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Transcript
APUSH Review
A Few Things to Ponder
Columbian
Exchange
An exchange between the Old World and New World; the
Old World gave the New World religion, food, animals, and
diseases; Africa gave the New World slaves; New World
gave the Old World gold, silver, raw materials, and food
products.
encomienda
Labor system used by Spanish for giving people
Native American slaves; the English replaced the
system with black slaves
Joint-stock
company
association of individuals in a business
enterprise where contributors combined
their capital to gain profit
Virginia
The first joint-stock company in the
colonies; founded Jamestown; promised
gold, conversion of Indian to Christianity,
and passage to the Indies
Headright
system
employed by Virginia and Maryland;
whoever paid the passage of a laborer
got fifty acres of land; encouraged
importation of indentured servants
John Smith
Captain who saved Virginia from collapse
Powhatan
Indian chief who wanted peace with
the Chesapeake settlers, but tense
relations led to a series of wars
Mayflower
Compact
A contract made by the voyagers on the
ship that bears its name agreeing that
they would form a simple government
where majority ruled
John Winthrop
immigrated to the Mass. Bay Colony in
the 1630's to become the first governor;
hoped to make it a “city upon a hill”
Roger Williams
banished from the Massachusetts Bay
Colony for challenging Puritan ideas.
Established Rhode Island and helped it
to foster religious toleration
Chesapeake
Colonial region characterized by warm
climate, plantation agriculture, tobacco,
indentured servants later replaced with
enslaved labor; included VA and MD
New England
Colonial region characterized by
seasonal changes, rocky soil, small
towns, family farms with mixed economy
of agriculture and trade; included MA,
CT, RI
Middle
Colonies
Colonies characterized by an export
economy based on cereal crops, variety
of migrants; greater cultural and religious
diversity and tolerance; included PA, DE
Salutary
neglect
Lax attention from Britain that led to self-government;
New England used town meetings to elect members
for colonial legislatures and Southern colonies had
elite planters that dominated
Act of
Toleration
1649
Act that guaranteed religious freedom for
Christians
House of
Burgesses
1619
First representative body in the British
colonies
Fundamental Orders
of Connecticut
1639
First constitution in the colonies drafted that stated a
government's authority rests upon the consent of the
governed and expressed the will of the majority.
Pueblo Revolt
1680
Most successful Indian rebellion against
Europeans; Southwest Indians
maintained independence for 10 years
mercantilism
Economic practice in which England set up colonies to
provide raw materials to the Mother Country; the colonies
received manufactured goods in return.
Great
Awakening
Major religious revival (1740s) prior to the American
Revolution that furthered individualism, opposed
established authority and furthered American nationalism.
Enlightenment
18th C philosophical movement that advocated the use
of reason; provided the framework for the American and
French Revolutions and rise of capitalism; important
people included Locke and Montesquieu
Albany
Congress
During the French and Indian war, Ben Franklin
attempted to unify the colonies behind Great Britain in its
war against France.
Proclamation
of 1763
A line drawn by the British government that forbade
the colonists from settling on western lands won
after the French and Indian War; prompted by
Pontiac’s rebellion
Stamp Act
1765
British tax on paper goods; first direct tax
on the colonies; to help pay for debt from
French and Indian War; led protest and
additional acts
American
Revolution
British laws like the Stamp Act, Townsend Acts
Common
Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine
during the Revolutionary War to try and
convince colonists to fight.
Republican
Motherhood
Granted women new importance in
American political culture; called on
women to teach republican values within
the family
Northwest
Ordinance
1787
the act of Congress providing for the government of
the Northwest Territory and setting forth the steps by
which its subdivisions might become states; also
banned slavery in states formed from the territory.
Constitutional
Convention
1787
Meeting in Philadelphia to address the weaknesses of
the Articles of Confederation; though compromise
resulted in a new government; limited federal system
providing for separation of powers
Federalists
Papers
Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and
John Jay to gain support for the Constitution; ensured
ratification by promising a Bill of rights
Neutrality
Proclamation
1793
Issued by Washington in reaction conflict
arising between France and Britain; as a
result of the French Revolution
Alexander
Hamilton
His economic plan involved assuming
state debt, a national bank, taxes and
tariff
Political
Parties
Differences between Hamilton and
Jefferson (tariff, federal power, and
European power) contributed to the
formation of these
XYZ Affair
Three American delegates sent to
France to negotiate; caused by British
and French threatening American
shipping; French try to bribe delegates
but U.S. refuse
Kentucky and
Virginia Resolutions
These stated that a state had the right to declare a
law unconstitutional, or nullify a law, within its
borders. These were written by Jefferson and
Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts
Thomas
Jefferson
Barbary War, Louisiana Purchase,
impressment, Embargo and NonIntercourse Acts were foreign policy
challenges for which president
John Marshall
Who expanded the power of the federal
government through decisions like
Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v.
Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden
War of 1812
Fought between Britain and the United
States largely over the issues of trade
and impressment; ending with the Treaty
of Ghent and followed by a wave of
nationalism
Missouri
Compromise
1820
Maintained the balance between free and slave
states; admitted Maine and allowed no slavery north
of 36°30” in Louisiana Territory
American
System
1820s
Henry Clays 3 pronged system to promote industry;
strong Banking System, a protective tariff, internal
improvements
Monroe
Doctrine
1823
Issued to protect the Western
Hemisphere fro any further colonization
from European powers
Nullification
Crisis
Created by South Carolina ordinance that declared the
federal tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional
and therefore null and void within the sovereign
boundaries of South Carolina. Jackson threatened to
enforce; Clay arranged compromise tariff.
Whig Party
Party opposed to Jackson; supported American
System and political action for social reform but was
divided on the issue of slavery
Abolition
William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator,
Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Liberty
Party all championed this cause
Mormon
founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with
headquarters in salt lake city, utah,
religious group
Second Great
Awakening
A series of religious revivals that stressed a philosophy
of salvation through good deeds; promoted moral
movements such as prison reform, the temperance,
and abolition.
Cult of
Domesticity
Belief that women had a unique role to provide religious
and moral instruction in the homes but avoid the world
of politics and business in the larger sphere of society
in the mid-19th C; helped fuel women's rights
movements.
Transcendentalism
Philosophy that emerged mainly in literature in the
mid-19th century centered around individualism,
nature, and rejected traditional religion; Ralph Waldo
Emerson and Henry David Thoreau
Market
Revolution
Change from subsistence to commercial economy;
accompanied new inventions in farming, transportation,
communication, production, and new business concepts
Mexican
Cession
Land ceded to the U.S. following the
Mexican-American War; included
present-day AZ, NV, NM. CA; increased
tension over anti-slavery debate
Compromise of
1850
Allowed California to enter as free state and the slave
trade to be banned in Washington D.C, while enforcing
the Fugitive Slave Law and leaving New Mexico and
Utah territories to popular sovereignty
Bleeding
Kansas
Violence involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery groups
in Kansas-Nebraska Territory; further strained the
relations of the North and South
Dred Scot v.
Sanford
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not
citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot
be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become
free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled
abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
Republican
Party
Formed in 1854
a coalition of disgruntled Whigs, Democrats, Free
Soilers, Know-Nothings on the issue of anti-expansion
of slavery
Abraham
Lincoln
Competed with Stephen Douglas in
famous debates; first Republican
president; election led to secession
Congressional
Reconstruction
Began 1867
When the Radical Republicans took control
following the Civil War; concerned re-admittance of
Confederate States; used military force to protect
the freedmen’s rights
Freedman’s
Bureau
U.S. federal government agency that aided the
former slaves. It provided food, clothing, medical
care, and education to former slaves and to white
refugees. First to establish school for blacks to
learn to read.
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of
the newly freed black slaves; Radical
Republicans will push forward the 14th and 15th
amendments to counter
Alaska
Purchased from Russia in 1867; called
“Seward’s Folly”
Andrew
Johnson
1868
Impeached for violating the Tenure of Office Act. He
had removed Edwin M. Stanton, the Secretary of War
Redeemers
White Southerners and former slave
owners who opposed the Republican
program in the South.
Election of
1876
Hayes-Tilden were opposing candidates;
led to Compromise of 1877 where Hayes
won and Reconstruction was ended