one state possessing superior military strength and more advanced technology imposes its control over the land, resources, and population of a less developed region Age of Imperialism: the period between 1870 and 1914 Great White Fleet: a name given to the U.S. Navy at the beginning of the 20th century because the ships were painted white Monroe Doctrine: a policy of the U.S. that European countries should not attempt to gain control of Latin American countries Seward's Folly: the nickname that many gave to the purchase of Alaska The Five Ds of Imperialism ● Dollars US started to produce more than it could consume; new colonial markets were needed to expand economy Businessmen upset about Panic of ‘93 began to invest overseas increasing total national exports from $392 million in 1870 to $1.4 billion in 1900 ● Defense Naval bases were needed to defend national interests Pacific islands made excellent naval bases ● Democracy US believed political ideals should be spread to countries with unstable or oppressive governments Colonized in the name of freedom and liberty ● Darwinism Extended Social Darwinism to nations, saying the strongest nations should colonize and dominate weaker ones ● Destiny Taking the concept of Manifest Destiny outside the continent Divinely ordained right of the US to annex other territories The Great White Fleet ● Captain Alfred Mahan, of the United States Navy, argued that the United States needed a larger navy to protect American merchant ships. ● A bigger navy would need more bases throughout the world. ● Congress had begun to enlarge and modernized the navy. New steam powered and steel hulled ships were being built. ● The navy ships were called the Great White Fleet because they were painted white. ● The Great White Fleet was used as show of power and might of the United States. ● President Theodore Roosevelt once said “ Speak softly but carry a Big Stick” Colonization Strong navy could protect colonies from foreign nations Colonies would provide new markets for goods Britain established itself as number one superpower by colonizing India and huge portions of Africa France and Russia were gaining colonies United States fell behind when it came to power and world influence because of lack of colonies The US Navy eventually became third most powerful by 1900 Colonial divisions of each continent by European powers in 1900 Latin America ● In October 1889, James Blaine founded the Pan-American Union ● Pan-American Union was very weak but it helped unite the stronger Latin American countries of North America ● America actively intervened in Latin American affairs and upheld Monroe Doctrine ● The U.S. almost went to war with Britain over boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana ● Roosevelt Corollary amended Monroe Doctrine saying that US could pay off debts of poorer Latin American countries on their behalf Samoa Samoa became one of the first targets for American imperialists because of the strategic harbor at Pago Pago For ten years, US, Germany, and Great Britain eyed Samoa almost going to war over it In 1899, US and Germany split Samoa and gave Britain other islands in the Pacific Hawaii American planters and missionaries first arrive in 1820 Planters establish sugar trade with China under King Kamehameha I Pearl Harbor opened in 1887 Queen Liluokalani, a powerful nationalist elected in 1891, revolted against American control Planters appeal to US government which sends Marines to peacefully overthrow the queen After Liluokalani abdicates, Republic of Hawaii is set up in 1893 and later annexed by President McKinley in 1898 A portrait of the regal Queen Liluokalani; her character was greatly admired by all including President Cleveland who called her overthrow “despicable” Alaska Secretary of State Seward convinces the Senate to purchase Alaska from Russia in 1867 for 2 cents per acre Critics ridiculed Alaska calling it Seward’s Folly Eventually, rich deposits of gold, timber, and fish were found in Alaska sparking several gold rushes; Seward had the last laugh Review Questions ● What are the five reasons for Imperialism? ● What was the two purposes of the Great White Fleet? ● What is the importance of gaining control of Samoa? ● How did Hawaii become part of the U.S.? ● What was Seward’s Folly?