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Dear Delegates,
It is my utmost pleasure for me to take part in MCMUN 2016 Disarmament and
International Security committee conference as one of the committee directors. DISEC
deals with disarmament, global challenges and threats to peace that affect the
international community and seeks out solutions to the challenges in the international
security regime. Consequently, our issues will be measures to prevent arms export to
terrorist organizations, prevention of a future nuclear warfare and the question of
prohibiting the placement of weapons of mass destruction in outer space and the
stationing of such weapons on celestial bodies.
We supplicate and believe that every delegate will come up with efficient and sufficient
resolutions which will prevent the problems about disarmament. But, to achieve this right
each delegate is amenable to prepare solutions from their own country's perspective and
should not bring in their subjective judgments. And all delegates are obligated to write
position papers to explain their country's perspective on the stated issue.
I hope we all have a great time together while we are emphasizing and solving the
problem “International Disarmament” which is one of the most important issues. We expect
you to prove the voice of youth in this conference.
While we believe this committees topic covers an important subject which has lacked the
attention it so desperately needs, it is finally starting to be realized which has truly been
our main purpose. Therefore, our delegates perhaps carry the biggest responsibility at
MCMUN 2016. Disarmament is one of the most extensive problems that the world has
ever faced and is one of the easiest ones to overcome. Big things are expected of you and
we are counting on you to deliver.
I am looking forward to meeting you all at MCMUN’16.
Best regards,
Utku Tarhan
INTRODUCTION TO DISEC
The General Assembly, which is the main organ of the United Nations and has
representation from every UN Member State was established under Chapter IV of the
United Nations. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) consists of 6 main
committees, and the first of these is the Disarmament and International Security
Committee (DISEC).
DISEC deals with topics that focus on disarmament, global
issues, and threats to peace that jeopardize the
international security which affects the international
community; and seeks out solutions to the challenges in
the international security regime. Furthermore, the Article
11 of UN Charter states “The General Assembly may
consider the general principles of co-operation in the
maintenance of international peace and security, including
the principles governing disarmament and the regulation
of disarmament” which unambiguously denotes the purpose of General Assembly First
Committee. In addition, DISEC works closely with the United Nations Disarmament
Commission and the Geneva-based Conference on Disarmament.
INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC
Unfortunately, the war has been an indispensable part of history and politics for many
centuries, and parties confronting each other always have looked for a more efficient,
cheap and fast way to terminate the war. With the development of technology, the ways of
conducting the war has become more violent, inhumane, and malignant. Those
developments were directly violating the rules of conducting war.
The nuclear warfare has always been a great fear for humankind. On August 9, 1945, the
United States dropped 21 kilotons powered nuclear bomb named “Fat-Man” to the
Japanese City Nagasaki. This nuclear explosion caused 246.000+ causalities. With the
end of the World War 2, the world has seen the capabilities of nuclear warfare and its
effects on the whole world. After the WW2, an arms race occurred between the US and
the USSR which led to the development of tensions between states. The NATO alliance
has been formed by the western block. The Warsaw Pact has been signed between
eastern blocs. With the Cuban missile crisis, the tensions became highest which was
caused by the polarization of countries. In result of these events tensions developed
between eastern and the western block. The world eventually feared from the nuclear
capabilities of both blocks. Luckily, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
had been signed by 190 states. The Treaty limited non-nuclear states to obtain nuclear
weapons which halted the arms race, curbed the tests and usage of nuclear weapons.
The NPT has particularly stopped the growing arms race and curbed the active nuclear
warheads in service. When we look to the present world status, we can see that many
states still own and maintain some level of nuclear weapons at their inventory in a ready
phase as a failsafe. The International Disarmament as a whole is the only solution to
destabilize the disrupted world peace. According to United Nations, under the UN charter,
the use of nuclear weapons would only be legal for self-defense. As it could be understood
from UN Charter regulations, the other use of nuclear weapons would be counted as a
warmongering act according to the international law and can lead to the development of
tensions between states. In the history of nuclear non-proliferation, it could be seen that
few states used this very reason to intervene other states action. The Iran Nuclear crisis
was an example of it.
For these reasons, the global tension is still rising.
Despite the latest nuclear disarmament treaties,
negotiations and such, it is still being worked to
maintain global peace. The rising world tension is
concerning the stability of the international peace.
It is highly hoped that the rising nuclear tension
would be decreased by the improvement of
multilateral relations and with the effect of the
United Nations Disarmament Committee.
KEY TERMS
NPT: Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is an international treaty that
has the objective to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and related technology, to
promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of
achieving partial or complete nuclear disarmament complete disarmament.
UNSC: The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of
the United Nations, responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security as
well as acceptance of new members to the United Nations and approval of any changes to
the United Nations Charter. Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping
operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and authorization of military
action through Security Council resolutions. It is the only UN body with the authority to
issue binding resolutions.
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organization that seeks to
promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to prevent its use for any military purpose,
including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organization on
29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own
international treaty- the IAEA Statute- the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General
Assembly and Security Council.
CTBT: The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty is a multilateral treaty that bans all
nuclear explosions for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments. It was
adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but has not
entered into force as eight specific states have not yet ratified the treaty.
PNE: Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) are nuclear explosions conducted for nonmilitary purposes, activities related to economic development including the creation of
canals. During the 1960s and 1970s, both the United States and the Soviet Union
conducted a number of PNEs. Subsequently, the United States and the Soviet Union
halted their programs. Definitions and limits are covered in the Peaceful Nuclear
Explosions Treaty of 1976. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty of 1996 prohibits
all nuclear explosions, regardless of their intent.
HISTORY OF THE TOPIC
The Cuban Missile Crisis
On October 16–28, 1962 there has been a confrontation between the United States and
the Soviet Union because of Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. Along with being
televised worldwide, it was the closest when the Cold War came near to escalating into a
full-scale nuclear war. The United States did station Jupiter missiles to Incirlik Base
located in Turkey in order to do “show of force”.
In response, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to agree with Cuba's request to
place nuclear missiles in Cuba to deter future harassment of Cuba. An agreement was
reached during a secret meeting between USSR’s Prime Minister Khrushchev and Cuban
Leader Fidel Castro in July 1962 and construction of missile launch facilities started later
that summer.
After a long period of negotiations, an agreement was reached between President John F.
Kennedy and Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would mobilize their offensive weapons in
Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in
exchange for a US public declaration and agreement never to invade Cuba again without
direct provocation. Discreetly, the United States also agreed that it would dissolute all
U.S.-built Jupiter MRBMs, which were deployed in Turkey and Italy against the Soviet
Union but were not known to the public. It is highly understandable that stationing nuclear
weapons caused the development of tensions between nations.
In the aftermath of the crisis, both the Soviets and the US worked to improve relations and
prevent a recurrence of such a confrontation. The “nuclear hotline” which allowed direct
communication between both state leaders was installed and the Partial Test Ban Treaty
of September 1963 signified the first step towards arms controls.
The decade following ratification of the PTBT featured more US nuclear tests than the
decade prior. In the following 15 years, the US conducted 385 nuclear tests and 23 PNEs,
compared to 268 tests and three PNEs in the preceding decade. In comparison, the
number of Soviet detonations fell from 218 in the preceding decade to 157 in the following
decade, as the Soviet Union was never able to meet the pace of US underground
explosions.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty was signed in order to curb the number of active
warheads and the rising tension between two blocks. The NPT treaty was enacted by 190
members in total. The treaty recognizes five states as nuclear-weapon states which are
the United States, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, France, and the People’s
Republic of China. Four other states are known or suspected to possess nuclear weapons.
India, Pakistan, and North Korea have openly shown, by conducting tests, and declared
that they possess nuclear weapons. Israel is deliberately ambiguous regarding its nuclear
weapons status.
The NPT is often believed to be based on a central bargain: “the NPT non-nuclear-weapon
states shall never to acquire nuclear weapons and the NPT nuclear-weapon states in
exchange agreed to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology and to maintain
nuclear disarmament aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear arsenals”.
This bargain has achieved to reduce both the tension and number of active warheads so
far.
As it could be seen from the graph, the nuclear warhead number has reduced significantly
compared to before NPT.
Iran Nuclear Crisis
The Iranian nuclear program had kick-started with the help of the United States as the part
of the Atoms for peace program. The participation of the United States and Western
European governments in Iran's nuclear program continued until the 1979 Iranian
Revolution, which toppled the Shah of Iran.
The revelation of Iran's clandestine uranium enrichment program raised question marks
that program might be intended for non-peaceful uses. The IAEA launched an
investigation in 2003 after an Iranian discordant group revealed undeclared nuclear
activities carried out by Iran.
In 2006, because of Iran's noncompliance with its NPT obligations, the United Nations
Security Council demanded that Iran suspends its enrichment programs.
In 2007, the United States National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) stated that Iran stopped an
alleged active nuclear weapons program in fall
2003.
In November 2011, the IAEA reported evidence that
Iran had been conducting experiments aimed at
designing a nuclear bomb until 2003. There has
been sanctions imposed at Iran government and it
has been estimated that Iran's nuclear program has
cost $100 billion in lost oil revenues and lost foreign
direct investment because of international
sanctions. The United Nations Security Council has
enacted eight resolutions on Iran in order to make
them stop their Uranium Enrichment Program.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was aimed to ban all nuclear explosions,
both for civil and military purposes, in all environments including the outer space. It was
enacted by the United Nations General Assembly on September 10th 1996, but has not
entered into force as eight specific states have not yet ratified the treaty.
The Treaty was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996.
It was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996, when it was signed by 71
States, including five of the eight then nuclear-capable states. As of September 2015, 166
states have ratified the CTBT and another 17 states have signed but not ratified it.
The treaty entered into force 180 days after 44 states listed in Annex 2 of the treaty have
ratified it. These "Annex 2 states" are states that participated in the CTBT’s negotiations
between 1994 and 1996 and possessed nuclear power reactors or research reactors at
that time.
As of 2015, eight Annex 2 states have not ratified the treaty: China, Egypt, Iran, Israel, and
the United States have signed but not ratified the Treaty.
India, North Korea, and Pakistan declined to sign the treaty because they were still
conducting tests.
It has been recently stated by the North Korean Government that the North Korean
Government tested a nuclear warhead equivalent to 25 kilotons.
CURRENT SITUATION
Eliminating nuclear weapons has long been an aim of the pacifist left. But now, many
mainstream politicians, academic analysts, and retired military leaders also advocate
nuclear disarmament. Famous mainstream popular icons have called upon governments
to embrace the vision of a world free of nuclear weapons, and in three Wall Street Journal
op-eds proposed an ambitious program of urgent steps to that end.
Others have argued that nuclear weapons have made the world relatively safer, with
peace through deterrence and through the stability–instability paradox, including in south
Asia. A political scientist, Kenneth Waltz, has argued that nuclear weapons have created a
nuclear peace and further nuclear weapon proliferation might even help avoid the large
scale conventional wars that were so common prior to their invention at the end of World
War II. In the July 2012 issue of Foreign Affairs Waltz took issue with the view of most US,
European, and Israeli, commentators and policymakers that a nuclear-armed Iran would
be unacceptable. Instead, Waltz argued that it would probably be the best possible
outcome, as it would restore stability to the Middle East by balancing Israel's act on
nuclear weapons.
MAJOR PARTIES INVOLVED
•
•
•
•
•
United States
Soviet Union - Russian Federation
UN Security Council
Iran
International Atomic Energy Agency
PREVIOUS SOLUTIONS
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
NPT had prevented the non-nuclear-weapon states to acquire nuclear weapons and the
NPT nuclear-weapon states in exchange, agreed to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear
technology and to maintain nuclear disarmament aimed at the ultimate elimination of their
nuclear arsenals.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
The motivation for the test ban was provided by rising public anxiety over the magnitude of
nuclear tests, particularly tests of new nuclear weapons and hydrogen bombs and the
resulting nuclear fallout. A test ban was also seen as a mean of slowing nuclear
proliferation and the nuclear arms race. Though the NTBT did not halt proliferation or the
arms race, its enactment did coincide with a substantial decline in the concentration of
radioactive particles in the atmosphere. Recently, Iran has been embargoed and
condemned for the report that has been submitted by IAEA which has proven nuclear
weapon researches and tests made by Iran government.
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
It is a fact that nuclear weapons do not discriminate between civilians and military
personnel; they cause environmental devastation and genetic damage that affects future
generations. For these and other reasons the threat or use of nuclear weapons was
declared illegal by the International Court of Justice in 1996. The World Court also found
that there was a solemn obligation to start negotiations that would result in nuclear
disarmament.
International cooperation to stop the spread of
weapons of mass destruction has a proven track
record. The use of both chemical and biological
weapons has been outlawed and the Chemical
Weapons Convention (1992) and the Biological
Weapons Convention (1975) oversee their
elimination.
Countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa and South Korea have
halted their nuclear programs. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine inherited nuclear
weapons after the breakup of the Soviet Union, but rejected them, choosing instead a new
identity as independent non-nuclear weapon states.
Disarmament committee is working for a world free of nuclear weapons, with each region
of the world a nuclear free zone. Region by region these zones will rid entire parts of the
world of nuclear weapons and shrink the geographical space in which they can play a role.
These zones of safety and security also build cooperation and trust amongst peoples and
nations. More than 50% of the world is already in nuclear weapons free zones. Almost all
countries in the world are members of this Treaty and it remains the only legally binding
commitment we have from the five declared nuclear weapons states to disarm.
QUESTIONS A RESOLUTION MUST ANSWER
How should the global nuclear disarmament be achieved with accordance with all states’
foreign policies?
How could the rising warhead numbers be curbed?
How could the illegal nuclear testing incidents be stopped?
How can the rising international tensions hold under control?
USEFUL LINKS AND DOCUMENTS
Sources: Arms Control Association, Federation of American Scientists, International Panel
on Fissile Materials, U.S. Department of Defense, and U.S. Department of State.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_program_of_Iran

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_on_the_Non-Proliferation_of_Nuclear_Weapons

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Atomic_Energy_Agency

http://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/22/opinion/the-best-solution-to-nuclear-proliferationis-nuclear-disarmament.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Missile_Crisis

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_on_the_Non-Proliferation_of_Nuclear_Weapons

http://www.un.org/en/conf/npt/2005/npttreaty.html

https://www.iaea.org/publications/documents/treaties/npt

http://www.state.gov/t/isn/npt/index.htm