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DictionaryofComputerAcronymsand
Abbreviations
PlusFileNameExtensions
DictionaryofComputerAcronymsandAbbreviations
1stEdition–AUG20160/0/0/CS
ThisdictionaryisadaptedfromMicrosoftLanguagePortalwithadditionsand
editsbyJohnC.Rigdon.
©2016EasternDigitalResources.AllRightsReserved.Nopartofthisbook
maybereproducedbyanymeanswithouttheexpresswrittenconsentofthe
copyrightholder.“EntriesfromtheMicrosoftLanguagePortal.©2016
MicrosoftCorporation.Allrightsreserved.”Distributionreleaseby
Microsoft.Seehttps://www.microsoft.com/Language/enUS/LicenseAgreement.aspx
Publishedby:
EasternDigitalResources
31BramblewoodDrSW
Cartersville,GA30120
http://www.wordsrus.info
EMAIL:[email protected]
Tel.(678)739-9177
Overview
ThisCompanionVolumetoourDictionaryofComputerandInternetTerms
(Vol.2)-DictionaryofComputerAcronymsandAbbreviations,has4,300
terms.Italsoincludesasectiononfilenameextensionswith38,000entries
showingthemostcommonlyusedextensionsandtheirassociationwith
varioussoftwaresystems.
Volume1containsover32,000termsthatarespecifictoComputersandthe
Internet.Eachtermincludesadefinition/description.Withmorethan750
pages,thisdictionaryisoneofthemostcomprehensiveresourcesavailable.
Termsrelatetoapplications,commands,functions,operatingsystems,image
processingandnetworking.
Nootherdictionaryofcomputingtermsevencomesclosetothebreadthof
thisone.Itisdesignedtobeusedbyeveryonefromthenoviceseekingthe
mostbasicinformation…tothemainframesystemsprogrammerandMIS
professionallookingforsophisticatedandhard-to-findinformationthat’snot
availableinmostreferencebooks.It’sallhereinoneindispensablereference
source.
·artificialintelligence.
·computer-integratedmanufacturing
·datacommunication
·databases
·distributeddataprocessing
·fiberoptics
·fundamentalterms
·localareanetworks
·multimedia
·officeautomation
·opensystemsinterconnection
·peripheralequipment
·personalcomputing
·processingunits
·programming
·systemdevelopment
·textprocessing
Thisdictionaryisidealnotonlyforstudentsofcomputingbutforthose
studyingtherelatedfieldsofInformationTechnology,mathematics,physics,
mediacommunications,electronicengineering,andnaturalsciences.
Thisdictionaryisavailableinmorethan100languages.Seeourwebsitefor
pricingandavailability.
http://www.wordsrus.info/catalog/computer_dictionary.html
Abbreviationsused:
(n)–noun
(pn)–ProperName
(v)–verb
(adj)–adjective
(oth)–other
Section1
ComputerAcronymsandAbbreviations
~A~
µBGA/uBGA~MicroBallGridArray~Nexttobaredie,uBGAisthesmallestofthe
chip-scalepackagingoptions.
A~Ampere~Currentmeasurementunit
A~Anchor~HTMLÂtag,alinktoanotherlocation
A/N/K~alphabetic,numeric,katakana~Pertainingtoalphabetic,numeric,orkatakana
characters.
a+~a+~PronouncedAplus,acertificationdevelopedbytheComputingTechnology
IndustryAssociation(CompTIA)tovalidatevendor-neutralskillsforentry-levelcomputer
technicians.HoldersoftheA+certificationhavebeentrainedininstalling,repairing,
troubleshooting,maintaining,customizingandoperatingPCs.
a11y~accessibility~Thereareelevenlettersbetweenthe‘a’andthe‘y’.
A2A~application-to-application~Anapproachtoenterpriseapplicationintegrationthat
providesvisibilityintointernalsystems,sothatthesesystemscanshareinformationor
businessprocesses.
AA~anti-aliasing~thetechniqueofminimizingthedistortionartifactsknownasaliasing
whenrepresentingahigh-resolutionsignalatalowerresolution
AA~automatedattendant~Adevice,typicallyattachedtoaprivatebranchexchangeor
voicemailsystem,thatanswersincomingcalls.
AAA~authentication,authorization,andaccounting~Alsopronounced‘triplea.’Refers
toaframeworkforintelligentlycontrollingaccesstocomputerresources,enforcing
policies,auditingusage,andprovidingtheinformationnecessarytobillforservices.
AAB~All-to-allbroadcast~theprocesswhereeverynodebroadcastsitsinformationto
allothernodes.
AAC~AdvancedAudioCoding~anaudiocompressionformatnewerandmoreefficient
thanMP3,usedinternallybyiTunesandNintendoWii
AAC~ATMaccessconcentrator~Adeviceusedtoconcentrateavarietyofservices
(suchasframerelay,InternetProtocolandvideo)overasingleATMnetworkaccess
connection.
AAL~ATMadaptationlayer~TheATMlayerwherenon-ATMdataisconvertedto
ATMformat.TheAALservesasthe‘glue’thatconnectstraditionalpacketandframe
structureswithshort,fixed-lengthATMcells.
AARP~AppleTalkAddressResolutionProtocol~Providesforthedynamicassignment
ofnodeidentifierstonodeswithinanAppleTalknetwork.
AAS~AutoAreaSegmentation~Scannertechnologywhichdetectsandoptimizestext
andgraphicsonthesamepagebyEpson.
AAT~AverageAccessTime~Theaverageamountoftimeittakesforastorage
peripheraltotransferdatatotheCPU.
AAUI~AppleAttachmentUnitInterface~A14-position,0.050-inch-spacedribbon
contactconnector.
ABAP~AdvancedBusinessApplicationProgramming~Powerfulprogramming
languagecreatedspecificallyfordevelopingSAPapplications.Thecoredevelopmenttool
inSAP’sR/3system.
ABC~activity-basedcosting~Anapproachtounderstandingwhereandwhycostsare
incurredwithinanenterprise.
ABC~Atanasoff-BerryComputer~Firstdigitalcalculatingmachinethatusedvacuum
tubes
ABEND~abnormalend~Atypeofsystemerrorinwhichataskorprogramfailsto
executeproperly(i.e.,‘abnormallyends’).Thetermisalsousedasthenameforatypeof
errormessagethatindicatessuchafailurehasoccurred.
ABEND~AbsentByEnforcedNetDeprivation~Sentine-mailsubjectlineswarning
friendsandothersofforcedlossofInternetaccess
ABI~applicationbinaryinterface~Asetofspecificationsthatenablesanapplication
writtenforonetargetOSandhardwareplatformtorunonadifferentOSandplatform,
wherethetwohardwareplatformssharethesameprocessortype.
ABLE~AgentBuildingandLearningEnvironment~AJavaframeworkandtoolkitfor
constructinganddeployingintelligentagents.
ABM~activity-basedmanagement~TheuseofABCprinciplesintheongoing
managementofcostsandresources.
ABME~asynchronousbalancedmodeextended~Incommunications,anoperational
modeinwhichmodulus128sequencenumbersareused.
ABR~AutomaticBaudRatedetection~Theprocessinwhichareceivingdevice
examinesthefirstcharacterofanincomingmessagetodeterminesitsspeed,codelevel,
andstopbits.
ABR~availablebitrate~AnATMservicecategory.ABRserviceisconceptuallysimilar
tothatofaframerelaynetwork-aminimalcellrateisguaranteed,andburstscanbe
supportedifthenetworkresourcesallowit.
AC97~AC97~ThepopularaudiosystemfromRealtek.
ACA~AustralianCommunicationsAuthority~TheAustraliangovernmentbodythat
regulatesthenation’scommunicationsindustries.
ACAP~ApplicationConfigurationAccessProtocol~astandardforaccessingprogram
configurationinformationfromaremoteserver,allowingausertouseandchangetheir
configurationfromanyworkstationbyreadingorwritingthevaluesonacentralserver.
DefinedinRFC2244.
ACC~AdaptiveCruiseControl~AdaptiveCruiseControl
ACC~AuthorizationContractforContainers~Specification(JSR-115)thatdefinesnew
java.security.PermissionclassestosatisfytheJ2EEauthorizationmodel
ACCU~AssociationofCandC++Users~Aworldwideassociationofpeoplewhoare
interestedinC,C++,andrelatedprogramminglanguages.
ACD~AutomaticCallDelivery~featurethatallowscellular&wirelessphonesto
receiveincomingcallswhenroaming.
ACD~automaticcalldistributorordistribution~specializedphonesystemthathandles
manyincomingcalls.ACDsareusedforavarietyoforder-takingfunctions,suchascalls
tohelpdesksordispatchingofservicetechnicians.
ACDI~AsynchronousCommunicationsDeviceInterface~Asoftwaredevicethat
permitsasynchronoustransmission,awayoftransmittingdatainwhichonecharacteris
sentatatime,andtheremaybeunevenamountsoftimebetweencharacters.
ACE~accesscontrolentry~asetofidentitiesandpermissionsthataredirectly
associatedwithaparticularresource.Eachaccesscontrolentryisdirectlyassociatedwith
onlyoneresource.MorethanoneACEcanbeassociatedwitheachresource.
ACE~AdobeCertifiedExpert~aprofessionalwhohasdemonstratedproficiencywith
oneormoreAdobesoftwareproducts.
ACE~AdvancedCMOS-ECL~Ahigh-endprocessortechnologyintroducedbyHitachi
inthe1990s.
ACE~AgileCommunicationEnvironment~NortelSIP-basedplatformacquiredby
Avaya
ACEE~accesscontrolenvironmentelement~InRACF,acontrolblockcontaining
detailsofthecurrentuser,includinguserID,currentconnectgroup,userattributes,and
groupauthorities.
ACF~AdvancedCommunicationsFunction~AfamilyofIBMcommunications
programsthathandletaskssuchasresourcesharinganddistributionoffunctions.They
includeACF/VirtualTelecommunicationsAccessMethod(ACF/VTAM)and
ACF/NetworkControlProgram(ACF/NCP).
ACF2~AccessControlFacility2~Ahost-basedsecuritysubsystemfromCA(formerly
ComputerAssociates);alsoknownasCA-ACF2.
ACG~adaptivecodegeneration~Atechnologythatenablesaprogramthatuses
processorfeaturesofagivensystemmodeltocontinuetoworkcorrectlywhenthe
programismovedtoanothersystemmodelthatdoesnothavealltheprocessorfeaturesof
theoriginalmodel.
ACH~automatedclearinghouse~Atypeoffundstransfernetworkthatprocessesdebit
andcredittransactionsbetweenaccountsfromparticipatingfinancialinstitutions.
ACI~accesscontrolinformation~Datathatidentifiestheaccessrightsofagroupor
principal.
ACID~atomicity,consistency,isolation,durability~Fourwell-establishedtestsfor
verifyingtheintegrityofbusinesstransactionsinadata-processingenvironment.
ACK~acknowledgement~Whenamodemreceivesadatapacket,itsendsasignalback
tothesendingmodem.Ifallthedataispresentandcorrect,itsendsanACKsignal,which
actsasarequestforthenextdatapacket.
ACK~Acknowledgement~Transportandotherlayers-TCP/IP,forexample.RFC793
ACL~Accesscontrollist~Alistofauthorisedusers,processesorsystems.
ACL~applicationconnectivitylink~Aservicethattransmitsout-of-bandinformation
betweenDirectTalkandtheSiemensHicom300switch.
ACL~AsianetCommunicationsLimited~anIndianmediaconglomeratejointlyowned
bySTARTVandJupiterEntertainment.
ACL~AsynchronousConnectionlessLink~typeofdatapacket(dataonly).
ACL~Accesscontrollist~Security,applicationlayer-Accesscontrollist,Cisco
overview
ACM~AssociationforComputingMachinery~aworldwideassociationofcomputer
professionalsheadquarteredintheUnitedStates.www.acm.org
ACM~AddressCompleteMessage~AddressCompleteMessage
ACMS~ApplicationControlandManagementSystem~Atransaction-processing
monitorfromCompaq(nowpartofHewlett-Packard);originallyaproductofDigital
Equipment,whichCompaqacquiredin1998.
acousticcoupler~acousticcoupler~Aspecialtypeofmodemthatconvertsacoustic
energy(soundwaves)intoelectricalenergy,allowingastandardtelephonehandsettobe
attachedtoacomputerordataterminalfordatatransmission.Â
ACP~arraycontrolprocessor~Atypeofprocessorusedinstoragesystems.
ACPI~AdvancedConfigurationandPowerInterface~AstandarddevelopedbyIntel,
MicrosoftandToshibatoimprovePCpowermanagementandplug-and-playcapabilities.
ACR~AllowedCellRate~AnABRserviceparameter,ACRisthecurrentratein
cells/secatwhichasourceisallowedtosend.
ACR~attenuation-to-crosstalkratio~Ameasureofsignalqualityinnetworkcabling.
ACRI~additionalcoding-relatedrequiredinformation~Aspecificationthatisrequired
byanencodingschemetocompleteitsdefinition,whichextendsbeyondthecharacterset
andcodepageelements.
ACROSS~AutomatedCargoReleaseandOperationsServiceSystem~Automated
CargoReleaseandOperationsServiceSystem
ACS~AffiliatedComputerServices,Inc~XeroxCorp.‘s$6.4billionacquisitionof
AffiliatedComputerServicesInc.
ACSE~AssociationControlServiceElement~ThemethodusedinInternational
OrganizationforStandardization’sOSIforestablishingacallbetweentwoapplications.
ACSLS~AutomatedCartridgeSystemLibrarySoftware~AUnix-basedtape-librarysharingsystemfromStorageTechnology.
ACT~accesscontroltemplate~areusablenamedauthorizationpatternthatyoucan
applytomultipleresources.Anaccesscontroltemplateconsistsofalistofusersand
groupsandindicates,foreachuserorgroup,whetherpermissionsaregrantedordenied.
ActiveX~ActiveX~AMicrosofttechnologythatfacilitatesvariousInternetapplications,
andthereforeextendsandenhancesthefunctionalityofMicrosoft’sInternetExplorer
browser.LikeJava,ActiveXenablesthedevelopmentofinteractivecontent.
ActivityStreams~ActivityStreams~apublish/subscribenotificationmechanismthat
providesfrequentupdatestosubscribersabouttheactivitiesoreventsthatrelatetoanother
individual.
ACU~abstractcodeunit~Ameasurementusedbythez/OSXLC/C++compilerfor
judgingthesizeofafunction.ThenumberofACUsthatcompriseafunctionis
proportionaltoitssizeandcomplexity.
AD~ActiveDirectory~ThedirectoryserviceportionoftheWindows2000operating
system.ADmanagestheidentitiesandrelationshipsofthedistributedresourcesthatmake
upanetworkenvironment.
AD~AdministrativeDomain~DefinedinRFC1136.OntheInternet,agroupof
networks,hosts,androutersoperatedbythesameorganization.
AdHocNetwork~AdHocNetwork~Adecentralizedwirelessnetworkinwhicheach
nodeiscapableofforwardingdatatoothernodeswithoutrelyingonanestablishedaccess
point.Anadhocnetworkcanbecreatedspontaneouslyasneededandrequiresno
permanentinfrastructure.
Ada~Ada~aprogramminglanguagedevelopedinthelate1970sfortheU.S.
DepartmentofDefense.
ADAPT~Architecture,Design,AnalysisandPlanningTool~Architecture,Design,
AnalysisandPlanningTool
ADB~AppleDesktopBus~PortontheMacintoshforakeyboard,amouse,andother
peripherals.
ADC~AdvancedDirectConnect~apeer-to-peerfile-sharingprotocol,basedonthe
topologyoftheDirectConnect(DC)protocol.
ADC~AnalogtoDigitalConverter~OftenreferredtoA/D,theanalogtodigital
converterisanelectronicdevicethattransformstheanalogsignaltodigitalsignal,helping
interconnectingthetwokindsoftechnology/gear.
ADC~automateddatacollection~Theautomatedconversionofdisparatetypesof
informationintocomputerrecords.ADCdevicesandtechnologiesincludebarcode
systems,opticalcharacterrecognitionandspeechrecognition.
ADCCP~AdvancedDataCommunicationsControlProcedures~Abit-oriented,ANSIstandardcommunicationslink-layerprotocol.
ADDM~ApplicationDiscoveryandDependencyMapping~BMC’sapplication
ADDM~AutomaticDatabaseDiagnosticMonitor~analyzesthedatainOracle’s
AutomaticWorkloadRepository(AWR)todiscovertheactualcausebehindperformance
problems
ADE~ApplicationDataExport~TechnologybyOracleDatabases
ADE~applicationdevelopmentenvironment~Anproductthatoffersarangeoftoolsor
features(forexample,forprogramming,interfacedevelopmentandtesting)toprovidea
complete‘environment’fordevelopingapplications.
ADF~ActivityDecisionFlow~Theformatinwhichmodelsareexportedfrom
WebSphereBusinessIntegrationWorkbenchintoWebSphereBusinessModeler.
ADF~ApplicationDevelopmentFacility~AnIBMprogramfordevelopingIMS
applications
ADF~automaticdocumentfeeder~adeviceforfeedingdocumentsintoaSCANNER
automatically,sheetbysheet
ADI~AnalogDevices,Inc.~leaderinhighperformancesignalprocessingsolutions
http://www.analog.com/
ADI~ApplicationDesktopIntegrator~Spreadsheet-basedextensionofOracle
Applications.Itprovidesfull-cycleaccountingwithinthecomfortandfamiliarityofa
spreadsheetforGeneralLedgerandOracleAssets
ADK~AdditionalDecryptionKey~Keytobeabletodecryptdataeveniftheprivate
keyownerisunwillingtoprovidetheprivatekey
ADL~AdvancedDistributedLearning~Asetofstandardsdesignedtofacilitatethe
sharingoflearningobjectsacrossdifferentlearningmanagementsystems.
ADM~Agiledevelopmentmanagement~Agiledevelopmentmanagement
ADM~ApplicationDevelopmentManagerÂ~OracleSiebel’sproductthatreducethe
deploymentefortandapplicationdowntimeandtoincreasetheapplicationdeployment
quality
ADMD~AdministrationManagementDomainorAdministrativeManagementDomain~
Apublice-mailmessageservicethatusestheX.400protocol.
ADMF~AsynchronousDataMoverFacility~AIBMmainframefeaturedesignedto
enhancesystemperformanceindatamovesbetweencentralandexpandedstorage.
admin~ADMINISTRATOR~theaccountnameusedbythesystemadministratorunder
WindowsNTanditssuccessors
ADN~AdvancedDigitalNetwork~ADNreferstoa56Kbpsleased-line.
ADN~applicationdeliverynetworking~ADNisanapproachandasuiteoftechnologies
thatcomprisesapplicationsecurity,applicationaccelerationandnetworkavailability.
ADO~ActiveXDataObjects~Ahigh-leveldataaccessobjectmodelintroducedby
Microsoftin1996.
ADP~AccidentalDamageProtection~Ahardwaresupportagreementcoveringphysical
damagetoaproductcausedbyorresultingfromafortuitousincident.Accidentscovered
includeliquidspills,dropimpact,electricalsurges,andaccidentalbreakage.
ADPCM~adaptivedifferentialpulsecodemodulation~Aspeech-codingmethodthat
calculatesthedifferencebetweentwoconsecutivespeechsamplesinstandardpulsecode
modulation(PCM)codedtelecommunicationsvoicesignals.
ADS~ActiveDirectoryService~Windows2000networkobjectsdatabasethatstores
eachspecificnetworkiteminacentraldatabaseandthatmaybereplicated
ADS~AsynchrousDataSwitching~APBXsystemthatsupportsasynchronousdata.
ADSI~ActiveDirectoryServicesInterface~AMicrosoftActiveDirectoryfeaturethat
enablesWindows2000applicationstointeractwithotherdirectoryserviceswithoutthe
needtoknowthedetailsoftheunderlyingprotocols.
ADSI~AnalogDisplayServicesInterface~Protocolthatsimplifiesuseofadvanced
featuresbydisplayingtextmessages,generatedbyaremotecomputerorcentraloffice
switch,onauser’stelephonedisplayortelevisionset.
ADSL~AsymmetricDigitalSubscriberLine~Adigitallocalloopusingcopperfacilities
andprovidinggreaterbandwidthinonedirectionthantheother.
ADSL~asymmetricdigitalsubscriberline~Amethodofconnectingacomputertothe
internetoverastandardvoicephonelineusingethernetÂofficenetworkingtechnology.
MostÂbroadbandconnectionsworkthisway.Asymmetricbecauseitisfasterfrom
internettoPCthantheotherway.
ADSL~Asymmetricdigitalsubscriberline~Telecom-ITU-TG.992.5AnnexM,for
example
ADSM~ADSTARDistributedStorageManager~AnIBMproductwhichprovides
servicesforbackingup,archivingandrestoringdatafilesbyallowingacentral
workstationtoactasaserverfornetworkedworkstationsandpersonalcomputers.
ADSR~Attack,Decay,Sustain,Release~thefourparametersinabasicsynthesizer.
WhileSustainisalevelcontrol,theAttack,DecayandReleasearetimeandratiodependantparameters.Whenakeyispressed,theAttackdeterminestheratiowithwhich
itreachesatoplevelandthebeginstofallattheratiooftheDecayparameterdowntothe
levelsetbytheSustainvalue.
ADSTAR~AutomatedDocumentStorageandRetrieval~IBM’snameforitsstorage
productsbusinessinthe1990s.
ADT~AbstractDataType~aclassofdatastructuresdescribedbymeansofasetof
operationsratherthanbyphysicalrepresentation,suchasaclassinobject-oriented
programming.
ADT~admission,dischargeandtransfer~Acategoryofhospitalsoftware.AnADT
systemrecordsadmissionsto,dischargesfromandtransferswithinahospital,and
maintainsthehospitalcensus.
ADT~applicationdeploymenttemplate~Acombinationofthelogicaldeployment
templateandthenetworktopologytemplatethatdescribesthedeploymentofapplication
modulesonserversandclusters.
ADTG~AdvancedDataTableGram~MicrosoftProprietarybinaryformatforstoring
databasedata
ADUC~ActiveDirectoryUsersandComputers~Asnap-inintheMicrosoft
ManagementConsole(MMC)
Adwords~Adwords~anadvertisingservicebyGoogleforbusinesseswantingtodisplay
adsonGoogleanditsadvertisingnetwork.TheAdWordsprogramenablesbusinessesto
setabudgetforadvertisingandonlypaywhenpeopleclicktheads.adwords.google.com
AEC~Architecture,Engineering,Construction~Acomputergraphicsmarketrequiring
specializedapplicationsthatfacilitateefficientplanning,design,drafting,andanalysis.
Aero~Aero~ThenewuserinterfaceforWindowsVista,exceptfortheStartandHome
Basiceditions.
AES~AdvancedEncryptionStandard~Acompetitioniscurrentlyunderwaytodefinea
public256-bitsymmetricencryptionalgorithmthatwillreplaceDES(DataEncryption
Standard).
AES~AdvancedEncryptionStandard~Security-U.S.FIPSPUB197
AF~AssuredForwarding~UsingAF,aprovidermayofferdifferentlevelsofservicefor
IPpacketsreceivedfromacustomerdomain.EachAFclassisallocatedaspecified
amountofbufferspaceandbandwidth
AF~audiofrequency~afrequencywithintherangeofhumanhearing,20to20,000
hertz
AFAICS,AFAIK,AFAIR~AsFarAsICanSee/Know/Recall~Internetslang.
AFC~antiferromagneticallycoupled~Atypeofstoragemediathatusesanadvanced
magneticcoatingexpectedtodramaticallyincreaseHDDcapacity.IBMshippedthefirst
AVC-basedstorageproductsin2001.
AFI~AuthorityandFormatIdentifier~Thisidentifierispartofthenetworklevel
addressheader.
AFIS~AutomatedFingerprintIdentificationSystem~abiometricIDmethodologythat
usesdigitalimagingtechnologytoobtain,store,andanalyzefingerprintdata.TheAFIS
wasoriginallyusedbytheU.S.FederalBureauofInvestigation(FBI)incriminalcases.
AFK~AwayFromKeyboard~AnexampleofInternetshorthandusedinchatrooms,EMail,andinstantmessages.
AFL~AcademicFreeLicense~permissivefreesoftwarelicensewrittenin2002by
LawrenceE.Rosen
AFM~AtomicForceMicroscope~apowerfultooltomanipulatemattersatthe
nanoscale.Itistodayusedforimagingawiderangeofsurfacessuchasglass,composites,
ceramics,polymersandbiologicalsamples.AFMfindsincreasingapplicationin
nanotechnologyandbiophysics.
AFP~AdvancedFunctionPrinting~AnIBMall-points-addressableenterprisewideprint
architecture.
AFP~AppleFilingProtocol~Aclient/serverprotocolusedbyApplefileservicetoshare
filesandnetworkservices.AFPusesTCP/IPandotherprotocolstosupport
communicationbetweencomputersonanetwork.
AGC~AutomaticGainControl~Mostoftenusedinaudiocircuits;anelectroniccircuit
whichautomaticallyincreasesthevolumewhensomeoneisspeakingquietlyanddrops
thevolumewhensomeoneisspeakingloudly,tokeepthetransmittedsignalconstant.
AGP~AcceleratedGraphicsPort~AnInteltechnologyfordesktopsystems.Itincreases
systemperformancebyoffloadinggraphicrequirementsfromthesystembustoabus
dedicatedtovideoprocessing.
AHCI~AdvancedHostControllerInterface~aninterfacespecificationthatallowsthe
storagedrivertoenableadvancedSATAfeaturessuchasNativeCommandQueuingand
hotplug.
AHP~analyticalhierarchyprocess~Aprocessthatuseshierarchicaldecompositionto
dealwithcomplexinformationinmulticriteriondecisionmaking,suchasinformation
technologyvendorandproductevaluation.
AI~ActionIndicator~AIisanISDNterm
AI~AdobeIllustrator~AIisadrawprogramforMacintoshandWindows.Itis
especiallyusefulfortechnicaldrawing.
AI~artificialintelligence~AIistheuseofcomputerstosimulatehumanthinking.
Artificialintelligenceisconcernedwithbuildingcomputerprogramsthatcansolve
problemscreatively
AIA~ApplicationIntegrationArchitecture~ApplicationIntegrationArchitecture
AID~attentionidentifier~Acharacterinadatastreamthatissenttothehostsystem
whenadisplaystationuserpressesanAIDkey.TypicalAIDkeysarefunctionkeysorthe
Clear,Enter,PageUp,PageDown,Help,Print,andHomekeys.
AIM~AOLInstantMessenger~anapplicationthatallowscomputeruserstocorrespond
withfriendswhileonline
AIN~AdvancedIntelligentNetwork~IntroducedbyAT&TNetworkSystemsin1991,
AINenablesserviceproviderstodefine,testandintroducenewmultimediamessaging,
personal-communicationandcell-routingservices.
AIO~allinone~Theseareprintersthatareacombinationofvariousdevicesinone
machine,includingprinter,scanner,faxmachineandcopier.
AIOD~AutomaticIdentifiedOutwardDialing~AnoptiononaPBXthatspecifiesthe
extensionnumberinsteadofthePBXnumberonoutwardcalls.Usedforinternalbilling.
AIP~AdvancedInspectionandÂPrevention~CiscoASAadd-inmodules
AIR~AdditiveIncreaseRate~AnABRserviceparameter,AIRcontrolstherateat
whichthecelltransmissionrateincreases.ItissignaledasAIRF,whereAIRF=
AIR*Nrm/PCR.
airinterface~airinterface~acellularindustryterm.Itreferstothesystemthatensures
compatibilitybetweensubscriberterminalequipment(i.e.cellphonesandPDAs)andbase
stations.Itinvolvesthespecificationofchannelfrequenciesandwidths,
airPBX~airPBX~anIP-PBXsysteminwhichtraditionalPBXdeskphonesare
replacedbycellphones.TheimplementationcanbeviaWLANorcellular.Devicesusing
softwaretelephone(‘softphone’)technologycanuseallfunctionsprovidedbythecall
manager.
AIT~AdvancedIntelligentTape~Aneight-millimeterhelical-scantapedrivedesigned
andmanufacturedbySony.SonyhasdifferentiateditsAITdrivefromother8-millimeter
tapedriveswithauniquemediafeatureonthetapecartridgecalledmemoryincassette
(MIC).
AIUI~AsIUnderstandIt~Internetslang.
AIX~AdvancedInteractiveExecutive~AIXisanoperatingsystemdevelopedbyIBM
andisinfactUnix-based.
Ajax~AsynchronousJavaScriptandXML~AwayofincludingcontentinaÂweb
pageÂinwhichÂjavascriptÂcodeinthewebpagefetchessomedatafromaserverand
displaysitwithoutre-fetchingtheentiresurroundingpageatthesametime(hencethe
‘Asynchronous’)
AJP~ApacheJServProtocol~Binary,packet-orientedprotocolbridgingthewebserver
withtheservletcontainer.ThewebserverattemptstomaintainpersistentTCPconnections
totheservletcontainer,andtoreuseaconnectionformultiplerequest/responsecycles
ALPA~ArbitratedLoopPhysicalAddress~InFibreChanneltransmissions,an8-bit
valueusedtoidentifyaparticipatingdeviceinanarbitratedloop.
ALET~accesslistentrytoken~Atokenthatservesasanindexintoanaccesslist.
ALG~ApplicationLayerGateway~UsedinconjuctionwithÂNATÂtoallowIP
addresstranslation
ALGOL~ALGOrithmicLanguage~apairofprogramminglanguagesthathadastrong
impactonprogramminglanguagedesign.
ALI~Applicationlayerinterface~TheALIformstheinterfacefortheapplicationlayer
intheOSIreferencemodel.Itprovidesaclearlydefinedseparationofcommunicationand
application
ALM~ApplicationLifeCycleManagement~thefacilityforcommonprocessworkflow
andconsolidationofplanning,management,measurementandreportingofworkitem
activitiesinthedevelopmentprocess.
ALM~AssetLifecycleManagement~AssetLifecycleManagement
ALM~AsynchronousLineMultiplexer~Adevicethatconnectsmultipleterminalsor
otherserialinterfacedevicestoSunnetworkfileserversorworkstations.Alsoknownas
‘multipleterminalinterface.’
ALP~ApplicationLayerProgram/Protocol~Aprogramornetworkprotocolatthe
ApplicationLayer
ALSA~AdvancedLinuxSoundArchitecture~Linuxkernelcomponentintendedto
replacetheoriginalOpenSoundSystemforprovidingdriversforsoundcards.
ALT~alternative~UsedinanHTMLtagforthebenefitofpeopleusingnongraphical
browsers,orforpeopleusingabrowserwithgraphicsturnedoff.
ALT~~Atop-levelcategoryof‘alternative’USENETnewsgroups.
ALT~~TheAltkeyonthekeyboardofPCcompatibles,typicallyusedinconjunction
withotherkeys.
ALU~Alcatel-Lucent~Aleaderinfixed,mobileandconvergedbroadbandnetworking,
IPandopticsÂtechnologies,applicationsandserviceswww.alcatel-lucent.com
ALU~arithmeticlogicunit~ACPU’scoreelement,whichcarriesoutarithmetic
computations.
always-on~always-on~Aninternetconnectionwhichremainson24/7suchasADSLor
cable,ratherthanonlyconnectingondemandlikeadialup.
AM~AmplitudeModulation~Aparticulartechnology,mostcommonlyusedinradio
broadcasting,whereblendingamodulatedsignalintoacarrierwavebyvaryingthe
amplitudeofthecarriercreatesthefinaltransmitfrequency.
AMA~automaticmessageaccounting~Afunctionthatautomaticallydocumentsbilling
datarelatedtosubscriber-dialedlong-distancecalls.
Amanda~(formerly)AdvancedMarylandAutomaticNetworkDiskArchiver~anopen
sourcecomputerarchivingtoolthatisabletobackupdataresidingonmultiplecomputers
onanetwork.http://www.amanda.org/
AMD~ActiveMatrixDisplay~LCDtechnology,usedforcomputerscreens,inwhich
thereisatransistorforeachpixel,whichpreventslosingimagequalitybetweenscans.
AMD~AdvancedMicrochipDevices~Asemiconductormanufacturerandisamajor
competitorofIntel.TheymanufacturetheAthlon,Duron,andK6CPUchips.Â
www.amd.com
AMD~architectedmodel-driven~SOAÂtoolsthatautomatemodelsandrules
AME~AdvancedMetalEvaporated~AmediaformulationmanufacturedbySonyfor
useinitsconsumerandcomputerproductlines.
ami~Analyze,Metricate,Improve~Amethodforsoftwareprojectmanagementand
processimprovement.
AMI~advancedmeteringÂ~utility-focusedapplications
AMI~infrastructure~LinecodingformatusedonT1facilitiesthattransmitsonesby
alternatepositiveandnegativepulses.
AMI~AlternateMarkInversion~TheprogramminginterfaceprovidedbyWebSphere
MQthatdefinesahighlevelinterfacetomessagequeuingservices.
AMI~ApplicationMessagingInterface~
AML~Anti-Money-Laundering~Verifytheidentityofanypersonseekingtoopenan
account,determinethesourceanddestinationoftheirfunding,andchecktheaccount
opener’snameagainstanygovernment-providedlistsofknownorsuspectedterroristsor
terroristorganizations.
AML~AstronomicalMarkupLanguage~Astandardizedformatforexchangeof
metadatarelatedtoastronomy.Thislanguagewillenhancetheabilityofastronomersto
retrievescientificdata,andmakeitpossibleforhumansandintelligentagentstousethe
sameinformation.
AMMA~AdvancedMemoryManagementArchitecture~Strategiesforproviding
sufficientmemorytoalltheprocessesinacomputersystem,performedbythememory
managementunit.
AMP~ampere(A)~ameasurementofelectricalcurrent.Onecoulombflowingper
second.
AMP~amplifier~atermusedfordevicesthatincreaseoutputofsoundorelectrical
voltageorcurrent.
AMP~AsymmetricMulti-Processing~anoptionbuiltintomanycurrentoperating
systemstoshareCPUfunctionsbetweentwomirroredservers.
AMPS~AdvancedMobilePhoneSystem~Theoriginalstandardspecificationforanalog
systems.UsedprimarilyinNorthAmerica,LatinAmerica,AustraliaandpartsofRussia
andAsia.
AMR~AudioModemRiser~anIntelspecificationthatdefinesanewarchitecturefor
thedesignofmotherboards.
AMR~Automaticmeterreading~thetechnologyofautomaticallycollecting
consumption,diagnostic,andstatusdatafromwatermeterorenergymeteringdevices
(water,gas,electric)andtransferringthatdatatoacentraldatabaseforbilling,
troubleshooting,andanalyzing.
AMRF~ActionMessageRetentionFacility~Az/OSfacilitythat,whenactive,retains
allactionmessagesexceptthosespecifiedbytheinstallation.
AMS~accessmethodservices~AmultifunctionutilitynamedIDCAMSthatisusedto
managecatalogs,devices,andbothVSAMandnon-VSAMdatasets.
AMS~Analog/Mixed-Signal~Analog/Mixed-Signal
AMS~ApplicationManagementServices~ApplicationManagementServices
AMT~ActiveManagementTechnology~AllowstheITteamtobetterdiscover,heal,
andprotecttheirnetworkedcomputingassets
AMT~addressmappingtable~Atablethatprovidesacurrentmappingofnode
addressestohardwareaddresses.
AMTA~AmericanMobileTelecommunicationsAssociation~AMTArepresentsand
promotestheinterestofspecializedwirelesscommunications,meetingtheeducational,
informationalandregulatoryneedsoflicenseesandrelatedbusinesses.Seethemat
AMTAUSA.ORG.
ANDF~Architecture-NeutralDistributionFormat~anemergingOSFstandardfor
softwaredistribution.ProgramsarecompiledintoANDFbeforedistribution,and
executablesareproducedfromitforthelocaltargetsystem.
Android~Android~LinuxbasedoperatingsystemthatisbackedbyGoogleandthe
othermembersoftheOpenHandsetAlliance.
ANI~AutomaticNumberIdentification~Thenumberassociatedwiththetelephone
stationfromwhichswitchedcallsareoriginatedorterminated.
AnonFTP~AnonymousFTP~Amethodfordownloadinganduploadingfilesusing
FTPprotocolwithouthavingausernameorapassword.ÂInplaceofausername,word
‘anonymous’isused,andinplaceofapassword,emailaddressisusuallyused.
Anonymous~Anonymous~Withnotraceability;unabletoascertaintheactualidentity
oftheclaimedidentity;verylikelytoimplynamingthatisintentionallyopaque.
Anonymous~~AnonymousFTP:ServicesupportedbymanyInternethosts.Typically,
allowsusertodownloaddocuments,files,programs,andotherpubliclyaccessibledata
usingFTP.
ANOVA~analysisofvariance~Aformofstatisticalanalysis.
ANR~automaticnetworkrouting~InHigh-PerformanceRouting(HPR),ahighly
efficientroutingprotocolthatminimizescyclesandstoragerequirementsforrouting
networklayerpacketsthroughintermediatenodesontheroute.
ANSI~AmericanNationalStandardsInstitute~themainindustrialstandardization
organizationintheUnitedStates.ThereareofficialANSIstandardsinalmostall
industries,andmanyofthemhavetodowithcomputers.www.ansi.org
ANSI~AmericanNationalStandardsInstitute~Organization-ANSI
antenna~antenna~Ametallicdeviceusedtotransmitandreceiveelectromagnetic
waves.Anantennacanbeapassiveoractivedevice.
ANX~AutomotiveNetworkExchange~EstablishedbytheAutomotiveIndustryAction
Grouptoofferextranet-basedapplicationstosuppliersofChrysler,FordandGeneral
Motors.
AOA~angleofarrival~Basedontriangulation,amethodofprocessingcellularphone
signals,AOAallowsthephysicalpositionofswitched-onwirelessdevicestobelocated.
AOCE~AppleOpenCollaborationEnvironment~MacintoshSystem7extensionsthat
makeitpossibletosharee-mail,directory,andotherservicesinamultiplatform
environment.
AoE~AtaOverEthernet~Networkprotocoldesignedforsimple,high-performance
accessofSATAstoragedevicesoverEthernetnetworks.Itgivesthepossibilitytobuild
SANswithlow-cost,standardtechnologies
AOF~AdvancedOpenFile~Backupexecoptionbacksupopenfilesduringabackup
job
AOF~applicationobjectfile~AnASCIItextfilethatcontainsthenamesoftheglobal
descriptionfileandthecomponentdescriptionfiles,whichtogetherdescribethe
managementcharacteristicsofanapplication.
AOL~AmericaOnline~AOLisfoundedin1985,AmericaOnline,basedinDulles,
Virginia,wasoncetheworld’sleaderininteractiveservices,Webrands,Internet
technologies,ande-commerceservices.Âwww.aol.com
AOL~ApplicationObjectLibrary~AOLstandforApplicationObjectLibrary
AOR~AddressofRecord~AnSIPterm,anAORprovidesasinglepublicaddressforall
telecommunications.TheAORcanbemappedacrossmultipledevicesandmediatypes.
AP~accesspoint~ahardwaredeviceoracomputer’ssoftwarethatactsasa
communicationhubforusersofawirelessdevicetoconnecttoawiredLAN.APsare
importantforprovidingheightenedwirelesssecurityandforextendingthephysicalrange
ofserviceawirelessuserhasaccessto.
APA~all-pointsaddressable~Abletoaddress,reference,andpositiontext,overlays,and
imagesatanydefinedpositionorpictureelement(pel)ontheprintableareaofthepaper.
APaaS~applicationplatformasaÂservice~applicationplatformasaservice
APACS~AssociationforPaymentClearingServices~Theorganizationthatmanages
U.K.paymentsystems.
APaRT~automatedpacketrecognition/translation~Technologythatallowsaserverto
beattachedtoCDDIorFDDIwithoutrequiringthereconfigurationofapplicationsor
networkprotocols.
APC~asynchronousprocedurecall~Akernel-definedcontrolobjectwhichrepresentsa
procedurethatiscalledasynchronouslywithinaparticularthreadcontext.
APC~AmericanPowerConversion~AmericanPowerConversion
APC~AntennaPhaseCenter~Atheoreticalpointintheguidancereceiverforwhicha
positionisderived.
APDU~application-layerprotocoldataunit~InOSI,aprotocoldataunitinthe
applicationlayer.
APF~AutomatedPurposingFramework~Collectionofscriptsandutilitiesthatenable
youtoconsistentlyandreliablypreparecomputerhardware(BIOS,massstorage)and
installtheWindowsoperatingsystemandlayeredproductsononeormorebuild
computers
API~ApplicationProgrammingInterface~Aninterfacetoacomputeroperatingsystem
orsoftwareprogramthatgivesotherprogramsaccesstofunctionssimilartothoseoffered
tousersthroughagraphicaluserinterface.
API~AdvancedPhotonix,Inc~aleadingsupplierofopto-electronicsolutionsand
TerahertzsensorsandinstrumentationtoaglobalOEM…advancedphotonix.com/
APM~Activepolicymanagement~analyzesunstructuredcontentindocumentsandemails,andappliestheappropriaterulesforaccess,lifecyclemanagementandoversight.
APM~AdvancedPowerManagement~AfeaturefromIntelandMicrosoftforbatterypoweredcomputers,whichpowers-downorthedisplaywhenthecomputerhasbeen
inactiveforacertainlengthoftimeinordertoconservepower.
APM~applicationperformancemanagement~applicationperformancemanagement
APML~AttentionProfilingMarkupLanguage~usedtoconsolidateandaggregate
individualusers’rankedinterests
APNIC~AsiaPacificNetworkInformationCenter~NonprofitInternetregistry
organizationfortheAsiaPacificregion.TheotherInternetregistriesarecurrentlyIANA,
RIPENCC,andInterNIC.http://www.apnic.net/
APO~AdvancedPlannerandOptimizer~Asupply-chain-planningsuitefromSAP.
APOP~AuthenticatedPostOfficeProtocol~similartothePOPprotocolexceptthat
APOPenablesyourpasswordtobeencryptedwhilebeingtransmittedoverthenetwork.
APOT~Alternate(Additional)PointofTermination~formidentifiesspecificcollocation
terminationsattheICDFframewheretheCLEC‘UNEterminationcables’areterminated.
TheseterminationsareusedforthepurposeoforderingUNEs,AncillaryServices,or
FinishedServices.
app~application~acomputerprogramthatperformsusefulworknotrelatedtothe
computeritself.ExamplesincludeWORDPROCESSORs,PRESENTATIONGRAPHICS
programs
APPC~AdvancedProgram-to-ProgramCommunication~Theprogramminginterfaceto
LU6.2,IBM’sprotocolforpeer-to-peerprogramcommunicationunderSNA.
applet~applet~ThisaJavaprogramthatcanbeembeddedinaWebpage.The
differencebetweenastandardJavaapplicationandaJavaappletisthatanappletcan’t
accesssystemresourcesonthelocalcomputer.
APPN~AdvancedPeertoPeerNetworking~IBMdatacommunicationssupportthat
routesdatabetweenAdvancedPeer-to-PeerCommunication(APPC)systemstoenable
usersanywhereonthenetworktohavedirectcommunicationwitheachother.
APR~ApachePortableRuntime~ItsmissionistoprovideafreelibraryofCdata
structuresandroutines,formingasystemportabilitylayertoasmanyoperatingsystemsas
possible,includingUnices,MSWin32,BeOSandOS/2
APS~advancedplanningandscheduling~Asubcomponentofsupplychainplanning
(SCP)thatfocusesonmanufacturingplanningandscheduling.
APS~AutomaticProtectionSwitching~Ameanforautomaticallydetectingand
signallingatransmissionlinkfailure
APWG~Anti-PhishingWorkingGroup~aninternationalmembershiporganizationthat
seekstoeliminatefraudbasedonattacksfromphishingande-mailspoofing.These
attackshurtlegitimatebusinessesastheattackersfraudulentlyusetheidentityofan
establishedorganizationintheirattack.
AQCB~AutomatedQuoteContractBilling~Systemusedtopricenon-tariffedproducts
andservices.
AR~AccessRate~Thedatarateoftheuseraccesschannel.Therate(maximum)at
whichaccessdevicescanofferdatatotheframerelaynetwork
AR~Augmentedreality~atechnologythatsuperimposesgraphics,audioandother
virtualenhancementsoveraliveviewoftherealworld.Itisthis‘realworld’element
thatÂ
AR~~differentiatesARfromvirtualreality.
ARA~AppleRemoteAccess~Communicationsoftwaredesignedtoofferremoteaccess
toanAppleTalk-compatiblenetworkviaanARAserver.
ARAD~architectedrapidapplicationdevelopment~SOAÂtoolsthatautomatemodels
andrules
ARAG~AntiReflectionAntiGlare~Thereareadd-onscreensformonitorsthateliminate
screenglareandprotecttheuser’seyes.
ARC~AmesResearchCenter~NASAfacilityischargedwiththemissionofassisting
withbetterlifequalityonearth,humanexploration,spacetravelandthesearchforlifeon
otherplanets.www.nasa.gov/centers/ames
ARC~Archive~Archive
archive~archive~Datathatisimportantinformation,storedforalongperiodoftimein
somerecordingmediasuchasmagnetictapes,storagearraysorothernon-activehard
disks.
ARCNET~AttachedResourceComputerNETwork~aLANprotocol,similarinpurpose
toEthernetorTokenRing.
ARD~AutomaticRingDown~Privatelineconnectingastationinstrumentinone
locationwithastationinstrumentinanotherlocation.Whenstationoneisoffhook,station
tworings.Alsocalled‘hotline’.
ARIA~AccessibleRichInternetApplications~ARIA,alsoWAI-ARIA,definesawayto
makeWebcontentandWebapplicationsmoreaccessibletopeople
ARIN~AmericanRegistryforInternetNumbers~theInternetregistryserviceforNorth
andSouthAmerica,aswelltheCarribeanandsub-SaharanAfrica.http://arin.net/
ARL~ABLERuleLanguage~Arule-basedprogramminglanguagethatisusedto
expressbusinesslogicoutsideofprogramlogic.ARLprovidestightintegrationwithJava
objects,andthetoolingprovidedwithABLEisbasedontheEclipseplatform.
ARM~AdvancedRISCMachines~aRISCprocessorfindmostoftheiruseonhandheldmachinesandPDAs.CurrentlyownedbyIntel,andcurrentlyproducedbyboththe
aboveandDigital/Compaq.
ARM~AsynchronousResponseMode~AsynchronousResponseMode
ARM~ActiveRegistryMonitor~ActiveRegistryMonitor
ARP~AddressResolutionProtocol~Amethodforfindingahost’sEthernetaddress
fromitsInternetaddress.Itworkslikethis:ThesenderbroadcastsanARPpacket
containingtheInternetaddressofanotherhostandwaitsforittosendbackitsEthernet
address.
ARP~AddressResolutionProtocol~Linklayer-RFC1122
ARPANET~AdvanceResearchProjectsAgencyNetwork~Apacket-switchednetwork
developedintheearly1970s.The“father�oftoday’sInternet.ARPANETwas
decommissionedinJune1990.http://www.arpa.mil/
ARQ~automaticrepeatrequest~Amodemstatussignalindicatedbyalightonthe
modem;incasesoftransmissionserrors,theARQisarequesttothesendertoretransmit.
ARS~ActionRequestSystem~calltrackingandresolutionsoftwareprovidedbyBMC
Software
ARS~automaticrouteselection~Device(orsoftware)whichchoosesthelowestcost
routeforlong-distancecallsoverspecificlinesorservices,includingWATS,leased,
specializednon-Bellcommoncarriersordirectdistancedialing(DDD).
ART~AdditionalReferenceTransmission~ARTiscarrierterm
ARTS~AssociationforRetailTechnologyStandards~DataModelstandard
ARu~audioresponseunit~Outputdevicewhichprovidesaspokenresponsetodigital
inquiriesfromatelephoneorotherdevice.Theresponseisusuallyassembledbya
computerfromaprerecordedvocabularyofwords.Â
AS~Activesync~ASisMicrosoftsoftware
AS/ASN~autonomoussystem(number)~Anumberassignedtoalocalnetwork,
registeredintothecarrier’sroutingcommunityandplacedundertheumbrellaofan
administrativedomaincalledanautonomoussystem
AS/400~ApplicationSystem/400~AmidrangecomputersystemintroducedbyIBMin
1988asareplacementforitsSystem/36andSystem/38productfamilies.
AS2~ApplicabilityStatement2~aspecificationforEDIbetweenbusinessesusingthe
Internet’sWebpageprotocol,HTTP.Thespecificationisanextensionoftheearlier
version,ApplicabilityStatement1(AS1).
ASA~averagespeedofanswer~Astandardquantitativemethodformeasuringthespeed
atwhichcallcentercallsareanswered.
ASBR~AutonomousSystemBoundaryRouter~ASBRsrunbothOSPFandanother
routingprotocol,suchasRIP.ASBRsmustresideinanonstubOSPFarea.
ASC~AbstractSyntaxChecker~InOSI,autilityprogramforOSICommunications
Subsystemthatprocessesuser-specifiedASN.1statements
ASCII~AmericanStandardCodeforInformationInterchange~pronouncedas-kee,
standardwayofencodingcharactersintodigitalcodes.AnASCIIfileistakentomeana
textfilecontainingunformattedtextthatis,charactersbutnotinformationaboutfonts,
sizesandsoon.
ASCL~AsianetSatelliteCommunicationsLimited~dataline,broadbandinternet,
leadingISPinkerala.asianet.co.in
ASE~AdaptiveServerEnterprise~relationaldatabasemanagementsystemproductof
SybaseCorporation,isadirectdescendantofSybaseSQLServer.
ASE~applicationserviceelement~AsetoffunctionsintheapplicationlayerofOSIthat
providesacapabilityfortheinterworkingofapplicationentitiesforaspecificpurposeon
asingleapplicationassociation.
ASF~AdvancedStreamingFormat~setofstandardsfromMicrosoftthatisutilizedin
WMP7technology.
ASF~AutomaticSheetFeeder~Thetechnologydictatesthedifferentwaysprintersfeed
paper.DotmatrixprintersusuallyrunonacontinuousWebofpaperwhilelaserprintersor
inkjettypeprintersaregenerallysinglesheet.Theyarealsooftenreferredtoaspage
printers.
ASIC~Application-SpecificIntegratedCircuit~Achipwithcustom-builthardware
circuitsforaparticularsetoffunctions.ASICsarecommonlyusedinnetworkingdevices
tomaximizeperformanceandprovideintegrationofmultiplefunctionsintoasinglechip.
ASIF~accesssecurityinformationfield~InSNA,afieldwithinFunctionManagement
HeaderType5(FMH-5),whichisusedtoconveysecurityinformation.
ASIS~accesssecurityinformationsubfield~InSNA,asubfieldwithinFunction
ManagementHeaderType5(FMH-5),whichisusedtoconveysecurityinformation.
ASK~AnomalousStateofKnowledge~ASKisaprogrammingterm
ASLR~AddressSpaceLayoutRandomization~aprocesswhichentailsarrangingthe
positionsofmajordataareasrandomlyinvirtualaddressspace.Microsoft’sWindows
VistaandWindowsServer2008haveASLRenabledbydefault
ASLS~AnalogSingleLineStation~atelephonyterm.Anextensionportona
PABX/KSUthatwillallowastandardhouseholdtypephonetointerfacewiththesystem.
ASM~Auto-sequencingmemory~Antimachinedatamemoryincludingdatacountersto
beprogrammedbyflowwaretogeneratethedatastreamsatruntime.
ASM~AutomaticStorageManagement~Oracle10gdatabasefeaturethatprovidesthe
databaseadministratorwithasimplestoragemanagementinterfacethatisconsistent
acrossallserverandstorageplatforms
ASML~originallyASMLithography(ASMforAdvancedSemiconductorMaterials)~
largestsupplierintheworldofphotolithographysystemsforthesemiconductorindustry,
foundedin1984asajointventurebetweentheDutchcompaniesAdvanced
SemiconductorMaterialsInternational(ASMI)andPhilips.www.asml.com
ASN~AbstractSyntaxNotation~TheInternationalOrganizationforStandardization’s
OSIlanguagefordescribingabstractsyntax.
ASN.1~AbstractSyntaxNotationOne~InOSI,anotationfordefiningdatastructures
anddatatypes.ThenotationisdefinedininternationalstandardsISO8824/ITUX.208and
ISO8825/ITUX.209.
ASO~AddressSupportingOrganization~ICANNÂSupportingOrganization
responsibleforreviewinganddevelopingrecommendationsonÂIPaddressÂpolicy
ASO~~aso.icann.org
ASP~AbstractServicePrimitive~Implementation-independentdescriptionof
interactionbetweenservice-userandservice-provideratparticularserviceboundary,as
definedbyÂOSI.
ASP~ActiveServerPages~aMicrosofttechnology,allowsprogrammerstodevelop
customcodethatworkswithMicrosoft’sÂIIS.
ASP~ApplicationServerProcess~ApplicationServerProcess
ASP~ApplicationServiceProvider~Sometimesreferedtoasan‘app-on-tap,’thisisa
third-partycompanythatdistributessoftware-basedservicesfromacentrallocationto
customersinotherlocations.
ASP~AspectOrientedProgramming~AspectOrientedProgramming
ASP~AverageSellingPrice~Thistermisusedinthemicrochipmanufacturingworld.
CompanieslikeAMDandIntelstriveforhighASPs.TheASPisanindicationnotonlyof
directprofits,buthowwellacompanyiskeepingupwiththetechnologycurve.
ASPI~AdvancedSCSIProgrammingInterface~AninterfacefromAdaptecthatallows
applicationprogramstoaccessSCSIhardware.SeeSCSI.
ASPX~ActiveServerPageseXtended~DynamicwebpagesenginefortheMicrosoft
.NETframework
ASQ~AutomatedSoftwareQuality~
ASQ~~Theuseofsoftwaretools,suchasautomatedtestingtools,toimprovesoftware
quality.
ASQ~~
ASR~AccessServiceRequest~AccessServiceRequest
ASR~AutomaticSpeechRecognition~AutomaticSpeechRecognition
ASR~AutomatedSystemRecovery~AutomatedSystemRecovery
ASR~AutomaticSendandReceive~Anyoneofseveraldevicesdesignedtotransmit
andreceivedataunattended,incontrastwithRO,‘receiveonly’devices.
ASR~automaticspeechrecognition~Anothernameforspeechrecognitiontechnology.
ASR~Automatedsystemrecovery~OneofseveralbackupmechanismsonWindows
XP.ASRisintendedtobetakeninfrequently,whenevertherearechangesinthesystem.
ASV~ApprovedScanningVendor~CompanyapprovedbythePCISSCtoconduct
externalvulnerabilityscanningservices.
AT~AdvancedTechnology~theclassofIBMPCsoriginallyintroducedin1984using
the80286microprocessoranda16-bitbus
AT&T~AmericanTelephoneAndTelegraph~TheUSA’smajorcommoncarrierfor
longdistancetelephonelines.
ATA~ActualTimeofArrival~ActualTimeofArrival
ATA~AdvancedTechnologyAttachment~Anintegratedbususuallyusedbetweenhost
processorsanddiskdrives.UsedinterchangeablywithIDE.
ATA~AnalogTelephoneAdaptor~connectstheconventionaltelephonetotheInternet,
convertstheanalogvoicesignalsintoIPpackets,deliversdialtoneandmanagesthecall
setup.
ATAG~AuthoringToolAccessibilityGuidelines~W3Crecommendationthatexplains
howtodevelopauthoringtoolsthatmakeiteasiertoproduceaccessibleWebpagesthat
conformtotheWebContentAccessibilityGuidelines(WCAG)
ATAPI~ATAttachmentPacketInterface~Ahardwareandsoftwarespecificationthat
documentstheinterfacebetweenahostcomputerandCD-ROMdrivesusingtheATAbus.
ATB~AlltheBest~Internetslang.
ATB~alltrunksbusy~Asingletoneinterruptedata120impulsesperminute(ipm)rate
toindicatealllinesortrunksinaroutinggrouparebusy.Â
ATCA~AdvancedTelecomComputingArchitecture~ATCAprovidesthe
telecommunicationsindustrywithanopportunitytoadoptastandardarchitecturefora
broadspectrumofproducts,includingwirelessaccess,wirelesscorenetworks,andIP
MultimediaSubsystemIMSnetworkelements.
ATG~advancedtechnologygroup~Agroupchargedwithresearching,trackingand
evaluatingemergingtechnologiesforanenterprise,andwithprototypingandpiloting
advanced-technologyprojectspriortodeployment.
ATG~ArtTechnologyGroup~Adeveloperofonlinecustomerrelationshipmanagement
applications,headquarteredinCambridge,Massachusetts.
ATI~AlliedTelesynInternational~Networkinghardwaremanufacturer
ATL~ActiveTemplateLibrary~AgroupofroutinesprovidedbyMicrosoftthatcanbe
usedtohelpmoreeasilycreateASP,ActiveX,andCOMobjectsinC++.
ATL~automatedtapelibrary~Asystemusedforhigh-capacity,tape-baseddatastorage.
ATLstypicallyhavedozensofdrivesandcanaccommodatehundredstapecartridges.
ATLAS~AuthorizationTokenLayerAcquisitionService~Describestheserviceneeded
toacquireauthorizationtokenstoaccessatargetsystemusingtheCSIv2protocol.This
designdefinesasingleinterfacewithwhichaclientacquiresanauthorizationtoken
ATM~AdobeTypeManager~asoftwareprogramorsystemextensionmanufacturedby
AdobeSystemsthatisusedtoenhancethedisplayofscreenfontsoncomputermonitors,
ATM~asynchronoustransfermode~atransfermodeforswitchingandtransmissionthat
efficientlyandflexiblyorganizesinformationintocells.Itisasynchronousinthesense
thattherecurrenceofcellsdependsontherequiredorinstantaneousbitrate.
ATM~automatedtellermachine~Apublicbankingmachinethatcustomerscanaccess
byinsertingorswipingamagneticcardandenteringapassword.
ATM~Atthemoment~Internetslang.
ATM~AsynchronousTransferMode~Telecom-ATMcelldescription
ATO~assembletoorder~Astrategyallowingaproductorservicetobemadetomeet
thecustomrequirementsofaspecificorder,wherealargenumberofsuchcustomized
productscanbeassembledinvariousformsfromcommoncomponents.
Atom~AnyTransportoverMPLS~atechnologydevelopedbyCiscofortransporting
Layer2packetsoveranIP/MPLSbackbone.
Atom~Atom~AtomisthenameofanXML-basedWebcontentandmetadata
syndicationformat,andanapplication-levelprotocolforpublishingandeditingWeb
resourcesbelongingtoperiodicallyupdatedWebsites.
atom~atom~AtomisanalternateXMLformatforeasilysharingcontent,muchlike
RSSReallySimpleSyndication(format).Blogsonhttp://www.blogger.com/forexample,
publishAtomfeeds.
ATP~AppleTalkTransactionProtocol~InAppleTalknetworks,aprotocolthatprovides
client/serverrequestandresponsefunctionsforhostsaccessingtheZIPforzone
information.
ATP~availabletopromise~Theuncommittedportionofacompany’sinventoryor
plannedproduction.Thisfigureisfrequentlycalculatedfromthemasterproduction
scheduleandismaintainedasatoolfororderpromising.
ATPCO~AirlineTariffPublishingCompany~Thecentraldatabasewhereairlinesfile
andpublishtheirfares
ATRAC~AdaptiveTRansformAcousticCoding~Audiocompressionalgorithm,
introducedbySonyforitsMiniDisk,whichreliesonthemaskingoflow-amplitude
frequencycomponentsbytemporalyadjacenthigh-amplitudecomponents
ATRN~AuthenticatedTurn~AuthenticatedTurn
ATS~AbstractTestSuite~AbstractTestSuite
ATS~ApplicationsTechnologySatellite~ApplicationsTechnologySatellite
ATS~AirtoSurface~AirtoSurface
ATSC~AdvancedTelevisionSystemsCommittee~aninternational,non-profit
organizationdevelopingvoluntarystandardsfordigitaltelevision.
ATTIS~AT&TInformationSystems~AdivisionofAT&TTechnologiesthatsupplies
andmanufacturesCPE.
ATU-C/ATU-R~ADSLTransmissionUnit,CentralorRemote~Deviceatendof
ADSLlinethatstandsbetweenlineandfirstitemofequipmentinsubscriberpremisesor
telephoneswitch.Maybeintegratedwithinaccessnode.
ATUL~ADSLTerminationUnitRemote~ATURistheADSLmodemorPCcardthat
physicallyterminatesanADSLconnectionattheenduser’slocation.
ATVEF~AdvancedTVEnhancementForum~Astandardforcreatingenhanced,
interactivetelevisioncontentandfordeliveringthatcontenttoarangeoftelevision,settop,andPC-basedreceivers(http://www.atvef.com).
ATX~AdvancedTechnologyeXtended~Aparticularsetofcharacteristicsdefininga
generictypeofmotherboard,powersupplyandchassiscombination.Thedefinitioncame
fromIntel,alongwithaconsortiumofhardwareandsoftwaremakerstodefinetheability
ofthedesign.
AUDIT~AUtomatedDataInputTerminal~AUtomatedDataInputTerminal
AUI~AttachmentUnitInterface~adevicethatcontainsa15-bitpin,orsocket,andis
usedtoconnectaNICwithastandardEthernetcable.
AUIML~AbstractUserInterfaceMarkupLanguage~AnXMLimplementationthat
providesaplatformandtechnology-neutralmethodofrepresentingwindows,wizards,
propertysheets,andotheruserinterfaceelements.
AUP~acceptableusepolicy~apolicythatausermustagreetofollowinordertobe
providedwithaccesstoanetworkortotheInternet.
AUTOEXEC~AutomaticExecution~Whenaprogramisexecutedonit’sown.
AUTONEG~Autonegotiation~afeaturethatdetermineslinkoptionsandoptimal
settingsforagivenEthernetconnection.WhenAUTONEGisenabled,anetworkinterface
cardoraswitchportcandeterminethecapabilitiesofthedeviceatthefarendofthelink
andselectthebestmodeofoperation.
AutonomousVehicles~AutonomousVehicles~candriveitselffromastartingpointtoa
predetermineddestinationin‘autopilot’modeusingvariousin-vehicletechnologiesand
sensors,includingGPSnavigationtechnology
AUV~AutonomousUnderwaterVehicle~aroboticdevicedriventhroughwaterbya
propulsionsystem.AUVsareself-sufficientvehiclescarryingtheirownenergysource.Â
Thecontrolofthevehicleisdoneusinganonboardcomputerthuseliminatingtheneedof
operatorslocatedelsewhere.
AUX~auxiliarydevice~Aperipheraldevicethatmayperformausefulfunctionbutis
notnecessaryfortheoperationofthecomputer.Examplesareprinters,scanners,and
modems.
AV~AntiVirus~AntiVirussoftware
AV~AudioVideoorVisual~pertainingtotherecordingandreproductionofsoundsand
pictures
avatar~avatar~Agraphicaliconthatrepresentsarealpersoninacyberspacesystem.
Whenyouenterthesystem,youcanchoosefromanumberoffancifulavatars.
Sophisticated3Davatarsevenchangeshapedependingonwhattheyaredoing
avatar~~AcommonnameforthesuperuseraccountonUNIXsystems.Theother
commonnameisroot.
AVD~alternatevoicedata~Asingletransmissionfacilitywhichcanbeusedforeither
voiceordata.Â
AVED~AntiVirusEmergencyDiscussionlist~Amailinglistforprofessionalantivirus
researchersallowingthemtoalertotherresearcherstoemergingorongoing‘crisis’or
‘emergency’virusevents.
AVG~AVG~AVGisafamilyofanti-virusandInternetsecuritysoftwareforthe
MicrosoftWindows,Linux,MacOSX,andFreeBSDcomputingplatforms,developedby
AVGTechnologies.http://www.avg.com
AVI~Audio/VideoInterleaved~AVIisthemostcommonformatforaudio/videodataon
thepersonalcomputer.
AVK~ApplicationVerificationKit~Toolintendedtohelpdeveloperstesttheir
applicationsforcorrectuseofJ2EEAPIsandportabilityacrossJ2EEcompatible
applicationservers,andtohelpdevelopersavoidinadvertentlywritingnon-portablecode
AVS~ApplicationVisualisationSystem~aportablemodularUNIX-basedgraphics
packagesupportedbyaconsortiumofvendorsincludingConvex,DEC,IBM,HP,SET
Technologies,StardentandWaveTracer.
AVST~AppliedVoice&SpeechTechnologiesInc.~softwarecompanyinthe
telecommunicationindustryhttp://www.avst.com/
AVVID~ArchitectureforVoice,VideoandIntegratedData~Anarchitecturalapproach
forintegratingenterprisevoice,videoanddatatrafficoverIP-basednetworks,introduced
byCiscoSystemsin1999.
AWD~AccessWorkflowDesigner~Organizeandtrackinformation
AWE~AdvancedWavEffects~AseriesofsoundcardsfromCreativeLabsthatincludes
theSoundBlasterAWE32,theSoundBlasterAWE64,andtheAWE64Gold.
AWS~AdvancedWirelessServices~AmazonWebServices(AWS)deliversasetof
servicesthattogetherformareliable,scalable,andinexpensivecomputingplatform“in
thecloudâ€?.Âaws.amazon.com/
AWS~AmazonWebServices~acollectionofremotecomputingservices
AWS~AutonomousWebServices~anextgenerationWebServicesbasedonbusiness
processmodelharmonizationamongindependentsystems
AWT~AbstractWindowToolkit~InJavaprogramming,acollectionofGUI
componentsthatwereimplementedusingnative-platformversionsofthecomponents.
Thesecomponentsprovidethatsubsetoffunctionalitywhichiscommontoalloperating
systemenvironments.
AZERTY~AZERTY~ThestandardFrenchlanguagekeyboardlayout.Termcomes
fromthefirstsixlettersbelowtherowofnumbers.
~B~
b~bit~Thenumberofbitsusedtorepresentacharacter.Forpersonalcomputersabyte
isusually8bits.
B~byte~Thenumberofbitsusedtorepresentacharacter.Forpersonalcomputersabyte
isusually8bits.
Bchannel~BearerChannel~AwireusedinÂISDNÂservicethatcancarryupto64
Kbpsofdatawhenoperatingatfullcapacity.Itisaclearchannel‘pipe’thatcarriesvoice,
data,orvideooverISDN.TheBRIserviceofferedtohomeusershastwoBchannels.
B2B~business-to-business~B2Bisalsocommonlyusedasanadjectivetodescribeany
activity,beitB2Bmarketing,sales,ore-commerce,thatoccursbetweenbusinessesand
otherbusinesses
B2C~business-to-consumer~B2Cdescribesactivitiesofcommercialorganizations
servingtheendconsumerwithproductsand/orservices.Itisusuallyappliedexclusively
toelectroniccommerce.
B2E~business-to-employee~Theuseandleverageofe-businessapproachesand
Internettechnologiestodeliveracomprehensivesetofservicestoanenterprise’s
employeesandtheirmanagers.Thefulltermissometimespresentedas‘business-toenterprise.’
B8ZS~BinaryEightZeroSuppression.~8ZSisatechniqueinT1thatmodifiestheAMI
encodingtoensureminimumpulsedensitywithoutalteringcustomerdata.Wheneight
‘zeros’inarowaredetected,apatternwithintentionalbipolarviolationsissubstituted.
BAA~BlanketAuthorizationAgreement~Signedbyinterconnectorsguaranteeingthat
theyhaveauthorityoftheendusercustomertorequestCPNIandplaceserviceorderson
thecustomer’sbehalf.
BAC~BroadCastAgent~BusinessObjectsbroadcastagent
BACNET~BuildingAutomationandControlNetworkprotocol~acommunications
protocolforbuildingautomationandcontrolnetworks.
BAF~BellcoreAMAFormat~Bellcore(NowTelcordiaTechnologies)AMAFormat
BAI~BankAdministrationInstitute~File/reportformatusedinfinancialservices
industry
BAM~businessactivitymonitoring~AGartnertermthatdefinestheconceptof
providingreal-timeaccesstocriticalbusinessperformanceindicatorstoimprovethespeed
andeffectivenessofbusinessoperations.Atitsbroadestlevel,BAMistheconvergenceof
operationalbusinessintelligenceandreal-timeapplicationintegration.
BAN~BodyAreaNetworks~anemergingfieldoftechnologythathasthepotentialto
revolutionizehealthcareandpathbreakingapplicationsinsports,communicationsand
security.Â
BAPI~BusinessApplicationProgrammingInterface~Asetofdocumented,server-side
interfacestooneormoreR/3processes,fromSAP.BAPIpackagesmultipleinternal
functionstoenableprogrammaticaccesstosuchhigher-ordertasksascheckingcustomer
numbers,providingproductdescriptions,selectingproducts,creatingquotationsor
creatingorders.
barfile~brokerarchivefile~Theunitofdeploymenttothebroker;alsoknownasabar
file.Itcontainsanynumberofcompiledmessageflows(.cmf),messagesets(.dictionary),
andasingledeploymentdescriptor.
BaselII~BaselCapitalAccord~aregulatoryframeworkforthebankingsector,
developedbytheBaselCommitteeonBankingSupervision.Thiscommitteemeetsevery
threemonthsattheBankforInternationalSettlementsinBasel,Switzerland.
BASH~Bourne-AgainSHell~aninteractiveUNIXshellbasedonthetraditionalBourne
shell,butwithincreasedfunctionality.BASHistheshell,orcommandlanguage
interpreter,thatwillappearintheGNUoperatingsystem
BASIC~Beginners’All-purposeSymbolicInstructionCode~Ahigh-levelalgebraic
programminglanguagedevelopedatDartmouthCollegeinthe1960sandwidelytaughtto
beginningprogrammers.Itissimpletousebutlacksspeed.
BAT~BabyAdvancedTechnology~Atypeofsystemboard
BBC~BritishBroadcastingCorporation~TheBritishBroadcastingCorporation(BBC)
isaBritishpublicservicebroadcaster,headquarteredatBroadcastingHouseintheCityof
Westminster,Londonhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/>
BBCs~buffer-to-buffercredits~allowdatacommunicationinaFibre
ChannelÂSANÂwheretherearelongspansoffiberopticcable.Unlessstoragedistance
extensionisemployed,ÂlatencyÂimposesadistancelimitationofafewkilometers
betweenthesourceandthedestinationinthenetwork.
BBN~Bolt,BeranekandNewman~thelastnamesofthethreefoundersofBBN
Technologiesandtheoriginalnameofthecompany.
BBP~Business-to-BusinessProcurement~Acatalog-basedprocurementproduct
fromÂSAP.
BBS~BulletinBoardSystem~Acomputerizedmeetingandannouncementsystemthat
allowspeopletocarryondiscussions,uploadanddownloadfiles,andmake
announcementswithoutthepeoplebeingconnectedtothecomputeratthesametime.
BC4J~BusinessComponentsForJava~Java2platform,EnterpriseEdition(J2EE)
frameworkthathelpsdevelopersquicklyconstructhigh-performanceJ2EEapplications
followingindustry-standarddesignpatterns
BCB~buffercontrolblock~Anopaquecachemanagerstructurethatisusedtomaintain
stateasafilesystempinsandreleasesdata(forexample,itsvolumestructure)inthe
cache.
Bcc~BlindCarbonCopy~Whenyousendane-mailtoonlyoneperson,youtypethe
recipient’saddressinthe‘To:’field.Whenyousendamessagetomorethanoneperson,
youhavetheoptiontoenteraddressesinthe‘Cc:’and‘Bcc:’fields.
BCC~BlockCheckCharacter~Acontrolcharacteraddedtoablockincharacter
orientedprotocols(suchasBisync)usedfordeterminingiftheblockwasreceivedinerror
BCD~binary-codeddecimal~aformatforrepresentingdecimalnumbers(integers)in
whicheachdigitisrepresentedbyfourbits(nybbleornibble).Seebyte.Forexample,the
number375wouldberepresentedas:001101110101.
BCE~BellCanadaEnterprises;~Canada’sLargestCommunications
CompanyÂhttp://www.bce.ca
BCEL~ByteCodeEngineeringLibrary~Libraryintendedtogiveusersaconvenient
possibilitytoanalyze,create,andmanipulate(binary)Javaclassfiles
BCI~BusinessContinuityInstitute~TheÂBCIÂpromotesthehigheststandardsof
professionalcompetenceandcommercialethicsintheprovision,maintenanceand
servicesforBusinessContinuityManagement(BCM).
BCM/BCMP~BusinessContinuityManagement(Planning)~automatesthe
collaborativeresearch,analysisandwritingneededtocreatearecoveryplanforcritical
businessandIToperationsthatcanbepublishedanddistributedtotherecoveryteams.
BCOCA~BarCodeObjectContentArchitecture~Anarchitectedcollectionof
constructsusedtointerchangeandpresentbarcodedata.
BCP~BestCurrentPractice~Meansthatacertainmannerofproceedingisingeneralthe
mostlogicalchoice
BCS~basiccontentservices~BCSsprovidedocumentlibraryserviceswith
complementaryadhocimaging,basicWebpublishing,documentcollaborationand
documentroutingastheircorefunctionalities.
BCUG~bilateralclosedusergroup~Indatacommunication,twouserswhohave
bilaterallyagreedtocommunicatewitheachother,butnotwithotherusers.
BCV~businesscontinuancevolume~EMC’snameforthedatavolumescreatedbyits
SymmetrixTimeFinderfeature.BCVsarecopiesofactivedatavolumesthatare
separatelyaddressedfromthesourcevolume.
BCX~BasicToCTranslator~anopensourceandfreesoftware,translatesBASICto
C/C++forcompilationonvariousWin32compilers.Itisasmallcommandlinetoolthat
takesaBASICsourcecodefileandoutputsaC/C++sourcecodefile.
BD~Blu-rayDisc~Thisisanopticaldiscformatthatwasdevelopedtoenable
recording,playback,andrewritingofÂHDÂvideo.Thistechnologyhasastorage
capacityfargreaterthanthatoftraditionalDVDs.
BDC~BackupDomainController~SecondarytothePDC,providesuser/computer
domainauthentication
BDF~buildingdistributionframe~Thelocationinabuildingwhereequipmentattaches
anumberofcablesfromtheLDF’s
BECN~BackwardExplicitCongestionNotification~Abitsentbyaframerelaynetwork
tonotifyaninterfacedevice(DTE)thatcongestionavoidanceproceduresshouldbe
initiatedbythesendingdevice
BEEP~BlocksExtensibleExchangeProtocol~aframeworkforcreatingnetwork
applicationprotocols.Itisintendedtoabstract-outthecommonfeaturesthathave
traditionallybeenduplicatedineachprotocolimplementation
Bellcore~BellCommunicationsResearch~Ajointlyowned,financedandcentrally
staffedorganizationoftheregionalholdingcompaniesformedaftertheAT&Tdivestiture
in1984,chargedwithestablishingnetworkstandardsandinterfaces.Bellcorechangedits
nametoTelcordiaTechnologiesin1999.
BER~BasicEncodingRules~Standardrulesforencodingdataunitsdescribedin
ASN.1.
BERT~BitErrorRateTest~Atestthatreflectstheratiooferroredbitstothetotal
numbertransmitted.Usuallyshowninexponentialform(10^-6)toindicatethatoneoutof
acertainnumberofbitsareinerror.
BES~BlackBerryEnterpriseServer~BlackBerry’smobilityplatform
BFR~BonaFideRequest~SubmittedCLECswithaninterconnection,orpending,
agreementwithQwestfornon-tariffed,non-negotiated,non-mandatedservices,including
operationsstandards.
BFT~BinaryFileTransfer~Amethodoftransferringfilesusingfaxmodems.It’san
extensiontothefaxprotocol.
BGA~ballgridarray~Asopposedtoapingridarray(PGA),aballgridarrayisatype
ofmicrochipconnectionmethodology.Ballgridarraychipstypicallyuseagroupofsolder
dots,orballs,arrangedinconcentricrectanglestoconnecttoacircuitboard.
BGAN~BroadbandGlobalAreaNetwork~BGANisamobilecommunicationssystem
createdtotransmitbroadbandwirelessvoiceanddatacommunicationsalmostanywhere
ontheearth’ssurface.
BGI~BinaryGatewayInterface~ProvidesamethodofrunningaprogramfromaWeb
server.SimilartoaCommonGatewayInterface(CGI).TheBGIusesabinaryDLLwhich
isloadedintomemorywhentheserverstarts.WhilemoreefficienthanaCGI,theBGI
mustbecompiledandisnoteasilyportabletootherenvironments.
BGP~BorderGatewayProtocol(routingprotocol)~Applicationlayer,Routers-RFC
4271
BGP~BorderGatewayProtocol~Theinterdomainroutingprotocolimplementedin
TransmissionControlProtocol/InternetProtocol(TCP/IP)networks.
BGP-4~BorderGatewayProtocol-4~AnetworkingredundancyservicebasedonBGP.
ItenablesanenterprisetorouteInformationProtocol(IP)trafficdestinedforthesameIP
addressviadifferentnetworkconnections.InaBGP-4environment,whenatransmission
comesfromanInternetserviceprovider’snetwork,itwilllookfortheprimaryrouterthat
connectstotheenterprise’slocation.
B-HAVW~BehavioralHeuristicAnalyzerinVirtualEnvironments~Bitdefender
technology
BHCA~busyhourcallattempt~Thecapacityofavoicecallprocessorcanbemeasured
inBHCAs.BHCAsmeasuretheamountofcallsthatavoicesystemcanattempttohandle
inacontinuousone-hourperiod(forexample,2,500busyhourcallattemptsor,
equivalently,2,500callattemptsduringthebusyhour).BHCAcapacitiesincludeallcalls
attempted,whethercompletedornot.
BHCC~busyhourcallcompletion~Thecapacityofaprocessorcanbemeasuredin
termsof
BHLI~BroadbandHighLayerInformation~ThisisaQ.2931informationelementthat
identifiesanapplication(orsessionlayerprotocolofanapplication).
BHMC~BusyHourMinutesofCapacity~ForSwitchedAccess
BHO~BrowserHelpObject~asoftwarecomponentthatcanbeaddedtoInternet
Explorertoaddnewfunctions.
BI~businessintelligence~Aninteractiveprocessforexploringandanalyzingstructured,
domain-specificinformationtodiscernbusinesstrendsorpatterns,therebyderiving
insightsanddrawingconclusions.TheBIprocessincludescommunicatingfindingsand
effectingchange.
BIA~businessimpactanalysis~Ananalysisofthecoststhatwouldbeincurredifa
systemorsetofbusinessprocessesfailedtofunctionproperly.BIAisarequiredearlystep
intheBCPprocess.
BIBOP~bigbagofpages~atechniquethatencodesobjecttypeinthehigh-orderbitsof
theiraddress,byusingalookuptablethatmapsfromthosebitstoatype.
BIC~bankidentifiercode~Acodeusedtouniquelyidentifyabank,logicalterminal,or
branchwithinaSWIFTnetwork.
BICI~BroadbandInter-CarrierInterface~Acarrier-to-carrierinterfacelinePNNI
(privatenetwork-to-networkinterface)thatisneededbecausecarriersdonotpermittheir
switchestoshareroutinginformationordetailednetworkmapswiththeircompetition’s
equipment.
BiDi~Bi-Directional~thecapabilityofacomputersystemtocorrectlydisplaybidirectionaltext.
BIDS~BusinessIntelligenceDevelopmentStudio~IDEÂfromMicrosoftusedfor
developingdataanalysisandBusinessIntelligencesolutionsutilizingthe
MicrosoftÂSQLÂServerAnalysisServices,ReportingServicesandIntegrationServices
Bin~binary~Binarydata,composedofsomethingotherthanhuman-readabletext.
Binarycode,thedigitalrepresentationoftextanddata
Binhex~BINaryHEXadecimal~Amethodforconvertingnon-textfiles(non-ASCII)
intoÂASCII.ThisisneededbecauseInternete-mailcanonlyhandleASCII.
BIOD~blockinput/outputdaemon~IntheNetworkFileSystem(NFS),adaemonthat
performsparallelread/writerequestsonbehalfofanNFSclient.
BIOS~BasicInput/OutputSystem~AfundamentalelementofPCsandothercomputers.
Itisakindofbuilt-insoftwarethatdetermineswhatacomputercandowithoutaccessing
programsfromadisk.
BIP~BitInterleavedParity~MethodusedatPHYlayertomonitorerrorperformanceof
link.Checkbitorwordissentinlinkoverheadcoveringpreviousblockorframe.Bit
errorsinpayloadwillbedetectedandmaybereportedasmaintenanceinformation.
BIPS~BankInternetPaymentSystem~TheBIPSspecificationincludesaprotocolfor
sendingpaymentinstructionstobankssafelyovertheInternetandapaymentserver
architectureforprocessingthosepaymentinstructions
BIRT~BusinessIntelligenceandReportingTools~Opensource,Eclipse-based
reportingsystemthatintegrateswithyourapplicationtoproducecompellingreportsfor
bothwebandPDF.
BIST~built-inselftest~afeatureincludedinnewerintegratedcircuitsandother
electronicequipment
BISUP~BroadbandISDNUser’sPart~SS7protocolthatdefinessignalingmessagesto
controlconnectionsandservices.
BisyncorBSC~BinarySYNChronous~Asynchronouscommunicationsprotocolthat
transmitsbinary-codeddatabetweentwodevicesbyusingasetofcontrolcharactersand
controlcharactersequences.
Bit~BinaryDigIT~Asingledigitnumberinbase-2,inotherwords,eithera1orazero.
Thesmallestunitofcomputerizeddata.ÂBandwidthisusuallymeasuredinbits-persecond.
BIT7~BitSeven~ATR008DS1linecodethatperformszerocodesuppressionby
placingaoneinbit7ofanall-zerosbyte.
BITNET~BecauseIt’sTimeNetworking~Low-cost,low-speedacademicnetwork
consistingprimarilyofIBMmainframesand9600-bpsleasedlines.BITNETisnowpart
ofCREN.
BITS~BackgroundIntelligentTransferService~Enablesdeveloperstowriteclient
applicationsthattransferfilesasynchronouslybetweenaclientandserver.
BITW~Bump-In-The-Wire~ConfigurationwhereIPsecisimplementedthroughtheuse
ofanoutboardcryptoprocessor.
BIW~BusinessInformationWarehouse~AcomponentofSAP’sR/3system.
BL~BLadeServer~AnHPbrandnameforProLiantBladeServers,whicharedesigned
fortheperformance,management,densityandtotalcostofownership(TCO)savings
requirementsofdatacenters.
BLAST~BasicLocalAlignmentSearchTool~consistsofasetofalgorithms.BLASTis
usedtocomparebiologicalsequenceslikeproteinsequencesornucleotides.WithBLAST
acomparisonofindividualsequencecanbedoneagainstadatabaseofsequencesand
informationobtainedincasethereismatchingofsequences.
BLISS~BroadbandLocalIntegratedServicesSolution~Allowsserviceprovidersto
offerabundleofpacket-basedservicesincludinglocalandlongdistancevoiceservices
andhigh-speeddata
B-LLI~BroadbandLowLayerInformation~ThisisaQ.2931informationelementthat
identifiesalayer2andalayer3protocolusedbytheapplication.
BLOB~binarylargeobject~Agenerictermusedtodescribethehandlingandstorageof
longstringsofdatabydatabasemanagementsystems.ABLOBisacategoryofdata,
characterizedbylargesize(includingmediaformatssuchasaudioandvideo),whichcan
placeextremedemandsonstoragesystemsandnetworkbandwidth.
BLOG~BetterListingsonGoogle~BetterListingsonGoogle
Blog/Blogger~weBLOG~AblogisbasicallyajournalthatisavailableontheÂweb.
Theactivityofupdatingablogis‘blogging’andsomeonewhokeepsablogisa‘blogger.’
Blogsaretypicallyupdateddailyusingsoftwarethatallowspeoplewithlittleorno
technicalbackgroundtoupdateandmaintaintheblog.
BLS~BasicLinkService~aFibreChannelrequestandresponseprotocolusedbyall
devices.
BMRT~BlueMoonRenderingTools~RenderMan-compliantphotorealisticrendering
systems.Itwasdistributedasfreeware
[email protected]
numbersrangingfrom001to999.TheSwatchorganizationdevisedanideatodividethe
24hourdayinto1000‘beats’,oftencalledSwatchbeats,eachbeing26.4secondsin
length.
BNC~Bayone-Neill-Concelman/BritishNavalConnector~Aconnectortypefor
10Base2orThin-Netnetworks.ShapedliketheletterT,itconnectscoaxialcables.Theâ
€œTâ€?hastwomaleconnectorsandonefemaleconnector.
BNF~Backus-NaurForm~formalmeta-syntaxfordescribingcontext-freesyntaxes.
InÂspeechrecognition,aspecialadaptationofgrammarrepresentationspecifiedby
SpeechRecognitionControlLanguage(SRCL)
BNI~BroadbandNetworkInterface~BroadbandNetworkInterface
BNOS~BrocadeNetworkOS~BrocadeOSthatcanconvergefbrechannelandIPontoa
Linuxcore
BO/BOBJ~BusinessObjects~aFrenchenterprisesoftwarecompany,specializingin
BI.Since2007ispartofSAPAG.
BOA~BasicObjectAdapter~SoftwarethatprovidesCORBA-compliantservicesfor
objectimplementations.
BOB~BreakoutBox~AlsoknownasanEIAmonitor,abreakoutboxservestomonitor
thestatusofsignalsofthepinsofanRS-232Cconnectororcableandallowssignalstobe
broken,patched,orcross-connected.
BOC~Belloperatingcompany~Anyofthe22originalcompanies(ortheirsuccessors)
thatwerecreatedfromthebreakupofAT&Tin1983.Theywerereorganizedintoseven
Bellregionalholdingcompanies(RHCs).
BOCU-1~BinaryOrderedCompressionforUnicode~AUnicodecompressionscheme
thatisMIME-compatible(directlyusablefore-mail)andpreservesbinaryorder,whichis
usefulfordatabasesandsortedlists.
BoD~BandwidthonDemand~BoDvalue-addedserviceenablesyoutorequest
additionalÂbandwidthÂbetweenanytwolocationsduringheavyÂdemandÂperiod
BOD~BusinessObjectDocument~Arepresentationofastandardbusinessprocessthat
flowswithinanorganizationorbetweenorganizations.BODsaredefinedbytheOpen
ApplicationsGroupusingXML.
BOL~BooksOnline~AbookstoreontheInternetcreatedasajointventureofGerman
publisherBertelsmannandFrenchpublisherHavas.Itisdesignedtobepan-European
withaWebsiteavailableinvariouslocallanguages.Âhttp://www.bol.com
BOM~BeginningofMessage~atelephonyterm.Ashortelectricalpulseprovidedbya
digitalannouncerwhenusedincertain4wireE&Mmodes.
BONDING~BandwidthonDemandInter-OperabilityGroup~Anindustryworking
groupthatdevelopscommoncontrolandsynchronizationstandardsneededtomanage
high-speeddataasittravelsthroughtheÂPSTN.ThesestandardsareforDS0inverse
multiplexingandswitchedservices.
boot~bootstrap~Tostartacomputerandloadtheoperatingsystemtopreparethe
computertoexecuteanapplication.
BOOTP~BootstrapProtocol~Aprotocol-definedinInternetEngineeringTaskForce
RequestforComment951-thatenablesadisklessclientmachineconnectedtoanIP
networktodiscoveritsownIPaddressandtheaddressofaserverrunningtheprotocol.
BOPS~BillionsofProcessesPerSecond~Processingspeed
BOT~beginningoftape~Intapestoragesystems,thepointatthestartofthetapeina
cartridge.TapecartridgeloadtimesareoftenmeasuredintermsofthetimetoBOT.
bot/botnet~robot(network)~generallyusedtorefertoanautomatedprogramusedto
processdatawithminimalhumanintervention.Mostoftenreferredtoascertaintypesof
searchenginesthatseekoutinformationfrompagesontheInternet.
BPA~BusinessProcessAnalysis~thebusiness-modelingspaceinwhichbusiness
professionalsandITanalystscollaborateonenterprisebusinessarchitecture,aimedat
transformingandimprovingbusinessperformance.
BPC~BusinessPlanningandConsolidation~SAPNetWeavercapabilities
BPDM~BusinessProcessDefinitionMetamodel~thefirststandardmetamodelto
facilitatedevelopmentofservice-orientedarchitectureswithinandamongenterprisesby
unifyinginternalbusinessordepartmentprocesses(orchestration)withinteractions
betweenbusinessesordepartments(choreography).
BPDU~BridgeProtocolDataUnit~partsoftheSTPthathelpdescribeandidentify
attributesofaswitchport.
BPEL~BusinessProcessExecutionLanguage~AnXML-basedlanguagefortheformal
specificationofbusinessprocessesandbusinessinteractionprotocols.
BPEL4WS~BusinessProcessExecutionLanguageforWebServices~Asetof
specificationsreleasedin2002byIBMandMicrosoft,combiningpreviouslyseparate
effortsofthetwocompanies.BPEL4WSisdesignedtoenableWebservicestosupport
workflowandbusinessprocessexecution.
bpi~bitsperinch~Thedensity,measuredinnumberofbitsperinch,atwhich
informationcanbestoredonmagnetictape.
BPL~broadbandoverpowerlines~Thisisatechnologythathasneveremerged
successfullyfrommanyattemptssincetheearly’80s.Itisadirectcompetitorwithboth
DSLandcableconnectivityandattemptsthesamecapabilityoverelectricaltransmission
lines.
BPM~businessprocessmanagement~BPMactivitiesseektomakebusinessprocesses
moreeffective,moreefficient,andmorecapableofadaptingtoanever-changing
environment.
BPON~BroadbandPassiveOpticalNetwork~BPONstandardsweresetbytheITU-Tas
G.983.3foralocallooptechnologyrunningtheATMprotocoloversinglemodefiber.
BPOS~BusinessProductivityOnlineStandardSuite~MicrosoftCloud-basedservices
BPP~BluetoothBasicPrinting~Representsaspecially-developedBluetoothprofilethat
allowsdevicestosendtext,e-mails,vCards,imagesorotheritemstoprintersbasedon
printjobs.
BPPM~BMCProactiveNetPerformanceManagement~BMC’sAPMsolutionincludes
bothrealandsynthetictransactioncapabilities,includingapassiveenduserexperience
agentdeployedasasofwareprocessorwithinaVMasavirtualappliance.
bps~BitsPerSecond~Bitspersecondisthestandardwayofmeasuringhowfastdata
movesacrossanetworkorphonesystem.Forexample,a56Kmodemcanhypothetically
transferdataat56,700bitspersecond.
BPV~BiPolarViolation~theoccurrenceoftwosuccessivepulsesofthesamepolarityin
abipolarsignal.InT1itisdetectedasanerror.
BRA~BasicRateAccess~ThenameusedinCanadaandEuropeforBasicRate
Interface(seeBRI).
BRAN~BroadbandRadioAccessNetworks~AnETSIproject,itprovides
telecommunicationsservicesthemiddlegroundbetweenmobilesystemsandthewired
accessworld
BRAS~BroadbandRemoteAccessServer~theaggregationpointforthesubscriber
traffic.
BRE~Businessruleengines~usedtoautomatecontrols,especiallywhenbusiness
processmanagementisimplementedtostandardizeandautomatecriticalregulated
processes.
BREW~BinaryRuntimeEnvironmentÂforWireless~mobilechanneltechnologiesfor
wireless
BRF~BenchmarkReportFormat~Incomputergraphics,astandardformatforreporting
benchmarkresults.Thisformatprovidesthepurchaserwithaconsistentdata-tracking
systemforcomparinghardwareplatforms.
BRI~BasicRateInterface~AnIntegratedServicesDigitalNetwork(ISDN)channel
configuration.BRI-knownasBasicRateAccess(BRA)inCanadaandEurope-consists
oftwo64kilobitpersecond(Kbps)dataorvoicechannels,whicharedesignatedasB
(bearer)channels,andone16-Kbpssignalingorpacketdatachannel,designatedastheD
(delta)channel.BRIis,therefore,oftenreferredtoas2B+D.
BROUTER~Bridge-Router~Thiswasanearlytechnology,whichtookadvantageofthe
(relative)speedofabridge,butalsoprovidedthecapabilitiesofarouter.Thebrouterwas
characterizedbytheterm,‘bridgewhenpossible,routewhennecessary.’
BRR~BusinessReadinessRating~aproposedratingsystemforusebyopensource
softwarecommunity.
BRZ~BipolarReturntoZero~RZisabipolarsignalinwhicheachpulsereturnstozero
amplitudebeforeitstimeperiodends.ThispreventsthebuildupofDCcurrentonthe
signalline.
BS7799~BritishStandard7799~AcomprehensivestandardfromtheBritishStandards
Institute(BSI).Formallytitledthe‘CodeofPracticeforInformationSecurity
Management,’BS7799wassignificantlyrevisedin2000andevolvedintoInternational
OrganizationforStandardization(ISO)standard17799
BSA~BusinessSoftwareAlliance~Asoftwareindustrycoalitionwhosestatedmissions
includeindustryeducationandcopyrightenforcement.
BSC~BalanceScoreCard~Abusinessperformancemeasurementsystemdevelopedby
RobertS.KaplanandDavidP.Norton,thatprovidesamethodofaligningbusiness
activitiestothestrategy,andmonitoringperformanceofstrategicgoalsovertime.
BSC~binarysynchronouscommunication~Adata-communicationlineprotocolthat
usesasetoftransmissioncontrolcharactersandcontrolcharactersequencestosend
binary-codeddataoveracommunicationline.
BSD~BerkeleySoftwareDistribution~theUNIXoperatingsystemderivativedeveloped
anddistributedbytheComputerSystemsResearchGroupoftheUniversityofCalifornia,
Berkeley,from1977to1995
BSDI~BerkeleySoftwareDesign,Inc.~acommercialsupplierofInternetand
networkingsoftwarebasedontheBSD(Berkeley)versionofUNIX.
BSE~BasicServiceElements~InOpenNetworkArchitecture,BSEsarefunctionsof
theswitchednetwork.ABSEnormallyconsistsofanaccesslinkelement,a
features/functionselement,oratransportandusageelementthatconnectsEnhanced
ServiceProviderstotheircustomers.
BSM~BusinessServiceManagement~acategoryofIToperationsmanagement
softwareproductsthatdynamicallylinkstheavailabilityandperformanceeventsfrom
underlyingITinfrastructureandapplicationcomponentstothebusiness-orientedIT
servicesthatenablebusinessprocesses.
BSNL~BharatSancharNigamLimited~astate-ownedtelecommunicationscompany
headquarteredinNewDelhi,India.BSNLisoneofthelargestIndiancellularservice
providersandthelargestlandlinetelephoneproviderinIndia.
BSoD~BlueScreenofDeath~TerminalerrorscreendisplayedbyMicrosoftWindows,
notnormallyrecoverableexceptbyareboot.AlsoknownasaStopScreen.Abluescreen
willdisplayaSTOPerrorcode,whichmaygivesomeindicationastothecause.
BSP~boardsupportpackage~Partofasoftwarepackagethatisprocessororplatform
dependent.Typically,samplesourcecodefortheBSPisprovidedbythepackage
developer.
BSS~Basicserviceset(Wi-Fi)~Wireless-IEEEStd802.11-2007
BSS~BaseStationSystem~Awirelesstelecommunicationsterm.AGSMdevice
chargedwithmanagingradiofrequencyresourcesandradiofrequencytransmissionfora
groupofBTSs.
BSSID~basicservicesetidentifier~uniquelyidentifieseachBSS,theSSIDusedin
multiple,possiblyoverlapping.
BST~binarysearchtree~atypeofbinarytreewherethenodesarearrangedinorder:for
eachnode,allelementsinitsleftsubtreeareless-or-equaltothenode(<=),andallthe
elementsinitsrightsubtreearegreaterthanthenode(>).
BT~BitTorrent~aP2Pfilesharingsystemthatreducesdependencyontheoriginalhost
(ortheSEED)byhavingeveryonewhodownloadsthefilealsoofferitforanonymous
uploadtoothers
BTAG~BeginningTag~AnATMterm.AoneoctetfieldoftheCPCS_PDUusedin
conjunctionwiththeetagoctettoformanassociationbetweenthebeginningofmessage
andendofmessage.
BTAM~BasicTelecommunicationsAccessMethod~alow-levelprogramminginterface
specifiedbyIBMforuseontheIBMSystem/360forsendingandreceivingdatathrough
telecommunicationlines
BTM~BenchmarkTimingMethodology~Incomputergraphics,amethodofmeasuring
howlongittakestorunthepurchaser’sbenchmarkinterchangeformatprogram.
BTO~Businesstechnologyoptimization~Businesstechnologyoptimization
BTS~BitsPerSecond~Indatacommunications,bitspersecond(abbreviatedbps)isa
commonmeasureofdataspeedforcomputermodemsandtransmissioncarriers.
BTW~ByTheWay~Computerjargon
BTX~BalancedTechnologyeXtended~ntelhascollaboratedwiththeDesktop
Computingindustrytocreateanevolutionarystepinthedesktopcomputerformfactor.
BTXintegratescost-effectiveengineeringanddesignstrategiesforpowerdissipation,
structuralintegrity,acousticperformance,andmotherboarddesignintoascalableform
factor.
BUS~BroadcastandUnknownServer~ThisserverhandlesdatasentbyanLEClientto
thebroadcastMACaddress(‘FFFFFFFFFFFF’),allmulticasttraffic,andinitialunicast
frameswhicharesentbyaLANEmulationClient.
BVD~BasicVirtualDisk~aÂVDÂconfiguredusingonlynon-hybridÂRAIDÂlevels
likeRAID-0,RAID5orRAID5E.Â
BW~bandwidth~Themeasureoftherangeoffrequencieswithinabandrequiredto
transmitaparticularsignal.Thewiderthebandwidth,themoreinformationitcancarry.
BYOD~bringyourowndevice~atypeofVoIPsubscription.Subscriberswhohavetheir
ownVoIPdevice(aSIP-capabledevice)whensigningupforaVoIPservicewillusually
beabletotakeadvantageofacheapersubscriptionplan
~C~
C&SI~consultingandsystemintegration~Consulting&SIjoborindustry
C/kT~carrier-to-receivernoisedensity~Insatellitecommunications,theratioofthe
receivedcarrierpowertothereceivernoisepowerdensity.
C++/CPP~CPlusPlus~Object-orientedprogramminglanguagebasedonC.Also,
filenameextension.
C2A~Click-to-Action~Amethodforimplementingcooperativeportlets,wherebyusers
canclickanicononasourceportlettotransferdatatooneormoretargetportlets.
C4S~command,control,communications,andcomputersystems~Integratedsystemsof
doctrine,procedures,organizationalstructures,personnel,equipment,facilities,and
communicationsdesignedtosupportacommander’sexerciseofcommandandcontrol,
throughallphasesoftheoperationalcontinuum.
C64/128~Commodore64/128~TheC64computertothisdayholdstherecordforbeing
themostsuccessfulmodelofcomputerevermadewitheventhelowestestimatesbeingin
thetensofmillions.Itsbigbrother,theC128,wasnotquiteaspopularbutstillsold
severalmillionunits.
CA~CertificateAuthority~atrustedthirdpartyusedtocreatedigitalcertificatesand
private/publickeypairsandtoguaranteethatthepartysigningadocumentistheperson
theyclaimtobe.
CaaS~CommunicationsasaService~Theutilizationofenterprise-class
communicationsapplicationsandtechnology(suchasIPtelephony,contactcenterservices
andunifiedcommunications)isofferedasaservice.
CAC~CallAdmissionControl~Theinspectionandcontrolallinboundandoutbound
voicenetworkactivitybyavoicefirewallbasedonuser-definedpolicies.
CAD/CAM~Computer-AidedDesign/Manufacturing~Alsoknownbyengineersand
architectsasthebestinventionofalltime.Today,CADsoftwareisusedfornearlyall
three-dimensionaldesigning.Designerscanturnanobjectintoanelectronicrepresentation
morequicklyandaccuratelythanbydiagramingitwithapencilandpaper.
CAI~CommonAirInterface~Astandardthatdefinestechnicalparametersforcontrol
andinformationsignalspassedbetweenaradiotransmitterandreceiver,sothat
communicationmaytakeplacebetweenequipmentmanufacturedbydifferentcompanies.
CAL~ClientAccessLicense~AMicrosoftsoftwarelicenseprogram.Thecostofclients
accessingspeciallylicensedservers.Therearetypicallytwomethodsoflicensingaccess
toaserveroraseparately-pricedservice.Thesewerepreviouslyknownas‘Per-serveror
per-seat.
CALEA~CommunicationsAssistanceforLawEnforcementAct~ThisisaU.S.legal
frameworkenablingtelephonecallinterceptionincertaincircumstances.Pleaserefer
toÂhttp://www.fcc.gov/calea/Âforfurtherdetails.
CAM~CapitalAssetManagement~OracleJDEdwardsEnterpriseOneEAMsolution
CAMA~centralizedautomaticmessageaccounting~Anautomaticmessageaccounting
systemthatservesmorethanoneswitchfromacentrallocation.
CAMEL~CustomizedApplicationforMobilenetworksEnhancedLogic~afeatureof
GSMthatallowsuserstoroambetweennetworks.CAMELisastandardthatisnow
startingtobedeployed.
CAN~CampusAreaNetwork~anetworkwhichinvolvesinterconnectivitybetween
buildingsinasetgeographicarea,suchasacampus,majorhospital,largecorporate
enterprise,industrialpark,orothersuchnon-publicaccessenvironment.
CAN-SPAM~ControllingtheAssaultofNon-SolicitedPornographyand~alawpassed
bytheU.S.Congressin2003(15U.S.C.7701)providingpenaltiesforsendingdeceptive
masse-mails.TheactrequiredtheFederalTradeCommissiontoinvestigatewhetheror
nottoestablishanationalDoNotE-mailregistry
CAP~carrierlessamplitudephasemodulation~Amultilevel,multiphaseencoding
methodfortransmittingdataovertwistedpairlines.Itisasupersetofthelegacyprotocol
usedbyanalogmodems.
CAPA~CAProductivityAccelerator~asetofinteractivefeaturesandfunctionstohelp
easetraining,navigation,useandprocessadoptionoftheproductonceitisliveandinuse
inthefield.
CAPE~concurrentart-to-productenvironment~Adesignapproachthatbringstogethera
varietyofsynergisticapplications,includingvisualization,rapidprototyping,analysis,
materialsselection,machiningandcostestimation.
CAPI~CommonApplicationProgramminginterface~APIstandardusedtoaccess
ISDNequipment,equipmentthatusetheintegratedservicesdigitalnetworkISDN
standardforthetransferofdataovertelephonelines.
caps~capitalletters~capitalletters
CAPTCHA~CompletelyAutomatedPublicTuringTesttotellComputersandHumans
Apart~achallenge-responsesystemtestdesignedtodifferentiatehumansfromautomated
programs.Âhttp://www.captcha.net/
CAR~committedaccessrate~Ametricusedinnetworkquality-of-serviceagreements
toclassifyandlimitcustomertrafficandmanageexcesstrafficaccordingtothenetwork
policy.
CARE~CustomerAccountRecordExchange~Nationalguidelinesfortheformatsand
languageusedinmechanizedexchangesofEqualAccess-relatedinformationbetween
InterexchangeCarriersandtelephonecompanies.
CAROT~CentralizedAutomaticReportingonTrunks~Amechanizedsystemfortesting
oftrunkstoensurethattrunksareaccessibletotraffic,functionproperlyduringcallsetup
andtermination,andprovideapropertransmissionpathduringacall.
CARP~CommonAddressRedundancyProtocol~Allowsmultiplehostsonthesame
localnetworktoshareasetofIPaddressesamongthem
CART~commandandresponsetoken~An8-bytetokenthatisaddedtowrite-tooperator(WTO)commands;itenablestheresponseWTOtobeassociatedwiththe
commandthatinvokedit.
CAS~centralizedattendantservices~Afunctionofausuallycentrallylocatedattendant
consolethatpermitsthecontrolofmultipleswitches,someofwhichmaybe
geographicallyremote.
CASE~computer-aidedsoftwareengineering~Anumbrellatermforacollectionof
applicationdevelopmenttoolsdesignedtoincreaseprogrammerproductivity.
CAT~Category(e.g.CAT-5cable)~Physicallayer-ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001
CAT~CommunicationsAuthorityofThailand~TheexclusiveoperatorofThailand’s
internationaltelecommunicationsservicestotherestoftheworld.Inadditionto
telecommunicationsservices,itprovidesdatacommunications,mobileandsatellite
services.
CATn~Categoryn~AsinCategory5(Cat5),5e(enhanced),6or6ecoppercabling
typicallyusedinbuildingstoconnectPCsandtelephonyhandsetstohubsorswitches.
Thecategoryindicatesaspecificgaugeofwiring.Â
CATI~computer-aidedtelephoneinterviewing~Technologyusedfacilitateinformation
gatheringviaphoneinterviews(forexample,forsurveypurposes).
CATIA~ComputerAidedThree-dimensionalInteractiveApplication~amulti-platform
CAD/CAM/CAEcommercialsoftwaresuitedevelopedbytheFrenchcompanyDassault
SystemesandmarketedworldwidebyIBM
CATP~CaffeineAccessTransportProtocol~Commonmethodofmovingcaffeine
acrossÂWideAreaNetworksÂsuchastheÂInternetÂ.CATPwasfirstusedatthe
BinaryCafeinCybertownandquicklyspreadworld-wide.
CATS~CallingCard&ThirdNumberSettlement~Antelephonecompanysystemfor
ICS(intercompanysettlements)processedthroughCMDS(CentralizedMessage
DistributionSystem).
CATV~communityantennatelevision(orCableTVsystem)~Commonlyknownas
‘cableTV.’Televisionsignalsarereceivedataselectedsiteandretransmittedto
subscribersviaacablenetwork.Additionalchannels,notnormallyavailableinthatarea,
canalsobetransmitted.
CAV~ConstantAngularVelocity~Amethodofreading(orwriting)datafrom(orto)a
spinningdisk.Asdataisreadfromthedisk,thedrivemotoralwaysspinsatthesame
speed.
cB~CBeautifier~Atoolfortidyingthesyntaxofsourcecode.
CBC~cipherblockchaining~Amethodofreducingrepetitivepatternsinciphertextby
performinganexclusive-ORoperationoneach8-byteblockofdatawiththepreviously
encrypted8-byteblockbeforeitisencrypted.
CBL~CompositeBlockingList~Takesitssourcedatafromverylargespamtraps/mail
infrastructures,andonlylistsIPsexhibitingcharacteristicswhicharespecifictoopen
proxiesofvarioussortswhichhavebeenabusedtosendspam,worms/virusesthatdotheir
ownmailtransmission
CBN~commonbondingnetwork~Thesetofmetalliccomponentsthatareintentionally
orincidentallyinterconnectedtoprovidetheprincipalmeansforeffectingbondingand
groundinginsideatelecommunicationsbuilding.
CBP~CertifedBiometricsÂ~IEEEprogramfocusesontherelevantknowledgeandÂ
CBQ~Class-BasedQueuing~ApublicdomainQoSmethodologyforclassifyingpackets
andqueuingthemaccordingtocriteriadefinedbyanadministratortoprovidedifferential
forwardingbehaviorforeachtrafficclass
CBR~constantbitrate~AnATMservicecategory,definedbytheATMForum,that
guaranteesaconstantbandwidthwithlowdelay,jitterandcellloss.Circuitemulationisa
typicalapplication.
cbrfiles~ComicBookArchive~CBRfilesrarredfilearchiveswiththeirextension
changedfrom.rarto.cbr
CBT~ComputerBasedTraining~Aformofeducationinwhichthestudentlearnsby
executingspecialtrainingprogramsonacomputer.UnlikeWeb-basedtrainingprograms,
CBTdoesnotrequireanInternetconnection.
CBWFQ~Class-BasedWeightedFairQueueing~ExtendsthestandardWFQ
functionalitytoprovidesupportforuser-definedtrafficclasses.ForCBWFQ,youdefine
trafficclassesbasedonmatchcriteriaincludingprotocols,ACLs,andinputinterfaces
cc~carboncopy~Anoptioninmoste-mailprograms,itallowsyoutosendduplicate
copiesofane-mailmessage.Whenyoutypearecipient’se-mailaddressintheccfield,it
isviewabletoeveryonewhoreceivesthee-mailmessage.
CC~closedcaptioning~Aservicethattransmitstextcaptionsforatelevisionprogram
andcanbedisplayedonanymoderntelevisionwithadisplaysizemeasuringgreaterthan
13inches(33cm)diagonally.
CCA~CitrixCertifiedAdministrator~EntrytomidlevelcertificationforIT
professionalswhowantto“demonstrateproductexpertiseonCitrixplatformproducts
CCAs~compositecontentapplications~casemanagementandfront-endaccessforfield
personneltocomplexback-endapplications
CCC~ClearChannelCapability~Acharacteristicofatransmissionpathinwhichthebit
positionallocatedforcustomerdatamayrepresentanycombinationofzerosandones..
AlsorefertoClearChannel
CCD~ChargeCoupledDevice~asolid-statechipcontainingaseriesoftiny,lightsensitivephotositesandwasoriginallydevelopedbyHoneywell.Theheartofall
electronicanddigitalcameras.
CCD+~CashConcentrationandDisbursementplusaddenda~Oneoftheprimary
messageformatsnecessaryforenterprise-initiatedpaymentstotraversetheU.S.national
banks’clearinghousesystem.Theformatislimitedtoasingleaddendumrecord(one
invoice,onepayment),andmanybankscanprocessit.
CCF~callcontrolfunction~Thenetworkintelligencethatprovidescall/connection
processingandcontrol.
CCH~connectionspercircuithour~Aunitoftrafficmeasurementexpressedasthe
numberofconnectionsestablishedataswitchingpointperhour.
CCHIT~CertificationCommissionforHealthInformationTechnology~Avoluntary,
privatesectororganizationlaunchedin2004tocertifyhealthinformationtechnology
(HIT)productssuchaselectronichealthrecordsandthenetworksoverwhichthey
interoperate.Âwww.cchit.org
CCI~controlledcryptographicitem~Securetelecommunicationsorinformation
handlingequipment,orassociatedcryptographiccomponent,thatisunclassifiedbut
governedbyaspecialsetofcontrolrequirements.
CCIE~CiscoCertifiedInternetworkExpert~CiscoCertifiedInternetworkExpert.
CCIR~ComiteConsultatifInternationaldesRadioCommunications~Abbreviationof
theFrenchnamefortheInternationalRadioCommunicationsConsultativeCommittee,
nowpartoftheÂITU.
CCIS~common-channelinterofficesignaling~Inmultichannelswitchednetworks,a
methodoftransmittingallsignalinginformationforagroupoftrunksbyencodingitand
transmittingitoveraseparatechannelusingtime-divisiondigitaltechniques.
CCITT~InternationalTelegraphandTelephoneConsultativeCommittee~French
acronymfortheinternationalstandardsorganization.PartoftheUnitedNationalITU.
CCITT(obs.)~StandardsorganizationthathasbeenreplacedbyITU-T~OrganizationITU-T
CCL~CommunicationsControlLanguage~afilethatdialersandbrowsersuseto
controlthemodemconnection.Thesefilesshouldnotbechangedexceptbythesupplied
editor.
CCNA~CiscoCertifiedNetworkAssociate~CiscoCertifiedNetworkAssociate
ccNSO~CountryCodeNamesSupportingOrganization~thepolicy-developmentbody
foranarrowrangeofglobalissuesregardingccTLDwithintheÂICANNÂstructure.
CCOW~ClinicalContextObjectWorkgroup~Agroupthatdefinesstandardsfor
collaborationamongapplicationsonclinicalworkstations.Originallyanindependent
consortium,CCOWisnowtechnicalcommitteeoftheÂHL7Âstandardsorganization.
CCP~CertifiedComputerProfessional~Theawardforsuccessfulcompletionofa
comprehensiveexaminationoncomputers.AlsoCertificateinComputerProgramming.
CCPM~CriticalChainProjectManagement~Leanmethodologyfordoingprojects
CCR~channelcommandretry~Inmainframecomputing,theprotocolusedbetweena
channelandacontrolunitthatenablesthecontrolunittorequestthatthechannelreissue
thecurrentcommand.
CCS~CentumCallSeconds~Onehundredcallsecondsoronehundredsecondsof
telephoneconversation.Onehouroftelephonetrafficisequalto36CCS(60x60=3600
dividedby100=36)whichisequaltooneerlang.
CCSA~commoncontrolswitchingarrangement~Anarrangementinwhichswitching
foraprivatenetworkisprovidedbyoneormorecommoncontrolswitchingsystems.
CCSE~CheckpointCertifiedSecurityExpert~CheckpointCertification.Stage2after
completingtheCCSA
ccTLD~countrycodeTop-LevelDomain~anInternettop-leveldomaingenerallyused
orreservedforacountryoradependentterritory.
CCTV~Closed-CircuitTelevision~Anetworkedcamerausedforsurveillance,process
monitoringandotherpurposes.
CD~CompactDisc~Anopticalformofstoragemedia,typicallyusedforaudioand
softwareprograms.
CDTable~change-datatable~InSQLreplication,areplicationtableontheCapture
controlserverthatcontainschangeddataforareplicationsourcetable.
CDB~capacitydatabase~capacitydatabase
CDC~calldatachannel~Thelogicallinkbetweenthedeviceperforminganelectronic
surveillanceaccessfunctionandtheLEA(lawenforcementagency)thatprimarilycarries
call-identifyinginformation.
CDDI~CopperDistributedDataInterface~AnAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute
specificationfortransmittingFDDIsignalsovercoppermedia.CDDIrunsonboth
shieldedandunshieldedtwisted-paircabling.
CDE~commondesktopenvironment~popularcommercialwindowmanager(andmuch
more—asitsnametouts,itismoreofadesktopenvironment)thatrunsunderXWindows.Freework-alikeversionsarealsoavailable.
CDF~ChannelDefinitionFormat~bAwayofdefiningtheserver-pushchannelsfor
accessingfrequentlychangingwebcontent.
CDFS~compactdiscfilesystem~ControlsaccesstothecontentsofCD-ROMdrives.
BasedontheISO9660Standard(butextendsittoallowlonganddouble-bytefilenames).
CDH~CustomerDataHub~OracleMDMproduct
CDI~clientdeviceidentification~softwaredetectingaccounttakeovers,newaccount
fraudande-commercefraud
CDMA~CodeDivisionMultipleAccess~Adigitalcellularphoneservicethatoffersup
to20timesmorecall-handlingcapacitythanconventionalcellularsystemsbyassigninga
specialelectroniccodetoeachsignal.
CDN~content-deliverynetwork~Anetworkspecializinginthedeliveryofstreaming
audioandvideo.
CDO~caredeliveryorganization~Acategoryofenterprisesthatusehealthcare
informationsystems.CDOsareorganizations,suchashospitalsandphysicianpractices,
whoseprimarymissionistodeliverhealthcare-relatedservices.
CDP~CiscoDiscoveryProtocol~UsedbyCiscoRouters
CDPD~CellularDigitalPacketData~Apacketdataprotocolstandardforsending
wirelessdata,itwasdevelopedforuseoncellularphonefrequencies.Ittransmitsdatain
packetsonunusedcellularchannels(inthe800MHzto900MHzrange).
CDR~calldetailrecording~Ameansofcapturingtelephonesysteminformationoncalls
madeforprocessingintomanagementreports.Capturedinformationincludeswhomade
thecall,whereitwentandwhattimeofdayitwasmade.
CD-R~CompactDisc-Recordable~atypeofCDthatcanberecordedbytheuser.CDRshavethesamecapacityandarereadableinthesamedrivesasordinaryCDs
CD-ROM~compactdiscread-onlymemory~AversionofthestandardCDintendedto
storegeneral-purposedigitaldata.CD-ROMscanstoreawidevarietyofdata,suchas
music,videoandgraphics.
CD-RW~Compactdisc-rewritable~ReplacingtheCD-ROMindesktopcomputersisthe
CD-RW,standingforCompactDiscRewritable.TheCD-RWletsyoucreatebackupfiles
ormakemusiccompilationsby‘writing’thefilesonthedisc.
CDS~CorrelatedDoubleSampling~Technologytocleantheimagesignalduring
scanning
CDT~C/C++DevelopmentTools~Eclipsesubprojectworkingtowardsprovidingafully
functionalCandC++IntegratedDevelopmentEnvironment(IDE)fortheEclipse
platform
CDV~CellDelayVariation~AQoSparameterthatmeasuresthedifferencebetweenthe
transferdelayofasinglecelltransferdelayandtheexpectedtransferdelay.
CErouter~Customeredgerouter~Arouterthatispartofacustomernetworkandthat
interfacestoaprovideredge(PE)router.
CEA~ConsumerElectronicsAssociation~CEAistheindustryauthorityonmarket
researchandforecasts;consumersurveys;legislativeandregulatorynews;engineering
standards;trainingresources.http://www.ce.org
CEAP~cloud-enabledapplicationplatforms~cloud-enabledapplicationplatforms
CEBP~communication-enabledbusinessprocess~keycapabilityofUCisthatitoffersa
methodtointegrateÂ
CeCILL~CEACNRSINRIALogicielLibre~FreeSoftwarelicenseadaptedtoboth
InternationalandFrenchlegalmatters,inthespiritofandretainingcompatibilitywiththe
GNUGeneralPublicLicense.
CEF~CiscoExpressForwarding~Advanced,Layer3IPswitchingtechnology.It
optimizesnetworkperformanceandscalabilityfornetworkswithlargeanddynamic
trafficpatterns
CEH~CertifiedEthicalHacker~CertificationinITsecurityissuedbyTheInternational
CouncilofElectronicCommerceConsultants(EC-Council)
CEI~CommonEventInfrastructure~TheimplementationofasetofAPIsand
infrastructureforthecreation,transmission,persistence,anddistributionofbusiness,
system,andnetworkCommonBaseEvents.
CEIM~CommonEnterpriseInformationModel~theabilitytodefineactionsand
executeprocessesrightfromBImetadata
CELL/B.E.~CellBroadbandEngine~Abreakthroughmicroprocessorwithunique
capabilitiesforapplicationsrequiringvideo,3Dgraphics,orhigh-performance
computationforimaging,security,visualization,healthcare,surveillance,andmore.
cellphone~CellularTelephone~Amobile,wirelesstelephonethatcommunicateswitha
localtransmitterusingashort-waveanalogordigitaltransmission.
CELP~code-excitedlinearprediction~Ananalog-to-digitalvoicecodingscheme.
CEM~customerexperiencemanagement~Aligningexecutiveinvolvement,operational
processes,organizationalstructure,andtechnologyinfrastructuretostimulate,anticipate,
andsatisfycustomerneeds.
CEMF~CiscoElementManagementFramework~Collectsfaultinformationfrom
varioussources.Networkelements,suchasroutersorswitches,mayreportfaultconditions
asSNMPtraps,Syslogmessages
CEP~complexeventprocessing~Sofwareinfrastructurethatcandetectpatternsof
events(andexpectedeventsthatdidn’toccur)byfltering,correlating,contextualizing,
andanalyzingdatacapturedfromdisparatelivedatasourcestorespondasdefnedusing
theplatform’sdevelopmenttools.
CEPS~CommonElectronicPurseStandard~AstandardendorsedbyVisaandAmerican
Expressforelectronicpurse(e-purse)orstored-valueapplicationsonsmartcards.
CER~CorporateErrorReporting~ToolthatallowsITAdministratorstomanageerror
reportsanderrormessagescreatedbytheWindowsErrorReportingclient(WER)in
WindowsXPandWindowsServer2003
CERN~ConseilEuropeenpourlaRechercheNucleaire~Theoriginal,Frenchnameof
theEuropeanOrganizationforNuclearResearch,headquarteredinGeneva,Switzerland.
AnuclearresearchlaboratorywheretheWorldWideWebwasinvented.
CERT~ComputerEmergencyResponseTeam~Agroupformedin1998bytheU.S.
DefenseAdvancedResearchProjectsAgency
CES~CharacterEncodingScheme~AÂCESischaracterencodingformÂplusbyte
serialization.TherearesevencharacterencodingschemesinUnicode:UTF-8,UTF-16,
UTF-16BE,UTF-16LE,UTF-32,UTF-32BE,andUTF-32LE.
CES~ConsumerElectronicsShow~CESisamajortechnology-relatedtradeshowheld
eachJanuaryintheLasVegasConventionCenter.Âhttp://cesweb.org/
CESID~caller’semergencyserviceidentification~Thenumberusedtoidentifythe
callingterminalwithinthecontextoftheemergencyservicecall.
CEVA~content-enabledverticalapplication~CEVAstypicallyhelptoautomate
complexprocessesthatpreviouslyrequiredworkerstosortthroughpaperdocumentsand
otherformsofcontentmanually.
CF~CompactFlash~averysmallremovablemassstoragedevice.Firstintroducedin
1994bySanDiskCorporation,CFmemoryCardsweighahalfounceandarethesizeofa
matchbook.CFmemoryCardistheworld’smostpopularremovablemassstoragedevice.
CFA~CircuitFacilityAssignment~AllowsWholesaleAccesscustomerstovalidatethe
DS1/DS3atsystemandchannelLevels.
CFA~ColorFilterArray~Indigitalimaging,CFAsassignaseparateprimarycolorto
eachpixelbyplacingafilterofthatcoloroverthepixel
CFB~Ciphertextfeedback~amodeofoperationforablockcipher.Incontrasttothe
CBCmode,whichencryptsasetnumberofbitsofplaintextatatime,itisattimes
desirabletoencryptandtransfersomeplaintextvaluesinstantlyoneatatime,forwhich
ciphertextfeedbackisamethod.
CFM~CodeFragmentManager~thelibrarymanagerandcodeloaderforprocesses
basedonPEF(PreferredExecutableFormat)objectfiles(inCarbon).
CFM~CubicFeetperMinute~Ameasureofairflow,andyoucanuseittocomparethe
efficiencyoffansdesignedtocoolcomputersorcomputercomponents.
CfMD~CertifiedforMicrosoftDynamics~alabelforadd-onproductsthatISVhave
builttoexpandthefunctionalityofDynamics
CFMN~ClientForMicrosoftNetworks~32-bit,protected-modenetworkclientfor
Windows9xthatprovidestheredirectorandothersoftwarecomponentsforMicrosoft
networking
CFV~CallForVotes~InitiatesthevotingperiodforaUsenetnewsgroup.Atleastone
emailaddressiscustomarilyincludedasarepositoryforthevotes.
CG~ComputerGraphics~graphicscreatedusingcomputersand,moregenerally,the
representationandmanipulationofpictorialdatabyacomputer.
CGA~ColourGraphicsAdaptor~Acomputerstandardusingdigitalsignalsofferinga
resolutionof320by200pixels,aÂpaletteof16colors.
CGI~CommonGatewayInterface~asetofrulesforrunningscriptsorprogramsona
Webserver.WhenyousubmitinformationtoaWebserver,there’sagoodchancethatthe
serverisusingaCGIscripttoreceiveandprocessthedata.
CGI~ConseillersenGestionetInformatique(french)~InformationSystemsand
ManagementConsultants’inEnglish,ITmanagementandbusinessprocessservices(BPS)
company.Foundedin1976andheadquarteredinMontreal,CanadaÂwww.cgi.com
CGM~Consumer-generatedmedia~anywritten,audioorvideocontentcreatedbyend
users,usingbasicorsemiprofessionaltools.
CGMP~CiscoGroupMulticastProtocol~AformofIGMPsnoopingthatletstheswitch
sendmulticastsonlytotheportsonaVLANthatareparticipatinginthemulticast
C-GREX~ChaosGameRepresentationExplorer~ahandyBioinformaticstoolfor
exploringthesequencevisualizationandpatternanalysisofbiologicalsequences
includingRNA,DNAandaminoacidsequences.
CHAP~Challenge-HandshakeAuthenticationProtocol(PPP)~Security,telecom-RFC
1994
CHAP~ChallengeHandshakeAuthenticationProtocol~Asecurityprotocolusedbya
servertograntordenysystemaccessbasedonaclient-suppliedpassword,whichis
encryptedpriortotransmission.
Charset~characterset~AsetofcharactersusedinWindows.Charsetsrefertothesame
collectionsofcharactersasthosedefinedbyWindowscodepages.
chat~conversationalhypertextaccesstechnology~Aformofinteractiveonline
typewrittencommunicationthatallowsparticipants(‘members’)toengageintextmessageconferencing,viareal-timecomputernetworkingoverdesignated
communicationsfacilities
CHIPS~ClearingHouseInterbankPaymentsSystem~Aclearingsystemthatprocesses
verylargepayments(valuedatanaverageof$1.4trillionaday)inmorethan27countries.
ChR~channelreliability~Thepercentageoftimeachannelwasavailableforuseina
specifiedperiodofscheduledavailability
cHTML~CompactHypertextMarkupLanguage~Aproprietaryversion
ofÂHTMLÂadoptedbyNTTDoCoMofori-mode.
CIA~confidentiality,integrity,andavailability~InfoSecdimensions.
CIC~circuitidentificationcode~A12-bitnumberthatidentifiesatrunkandchannelon
whichacalliscarried.
CICS~CustomerInformationControlSystem~AsoftwareprogramdesignedtoÂOLTP,
itwasdevelopedbyIBM.Itisoneofthemostwidelyusedprogramsforcreating
customertransactionsystems.
CIDR~ClasslessInter-DomainRouting~Architecture-RFC1518RFC1519
CIDR~ClasslessInternetDomainRouting~Aprotocolthatallowsforvariable-length
addressesthatallowsformore-andless-specificroutinginformation.Thisreplacestheold
classA,classB,classCroutingscheme.
CIE~CommissionInternationaledel’Eclairage~Anorganizationthathasestablisheda
numberofwidely-usedcolordefinitions.www.cie.co.at
CIFS~CommonInternetFileSystem~thefilesharingprotocolthatformsthebasisof
MicrosoftWindowsnetworking.FormerlyknownasSMB(ServerMessageBlock),itis
alsosupportedbyUNIXandLinuxsystemsusingtheSambasoftwarepackage.
CIK~crypto-ignitionkey~deviceorelectronickeyusedtounlockthesecuremodeof
crypto-equipment.
CIM~CommonInformationModel~Providesacommondefinitionofmanagement
informationforsystems,networks,applicationsandservices,andallowsforvendor
extensions
CINDER~CyberInsiderThreat~programsolicitingfromoutsidersnoveltechniquesto
insider-threatdetection
CIO~chiefinformationofficer~ThetopexecutiveinchargeofITinanenterprise.
CIP~CommonIndustrialProtocol~anopenindustrialprotocolforindustrialautomation
applications.
CIPA~Children’sInternetProtectionAct~alawpassedbyCongressin2000(47
USC254)requiringlibrariestouseblockingprogramstopreventaccesstoInternetsites
withobjectionablecontent
CIR~CommittedInformationRate(FrameRelay)~Telecom-RFC1490RFC1973
RFC2427
CiR~circuitreliability~Thepercentageoftimeacircuitwasavailableforuseina
specifiedperiodofscheduledavailability.
CIR~committedinformationrate~Theaveragedataratethatacarriercommitsto
supportoveragivenvirtualcircuitbetweentwoend-usersites.Thecommitmentisovera
specifiedperiodoftime,typicallyonemonth.
CIS~clinicalinformationsystem~Asystemusedbyphysicians,nurses,
anesthesiologiststodeveloppatientcareplans,documentcareandinterventions,monitor
andrecordpatientvitalsigns,manageordersandresults,documentmedication
administration,andmeasurepatientoutcomes.
CISC~ComplexInstructionSetComputer~acomputerwithmanydifferentmachine
languageinstructions.TheIBMPC,68000-based
CISO~chiefinformationsecurityofficer~Thechiefexecutiveresponsiblefor
informationsecurityinanenterprise.TheCISO’sresponsibilitiesoftenbridgethegap
betweentechnicalsecuritymeasuresandsecurity-relatedbusinesspracticesandpolicies.
CISSP~CertifiedInformationSystemsSecurityProfessional~Acertificationprogram
administeredbytheInternationalInformationSystemsSecurityCertificationConsortium
CIX~CommercialInternetExchange~Anagreeementamongnetworkprovidersthat
allowsthemtodoaccountingforcommercialtraffic.Itisprimarilyaconcernfornetwork
providers.
CJK/CJKV~Chinese,Japanese,andKorean(Vietnamese)~AreferencetoChinese,
Japanese,andKoreanlanguages.Sometimesa“V�forVietnameseisaddedtothe
acronym.
CKD~countkeydata~Inmainframecomputing,adata-recordformatemployingselfdefiningrecordformats
CKO~chiefknowledgeofficer~Theenterprisepositionresponsibleforarticulatingand
championinganenterprise’sknowledgemanagement(KM)vision,andforproviding
enterpriselevelleadershipforimplementingandmanagingtheKMprogram
CLA~CorporateLicenseAgreement~AlicensingagreementoptionunderNovell’s
‘CustomerConnections’program.Itoffersanalternativeformidsizeorganizationsthat
cannotqualifyforNovell’sMasterLicenseAgreement.
CLASS~CustomLocalAreaSignalingServices~Agenerictermdescribingseveral
localserviceofferingssuchasincoming-callidentification,calltrace,callblocking,
automaticreturnofthemostrecentincomingcall,automaticre-dial,selectivecall
forwarding,etc.
CLEC~CompetitiveLocalExchangeCarrier~Atelephonecompanythatcompeteswith
otherlocalphonecompanieswithinanexchange,orcallingarea,toprovidelocal
telephoneservice
CLI~Commandlineinterpreter~Hardware-Catalyst6500SeriesCommandReference,
7.6,forexample
CLI~CallLevelInterface~AnAPIfordatabaseaccessthatprovidesastandardsetof
functionstoprocessSQLstatements,XQueryexpressions,andrelatedservicesatrun
time.
CLI~CallingLineIdentification~Amechanismwherebythenumberoriginatinga
telephonecallispassedalongwiththecall.Theinformationallowsthecalledpartyto
knowwhoiscalling.Insomecasescallerscanwithholddisplayoftheirnumbers.
CLI~commandlineinterface~Auserinterfacetoanoperatingsystemorapplicationin
whichtheusertypesinstructionsat‘commandline’promptdisplayedonthescreen.
CLIPS~CLanguageIntegratedProductionSystem~Productivedevelopmentand
deliveryexpertsystemtoolwhichprovidesacompleteenvironmentfortheconstructionof
ruleand/orobjectbasedexpertsystems
CLLI~CommonLanguageLocationIdentifier~11-charactercodethatidentifiesthe
wirecenterfromwhichacalloriginated.
CLM~Contractlifecyclemanagement~anintegral,backoffcetechnologyinmanylife
sciencesegments,includingmanaged-careandpayerorganizations.
CLNP~ConnectionLessNetworkProtocol~TheInternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization’sÂOSIÂprotocolforprovidingtheOSIConnectionlessNetworkService
(datagramservice).
CLOB~characterlargeobject~Adatatypethatcontainsasequenceofcharacters
(single-byte,multibyte,orboth)thatcanrangeinsizefrom0bytesto2gigabytesless1
byte.
CLR~CellLossRatio~AÂQoSÂparameterthatgivestheratioofthelostcellstothe
totalnumberoftransmittedcells.
CLR~commonlanguageruntime~Theruntimeinterpreterforall.NETFramework
applications.
CLTP~ConnectionLessTransportProtocol~Providesforend-to-endTransportdata
addressing(viaTransportselector)anderrorcontrol(viachecksum),butcannotguarantee
deliveryorprovideflowcontrol.
CLUSRCVR~cluster-receiverchannel~Achannelonwhichaclusterqueuemanager
canreceivemessagesfromotherqueuemanagersinthecluster,andclusterinformation
fromtherepositoryqueuemanagers.
CLUSSDR~cluster-senderchannel~Achannelonwhichaclusterqueuemanagercan
sendmessagestootherqueuemanagersinthecluster,andclusterinformationtothe
repositoryqueuemanagers.
CLUT~ColorLookUpTable~Thecoloroptionsinagraphicssystem,arrangedbyindex
number.Typically,thesystemhasadefaultcolormap.Theindexofcolorsinthecolor
mapcanbereallocated,however,dependingontheapplication.
CLV~ConstantLinearVelocity~Atechnologywhichrevolvesaround(nopunintended)
rotatingadiskatvaryingspeeds.Bychangingrotationspeeddependingonwhichtrackis
beingaccessed,thedensityofbitsineachtrackcanbemadeuniform.
CMA~CircularMilArea~Aunitofareaequaltotheareaofacirclewhosediameteris1
mil(0.001inch).Usedchieflyinspecifyingcross-sectionalareasofconductors.
CMC~computer-mediatedcommunication~humancommunicationviacomputersand
includesmanydifferentformsofsynchronous,asynchronousorreal-timeinteractionthat
humanshavewitheachotherusingcomputersastoolstoexchangetext,images,audioand
video.
CMDB~configurationmanagementdatabase~CMDBisadatabasethatcontainsall
relevantinformationaboutthecomponentsoftheinformationsystemusedinan
organization’sITservicesandtherelationshipsbetweenthosecomponents.
CME~CommonMalwareEnumeration~CMEnumberisaunique,vendor-neutral
identifierforaparticularthreat.TheCMEinitiativeisaneffortheadedbytheUnited
StatesComputerEmergencyReadinessTeam(US-CERT),incollaborationwithkey
organizationswithinthesecuritycommunity.
CMIP~CommonManagementInformationProtocol~TheInternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization’sÂOSIÂnetworkmanagementprotocol.
CMIS~commonmanagementinformationservice~InOSI,thesetofservicesdefined
byISO9595.Thecommonmanagementinformationserviceisusedbyagentprocesses
andmanagingprocessestocommunicate.
CMIS~ContentManagementInteroperabilityServices~APIsupportforinteroperability
CMM~CapabilityMaturityModel~Strategyforimprovingthesoftwareprocess,
irrespectiveoftheactuallife-cyclemodelused
CMOS~complementarymetal-oxidesemiconductor~atypeofintegratedcircuitnoted
foritsextremelylowpowerconsumptionanditsvulnerabilitytodamagefromstatic
electricity.CMOSdevicesareusedindigitalwatches,pocketcalculators,
microprocessors,andcomputermemories.
CMOT~CMipOverTcp~AnefforttousetheInternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization’sÂOSIÂnetworkmanagementprotocoltomanageÂTCP/IPÂnetworks.
CMRR~common-moderejectionratio~Theratioofthecommon-modeinterference
voltageattheinputofacircuit,tothecorrespondinginterferencevoltageattheoutput.
CMRS~CommercialMobileRadioService~Aradiocommunicationservicebetween
mobilestationsorreceiversandlandstations,orbymobilestationscommunicatingamong
themselves,thatisprovidedforprofit,andthatmakesinterconnectedserviceavailableto
thepublic.
CMS~Colormanagementsystem~Thisensurescoloruniformityacrossinputand
outputdevicessothatfinalprintedresultsmatchoriginals.Thecharacteristicsorprofiles
ofdevicesarenormallyestablishedbyreferencetostandardcolortargets.
CMS~contentmanagementsystem~awebapplicationdesignedtomakeiteasyfornontechnicaluserstoadd,editandÂmanageÂawebsite.
CMTS~cablemodemterminationsystem~asystemofdeviceslocatedinthecable
head-endthatallowscabletelevisionoperatorstoofferhigh-speedInternetaccesstohome
computers.
CNA~ConvergedNetworkAdapter~atechnologythatsupportsdatanetworking
(TCP/IP)andstoragenetworking(FibreChannel)trafficonasingleI/Oadapter.
CNAM~CallerIDWithName~CallerIDWithName
CNAME~Canonicalname~Ahost’sofficialnameasopposedtoanalias.Theofficial
nameisthefirsthostnamelistedforitsInternetaddressinthehostnamedatabase.
CNE~CertifiedNovellEngineer(alsoCertifiedNetworkEngineer)~Acertification
initiatedbyÂNovellÂtoqualifycertainindividualsthathavedemonstratedhighstandards
ofknowledgeintheareasofhardwareusedinandsoftwareconfigurationoftheNovell
Networkoperatingsystem.
CNGI~China’sNextGenerationInternet~Chinese:ä¸​国下一代互è?”网,afive
yearplaninitiatedbytheChinesegovernmentwiththepurposeofgainingasignificant
positioninthefuturedevelopmentoftheInternetthroughtheearlyadoptionofIPv6.
CNN~CableNewsNetwork~CableNewsNetwork(CNN)isaU.S.cablenewschannel
foundedin1980byTedTurner.http://www.cnn.com/
CNN~compositenetworknode~Atype5nodeanditssubordinatetype4nodesthat
supportAPPNnetworknodeprotocolsandappeartoanattachedAPPNorLENnodeasa
singlenetworknode.
CNR~CarriertoNoiseRatio~Anindicationofthequalityofthemodulatedsignal.
CNR~combat-netradio~Aradiooperatinginanetworkthat(a)providesahalf-duplex
circuitand(b)useseitherasingleradiofrequencyoradiscretesetofradiofrequencies
wheninafrequencyhoppingmode.
CO~centraloffice~Thetelephonecompany’scentralizedswitchingfacility,where
subscriberloopsterminate.TheCOhandlesaspecificgeographicalarea(knownasalocal
exchange),identifiedbythefirst‘n’digitsofthelocalelephonenumber.
CoA~CareOfAddress~TemporaryIPAddressusedbyamobileuserwhenroaming
ontoaforeignIPnetwork.ItisusedwithinmobileIPandcaneitherbeleasedfromthe
HA(HomeAgent)orFA(ForeignAgent)
COAM~customerownedandmaintained~Userprovidedandservicedcommunications
equipmentanditsassociatedwiring.Â
coax~coaxial(cable)~Cableconsistingofahollowoutercylindricalconductorthat
surroundsasingleinnerwireconductor.
COBIT~ControlObjectivesforInformationandrelatedTechnologies~acomprehensive
approachtogoodITpractices.Initsthirdrevision,itoffersawiderangeoftools,
guidelines,standardsandacontrolframeworkforthemanagementofinformation
technologies.
COBOL~CommonBusinessOrientatedLanguage~Manymainframecomputer
applicationswereoncewritteninthisprogramminglanguage.
COCOMO~COnstructiveCOstMOdel~Atechniqueforestimatingtheeffortand
durationofasoftwareprojectbasedonitsestimatedsizecreatedbyBarryBoehm
COD~CallofDuty~CallofDutyisafirst-personandthird-personshootervideogame
series.http://www.callofduty.com/
COD~confirmondelivery~AfeatureofWebSphereMQthatallowsanotificationtobe
senttoasourceapplicationwheneveratargetapplicationreceivesamessagefromthe
sourceapplication.
COD~ConnectionOrientedData~Datarequiringsequentialdeliveryofitscomponent
PDUstoassurecorrectfunctioningofitssupportedapplication,(e.g.,voiceorvideo).
CoDA~ContextDeliveryArchitecture~anarchitecturalstyleofbusinesssoftwarethat
buildsonSOAandevent-drivenarchitecture(EDA)interactionandpartitioningstyles,
andthataddsformalmechanismsforthesoftwareelementstodiscoverandapplytheir
contextinrealtime.
CODEC~coder/decoderorcompressor-decompressor~Acommunicationsdeviceused
toconvertanalogsignalstodigitalformfortransmissionoveradigitalmedium,andback
againtotheoriginalanalogform.Acodecisrequiredateachendofthechannel.
COE~ComponentObjectmodEl~thefundamentalclassofMicrosoft’sattemptto
defusethegrowthofJavaplatform-independentcode.
COEs~centersofexcellence~softwaremanagementconcept
COIN~CommunityOfInterestNetwork~ACOINprovidesawayofgivingmembersof
ashared-interestcommunityaccesstoprivilegedinformation.
COLD~computeroutputtolaserdisc~Amicrofichereplacementsystem.COLD
systemsoffereconomiesasareplacementmediumwhenrapidorfrequentaccessto
archiveddocumentsisnecessary.
colo~co-location~Puttingawebserverinadedicatedfacilitythatprovideshigh-speed
Internetconnection,security,environment,backuppower,andtechnicalsupport.ÂUnlike
thededicatedserver,theclientcontrolsbothhardwareandsoftware.ÂÂ
COM~communicationsport~Aportthatallowsanapplicationtoaccessamodem.
COM~ComponentObjectModel~AspecificationthatMicrosoftdevelopedforbuilding
softwarecomponentsthatcanbeassembledintoprogramsorthataddfunctionalityto
existingprogramsrunningonMicrosoftWindowsplatforms.
COM~computeroutputtomicrofiche~Asystem(alsocalled‘computeroutputto
microfilm’)inwhichdigitaldataisconvertedintoanimageondry-processedmicrofilm.
com(.com)~commercial~Oneofseveraltop-leveldomainsassignedtoURLsthatare
ofacommercialnature.Otherdomainsuffixesinclude.ac,.co,.mil,.gov,.net,.org,anda
longlistofcountrycodes.
COMDEX~ComputerDealersExpo~Ahardwareandsoftwareexpositionstartedin
1978,ithasbecometheplacetoannouncenewproductlaunchesandtorubelbowswith
VCsandrepresentativesfromhigh-techfirmsallovertheworld.InAmerica,ittakes
placetwiceayear.
COMPAQ~COMPatibiltyAndQuality~Usedtorefertothefactthattheircomputers
werebothIBMPCcompatibleandveryreliable.In2002,CompaqmergedwithHewlettPackard.
COMPARE~ComplianceProgressandReadiness~AscaleintroducedbyGartnerin
1997toassistbusinessunits,enterprisesorbusinesspartnersinmeasuringtheirprogress
towardyear2000compliance.
COMSAT~CommunicationsSatelliteCorporation~AUnitedStatescompanycreated
byanactofCongressin1962toprovidecommunicationsviasatellites.COMSATleases
satellitecircuitstomanyAmericancompanies.
COOL~C++ObjectOrientedLanguage~AMicrosoftapplicationdevelopmenttool
initiativeandlanguage;apredecessortoC#.
COOP~ContinuityofOperationsPlan~outlinesstepsthatanagencywilltakeinthe
eventadisasterinterruptsbusiness.Â
COPPA~Children’sOnlinePrivacyProtectionAct~LegislationpassedbytheU.S.
Congressin1998prohibitingtheuseofunfairordeceptivepracticestogatherpersonal
informationaboutindividualsundertheageof13.
COPS~CommonOpenPolicyService~AnIETFproposedstandarddefiningasimple
protocolforprovisioningQoSbyoutsourcingpolicy-basedadmissioncontrolover
requestsfornetworkresources
COPS~CommunicationsOutsourcingandProfessionalServices~ITservicesinsupport
ofenterprisecommunicationsandconnectivityincludemaintenanceandsupport,
consulting,applicationdevelopment,integrationandongoingmanagementofITand
relatedbusinessprocesses.
COR~centraloutdoorrouter~thecentralrouterinamulti-deviceWLAN.
CORBA~CommonObjectRequestBrokerArchitecture~astandardAPIfordistributed
objectcommunication.CORBAwascreatedbytheObjectManagementGroup.Itisthe
mostwidelyuseddistributedobjectstandardforconnectingoperatingsystemplatforms
frommultiplevendors.ÂHTTP://WWW.OMG.ORG.
CORE~COMPAREOperationalReadinessEvaluation~Gartner’sCORErisk
assessmentandreportingstepsareusedtodefinebusinessoperationalrisks,toreportrisks
tomanagement,investors,regulatorsandcustomersinaconsistentform,andtodetermine
whencontingencyandrecoverystrategiesarerequired.
CORS~ContinuouslyOperatingReferenceStation~networkmanagedbytheU.S.ofce
ofNationalOceanService(NOAA)toprovideGNSSdataconsistingofcarrierphase
measurementsthroughouttheUnitedStates.
CoS~classofservice~Aclassificationmethodforproviderstodeliverdifferentlevelsof
QOS.Providerswilltypicallyofferanumberofclassesfordifferenttypesoftraffic,such
asdifferentCOSforvoice,videoanddata.
COS~CloudOptimizedStorage~EMC’scloudplatformAtmos
COTS~commercialoff-the-shelf~Descriptivetermforsoftwarethatcanbepurchased
fromanexternalsupplier,asopposedtothatwhichisdevelopedwithintheenterprise.
COW~Copy-On-Write~Partofasnapshot,andkeepstrackofdiskchangessincethe
snapshotwastaken.
CPA~CostPerAction~forbannerads;thefeechargedeverytimeausercompletesa
desiredaction,suchasfillingoutaform,downloadingsoftware,orviewingaseriesof
pages.
CPAN~ComprehensivePerlArchiveNetwork~anarchiveofover16,000modulesof
softwarewritteninPerl,aswellasdocumentationforit
cPanel~controlpanel~industrystandardwebhostingcontrolpanel,cPanelprovidesa
GraphicalUserInterface(GUI)formanyLinuxsystemadministrationtasks.
CPC~CallingPartyControl~Ashortbreakinthelinecurrentinthecalledparty’s
phonelinewhenthecallingpartyhangsup;notthesameasFLASH.
CPC~CostPerClick~Termusedbyaffiliateprogramsindicatingapaymentrateper
advertisementclick.orPayPerClick
CPE~Customerpremisesequipment~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
CPE~customerpremisesequipment~Anytelephoneapparatus,includingtelephone
handsets,PBXswitchingequipment,keyandhybridtelephonesystems,andadd-on
devices,thatisphysicallylocatedonacustomer’sproperty.
CPF~CloudProvisioningFabric~portabilitybetweendifferentclouds
cpi~charactersperinch~Thenumberofcharactersprintedhorizontallywithinaninch
acrossapage.
CPLD~ComplexProgrammableLogicDevice~AtypicalCPLDistheequivalentoftwo
to64SPLDs.ACPLDtypicallycontainsfromtenstoafewhundredmacrocells.
CPM~corporateperformancemanagement~CPMincludestheprocessesusedto
managecorporateperformance,suchasstrategyformulation,budgetingandforecasting;
themethodologiesthatdrivesomeprocesses,includingthebalancedscorecard,orvaluebasedmanagement.
CPN~callingpartynumber~Asetofdigitsandrelatedindicators(typeofnumber,
numbering,planidentification,screeningindicator,presentationindicator)thatprovide
numberinginformationrelatedtothecallingparty.
CPNI~CustomerProprietaryNetworkInformation~Informationwhichisavailabletoa
telephonecompanybyvirtueofthetelephonecompany’sbasicservicecustomer
relationship.
CPOE~ComputerizedProviderOrderEntry~acomputerapplicationthatallowsa
physician’sordersfordiagnosticandtreatmentservices(suchasmedications,laboratory,
andothertests)tobeenteredelectronicallyinsteadofbeingrecordedonordersheetsor
prescriptionpads.
CPRM~ContentProtectionforRemovableMedia~ahardware-basedtechnology
designedtoenforcecopyprotectionrestrictionsthroughbuilt-inmechanismsinstorage
mediathatwouldpreventunauthorizedfilecopying.
cps~CharactersPerSecond~Printingenginespeed
CPS~ContinuousProtectionServer~Backupexecoptionallowsadministratorsto
continuouslycaptureandbackupdatachangestoallowadministratorstorestoredatato
anypointintime
CPU~CentralprocessingUnit~Microprocessor-Wikipedia
CPU~CallPickUp~CPUisPABXphonesystemsterm
CPU~CentralProcessingUnit~TheCPUcontrolsthecomputer,runsalltheprograms
onthecomputerandprocessesallofthedataandcanbethoughtofasthe‘brain’ofthe
computer.
CPU~CriticalPatchUpdate~CPUisOraclepatchterm
CRACK~Challenge/ResponseAuthenticationofCryptographicKey~aprotocolforthe
secureexchangeofkeys,usedbyÂNokiaÂprimarily.
CRC~Cyclicalredundancycheck~Linkandotherlayers-24Referenceshere.
CRC~CyclicRedundancyCheck~Anerrorcheckinwhichthecheckkeyisgenerated
byacyclicalgorithm
CRC-16-CCITT~Cyclicalredundancycheck(X.25,HDLC)~Linklayers-Reference
onCRCpage.
CRL~certificaterevocationlist~Alistofcertificatesthathavebeenrevokedbeforetheir
scheduledexpirationdate.Certificaterevocationlistsaremaintainedbythecertificate
authorityandused,duringaSSLhandshaketoensurethatthecertificatesinvolvedhave
notbeenrevoked.
CRLF~carriagereturn,linefeed~apairofASCIIcodes,13and10,thattellaterminal
orprintertoreturntothebeginningofthelineandadvancetothenextline.
CRM~CustomerRelationshipManagement~CRMreferstosolutionsandstrategiesfor
managingbusinesses’relationshipswithcustomers.WiththeadventofWebretailing,
companieshavefoundithardtodeveloprelationshipswithcustomerssincetheecommerceinterfaceissoimpersonal.
CRMB~CustomerReferenceMaterialDatabase~IBMterm
cROI~companywideROI~Theincrementalcashflow—costsavingsandrevenues—
generatedbyonlineretailtechnologythroughoutamultichannelcompany.
CRR~ContinuousRemoteReplication~ContinuousRemoteReplication
CRT~CathodeRayTube~CRTisthetechnologyusedintraditionalcomputermonitors
andtelevisions.TheimageonaCRTdisplayiscreatedbyfiringelectronsfromtheback
ofthetube
CRUD~Create,Read,Update,Delete~Usedtodescribeaccessrightsfordata.
crypto~Cryptography~Thestudyofdecryptionandencryptiontechnologies.
CS~Computerscience~thestudyofthetheoreticalfoundationsofinformationand
computation,andofpracticaltechniquesfortheirimplementationandapplicationin
computersystems.
CS~CreativeSuite~aWebsuitetextandÂWYSIWYGÂWebpageeditor.Core
applicationsfromMacromediaStudiohavebeenmergedwithAdobeCSsinceCS3,
includingFlash,Dreamweaver,and
Fireworks.Âhttp://www.adobe.com/products/creativesuite/
CSA~cloudÂ~adisclaimerofliabilityrelatingtoservicequalityandavailability;
disclaimerofliabilityforanythird-partyaction;andunilateralrightstolimit,suspend,or
terminatetheservice.
CSA~serviceagreements~DirectlyconnectstheMemoryControllerHubtothenetwork
controller.WithCSA-basedmotherboards,networkdatacanbetransferredatamuch
higherratewithlowerlatency
CSA~CommunicationsStreamingArchitecture~OASISOpenCSA,whichgoalisto
advancetheSCAandSDOfamiliesofspecifications,whichwillsimplifythedevelopment
ofapplicationshavingSOA.
CSA~CompositeServicesArchitecture~
CSC~cardsecuritycode~refertoCVV2
CSC~CircuitSwitchedCellular~Offerswidecoverage.Usedforlargedatatransfers
CSC~ComputerSciencesCorporation~AnITconsulting,outsourcingandsystem
integrationfirm,foundedin1959andheadquarteredinElSegundo,
California.Âhttp://csc.com
CSC~ContentSecurityandControl~CiscoASAadd-inmodulesforanti-Xfeatures
(suchasURLfiltering,antivirus,anti-spamandantispyware)
CSCF~callsessioncontrolfunction~CSCFisafunctionalentitywithinIMSandpartof
3GPPUMTSReferenceArchitecture.
CSCW~computersupportedco-operativework~anytechnologysystemthatrelieson
combinationsofhardwareandsoftwareresourcestoenablegroupsofpeopleto
collaborateandsharetechnology.
CSD~CiscoSecureDesktop~allowssecureVPNconnectionsfromremotePCsand
offersfunctionalitytoensurePCsmeetadministratorapproved
CSE~customsearchengine~Thesearchenginethatyoucreateandcustomizeusing
GoogleCustomSearch.
Csel~CableSelect~ThisisbasicallyPlug-and-PlayATA.YoupluginyourATA/IDE
harddrives,setthemtoCSEL(CableSelect),andtheydeterminewhethertheyaremaster
orslaveautomatically,savingyoufrommanualconfiguration.
CSFs~criticalsuccessfactors~criticalsuccessfactors
CSG~CommunicationsServicesGroup~OnMay1,2009,ÂTNSÂcompletedthe
acquisitionoftheCSGfromÂVeriSign,Inc.
CSMA/CA~Carriersensemultipleaccess/collisionavoidance~Wireless-IEEEStd
802.11Downloads
CSMA/CA~CarrierSenseMultipleAccess/CollisionAvoidance~CSMA/CAisthe
mediumaccessmethodusedbyIEEE802.11WLANs.
CSMA/CD~Carriersensemultipleaccess/collisiondetection~Physicallayer-IEEE
Std802.3TM-2002
CSMA/CD~CarrierSenseMultipleAccesswithCollisionDetection~Aprotocolin
whichstationslistentothebusandonlytransmitwhenthebusisfree.Ifacollision
occurs,thepacketisretransmittedafterarandomtime-out.EthernetusesCSMA/CD.
CSO~chiefsourcingofficer~Anenterpriseexecutiveresponsibleforthe
implementationofsuccessfuldynamicsourcingstrategies,andeffectingthesestrategies
throughITservicedeliverythatusesanever-changingresourcepool.
CSO~ColdStartOnly~InISDNisacapabilityofaNetworkTerminator1(NT1)
CSP~Chip-scalepackaging~smaller‘packages’forflashdevices,suchasFBGAand
uBGA.
CSP~Communicationsserviceproviders~Communicationsserviceproviders
CSP~CrystalServerPages~ApagethatcontainsÂHTML/VB/JavaScriptthatis
processedbytheWebComponentServerintheCrystalEnterpriseeBusinessFramework
CSS~CascadingStyleSheet~Cascadingstylesheetsareusedtoformatthelayoutof
Webpages.Theycanbeusedtodefinetextstyles,tablesizes,andotheraspectsofWeb
pagesthatpreviouslycouldonlybedefinedinapage’sHTML.
CSS-P~cascadingstylesheetpositioning~Useofacascadingstylesheettoposition
Webpageelementsusingpixellocationsorlocationsrelativetootherelements.
CST~ConsolidatedServiceTest~EnhancesthewayIBMtestsandrecommends
maintenancepackagesforz/OSandOS/390software,includingthemajorsubsystems
CSU~CertificateSigningUnit~Atamperproofstoragemechanismusedbyacertifying
authority(CA)tostoreprivatekeys.
CSU~ChannelServiceUnit~Customerpremisesequipmentthatprovidesbasicdigital
transmissionatvariousspeeds.AlsoAT&TunitthatispartoftheAT&Tnonswitched
digitaldatasystem.
CSU/DSU~Channelserviceunit/dataserviceunit~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
CSV~CircuitSwitchedVoice~SupportforCSVonanISDNlineallowsforthe
placementofvoicecallsonanISDNline.
CSV~commaseparatedvalues~Commonlyusedno-frillstextfileformatusedfor
importfromandimporttospreadsheetsandSQLdatabases.
CSW~channelstatusword~Anareainstorageusedtoindicatethestatusofadevice
andchannelinvolvedinanI/Ooperation.
CT~ChinaTelecom~ChinaTelecomCorporationLimited(Chinese:ä¸​国电信)isa
Chinesestate-ownedtelecommunicationcompany
CT~Contone~Anabbreviationforcontinuoustone.Acolororgreyscaleimageformat
capableofillustratingcontinuouslyvaryingtonalranges,asopposedtolineart.
CTCp~Client-To-Client-Protocol~afeatureofsomeÂIRCÂclients
CTD~CellTransferDelay~AÂQoSÂparameterthatmeasurestheaveragetimefora
celltobetransferredfromitssourcetoitsdestinationoveravirtualchannel(VC)
connection.
CTI~computer-telephonyintegration~Theintelligentlinkingofcomputerswith
telephony,enablingcoordinatedvoiceanddatatransferstothedesktop.
CTO~chieftechnologyofficer~Theenterprisepositionresponsibleformanaging
technologyinfrastructureandresources,includingtechnologydeployment,networkand
systemmanagement,integrationtesting,anddevelopingtechnicaloperationspersonnel.
CTP~capabletopromise~Asystemthatallowsanenterprisetocommitordersagainst
availablecapacity,aswellasinventory.Thesesystemsareevolvingtoincludemultiple
sites,aswellastheentiredistributionnetwork.
CTR~Click-ThroughRate~Webpublisherstypicallygeneraterevenuefromadvertisers
eachtimeavisitorclicksononeoftheadvertisements
ctrl~control~ThisreferstotheControlkeyonyourkeyboard,itisoftenusedfor
shortcuts.
CTS~cleartosend~Acontrolpacketusedbyadestinationstationtoindicateits
readinesstoreceivedata.AdestinationstationrespondstoaRequestToSend(RTS)by
transmittingaCTS.
CTS~commontransportsemantics~ThelayeroftheNetworkingBlueprintabovethe
transportlayerthatmakestheservicesoftransportprovidersavailabletothetransport
user.
CTT~ChinaTietongTelecommunications~amajorstate-ownedbasic
telecommunicationsoperatorinChina.ItsformernamewasChinaRailcom(China
RailwayCommunicationCorporation,Limited).http://www.chinatietong.com
CTX~CommitedtoExcellence~CTXTechnologyCorporation(Commitedto
Excellence)
CUG~closedusergroup~Indatacommunication,agroupofuserswhocan
communicatewithotherusersinthegroup,butnotwithusersoutsidethegroup.Adata
terminalequipment(DTE)maybelongtomorethanoneclosedusergroup.
CUoD~CapacityUpgradeonDemand~AnoptionavailableoncertainIBMsystemsthat
allowsacustomertoactivateadditionalprocessorcapacitywhenneeded.
CUPS~CommonUnixPrintingSystem~ProvidesaportableprintinglayerforUNIXbasedoperatingsystems.ItisdevelopedbyEasySoftwareProductstopromoteastandard
printingsolutionandisthestandardprintingsysteminMacOSXandmostLinux
distributionsÂwww.cups.org
CVP~ContentVectoringProtocol~AspecificationdevelopedbyÂCheckPoint
Software,usedforcontentscreeningandantiviruschecking.
CVS~ComputerVisionSyndrome~Thenameforeyeandvisionproblemsexperienced
duringcomputeruse.PeopleareusinglighttherapytocombatCVS(includingultraviolet
andfull-spectrumwavelengths).
CVS~ConcurrentVersionsSystem~Aprogrammingcodemanagementsystem.
CVSD~ContinuousVariableSlopeDeltamodulation~Amethodofdigitallyencoding
speechusingaone-bitsampletoencodethedifferencebetweentwosuccessivesignal
levels,usually32,000timesasecond.
CVV2/CVC/CVC2~CardVerificationValue2/CardVerificationCode/Card
ValidationCode2~Thelastpartofthecodeabovethesignaturestriponmoderncredit
anddebitcards,whichisoftenrequiredbyonlineshopstoverifythatthecardisgenuine.
CYMK~cyan,magenta,yellow,black~Anabbreviationdenotingthetraditionalfourcolorprintingprocess;thenamederivesfromthefourinkcolorsused.Themajorityof
printedcolorpaperandphotographicdocumentsincorporatetheCMYKprocess.
~D~
D&I~DropAndInsert~ReferstothecrossconnectingofTime-DivisionMultiplexing
(TDM)circuits.Itallowsyoutotake64KbDS0channelsfromoneT1anddigitallycross
connectthemto64KbDS0channelsonanotherT1
D2D~disk-to-disk~backuptechnologies
D2D2T~disk-to-disk-to-tape~backuptechnologies
DA~DestinationAddress~Informationsentinforwarddirectionindicatingaddressof
calledstationorcustomer.
DAA~DistributedApplicationArchitecture~underdesignbyHewlett-PackardandSun.
Adistributedobjectmanagementenvironmentthatwillallowapplicationstobedeveloped
independentofoperatingsystem,networkorwindowingsystem.
DaaS~desktops-as-a-service~virtualdesktophosting
DAB~DigitalAudioBroadcast~Digitalradiobroadcast,providingbetterqualityanda
greaternumberofchannelsthantraditional(analogue)radio.
DAC~digital-to-analogconverter~Thedigital-to-analogconverterisforconvertinga
digitalsignalintoanoutputanalogvoltage.
DAC/DACL~DiscretionaryAccessControlList~DiscretionaryAccessControl
consistsofsomethingtheusercanmanage,suchasadocumentpassword.ADACL
consistsofalistofsecurityidentifiers(whichidentifyusers)andspecificpermissionsfor
each
DACS~DigitalAccessandCrossConnectSystem~Atime-slotswitchthatallowsT1or
E1linestoberemappedelectronicallyattheDS-0(64Kbps)level.AlsocalledDCSor
DXS.
DAE~DiskArrayEnclosure~TheDAEisaJBOD(JustaBunchOfDisk)enclosure
withoutastorageprocessor(SP).TheDAEsupportsupto10FibreChanneldrivesper
enclosureandisconnectedbydualFibreChannelloopsintotheDPE.
Daemon~DiskAndExecutionMONitor~DiskAndExecutionMONitorsoftware
DAFS~DirectAttachedFileSystem~anadvancedmethodologyofaparticularnetwork
datastoragemethod.
DAL~DedicatedAdvertiserLocation~AtypeofiTVadindevelopment,online
advertisersareproposingSimpleDALsandComplexDALs.ASimpleDALreferstothe
datathatusersreachonthescreen,oncetheyleaveavideo(TV)stream.Viewerswillbe
abletoleaveabroadcaststream,beyondthedurationofanad,butwillthengetrapidly
returnedtoitafternavigatingpastsomequalifierscreens.
DAM~DatabaseActivityMonitoring~atypeofgovernance,riskandcompliance(GRC)
controlthattransparentlymonitorsdatabaseactivitytoidentifyfraudulent,illegalorother
undesirablebehavior.
DAM~DigitalAssetManagement~thepracticeanddomainoforganizingdigitalfiles,
likeimages,documents,videosandpresentations.Thetermassetisusedtoindicatethat
suchfileshavesomesortofintrinsicvaluethatmakesitworthwhiletomanagethem.
DAMA~demandassignedmultipleaccess~Allocationofcommunicationsatellitetime
toearthstationsastheneedarises.
DAML~DARPAAgentMarkupLanguage~Alanguagecurrentlyindevelopmentfor
presentinginformationontheÂWWWÂthatwillallowinformationobjectstobetagged
inawaythatallowssoftwareapplications,computeragents,andvirtualassistants.
DAO~Disk-At-Once~Thisisasingle-sessionmethodofwritingdatatoaCD-R/RW
discthatcreatesadiscinaformatsuitableforcommercialduplication.
DAP~DirectoryAccessProtocol~AderivativeoftheX.500DAPstandard,postulated
bytheISOmanyyearsago.DAPandX.500remainedunusedformanyyearsbecauseof
thecomplexityoftheDAPaccessprotocol.
DAR~Dataatrest~refertoalldataincomputerstoragewhileexcludingdatathatis
traversinganetworkortemporarilyresidingincomputermemorytobereadorupdated.
DAR~DiskARchive~acommand-linearchivingtool
DARPA~DefenseAdvancedResearchProjectAgency~theprogenitoroftheInternet.
DARPAiswhereitallbegan.Âhttp://www.darpa.mil/
DAS~direct-attachedstorage~RAIDstoragethatisinternalandhost-attached(boththe
RAIDcontrollerandsoftwaretechnologiesandtheharddiskdrivesarehousedwithinthe
server)
DAS~distributedantennasystem~awaytoefficientlydistributewirelessconnections
insidealargebuildingwheresteelcolumnsandlayersofconcretecaninterferewith
wirelesssignals.ADAScanbeusedtogetridof‘deadzones’byroutingradiofrequency
(RF)signalsthroughfiberorcoppercablingfromasinglebasestationtomultiple
antennaslocatedthroughoutthebuilding.
DASH~DesktopandmobileArchitectureforSystemHardware~Suiteofspecifications
thattakesfulladvantageoftheWebServicesforManagement(WS-Management)
specificationdeliveringstandards-basedWebservicesmanagementfordesktopandmobile
clientsystems
DAST~DynamicApplicationSecurityTesting~technologiesdesignedtodetect
conditionsindicativeofasecurityvulnerabilityinanapplicationinitsrunningstate
DAT~digitalaudiotape~Amagnetictapethatstoresaudiodataindigitalform.
DAVID~DigitalAudioVideoInteractiveDecoder~DigitalAudioVideoInteractive
Decoder
db~Decibel~Aunitofpower(sound,opticalorelectrical)increaseordecreasethatis
proportionaltotheexponentialincreaseordecreaseofpower.
DB~Database~Acollectionofdataorganizedinastructuredmannersothatinformation
canbereadilyretrieved.
DB2~Database2~IBM’sRDBMSoffering,originallybuiltforMultipleVirtualStorage
(MVS)systems.ItusesSQLasitsdatamanipulationanddefinitionlanguage.IBMhas
releasedversionsofDB2forseveralotheroperatingsystems,suchasWindowsandUnix.
DB9~Dsub-miniature9~AlsocalledDsub9,a9pinconnectorshapedliketheleterâ
€˜D’.Theyareusedtoconnectserialdevicestogetherwithaserialcable.
DBA~databaseadministrator~Thepersonresponsibleformanagingdata,namelydata
setplacement,databaseperformance,anddatarecoveryandintegrityataphysicallevel.
Alsoknownasa‘dataadministrator.’
DBCS~Double-ByteCharacterSet~Oneofanumberofcharactersetsdefinedfor
representingChinese,Japanese,orKoreantext.Thesecharactersetsareoftenencodedin
suchawayastoallowdouble-bytecharacterencodingstobemixedwithsingle-byte
characterencodings.
dBm~decibelsmilliwatt~usedtomeasuresignalstrengthontelephonelines
DBMS~DatabaseManagementSystem~Inshort,aDBMSisadatabaseprogram.
Technicallyspeaking,itisasoftwaresystemthatusesastandardmethodofcataloging,
retrieving,andrunningqueriesondata.TheDBMSmanagesincomingdata,organizesit,
andprovideswaysforthedatatobemodifiedorextractedbyusersorotherprograms.
DBS~directbroadcastsatellite~Awirelesstechnologyforbroadcastingbytransmitting
acompressedhigh-speedsignalviasatellite.
DCAP~DataLinkSwitchingClientAccessProtocol~DataLinkSwitchingClient
AccessProtocol
DCB~DataCenterBridging~asetofIEEEindustrystandardsthatdeliversend-to-end
congestionnotificationandqualityofservicethroughoutthenetworkwhichallows
customerstoconfiguretrafficclassesandprioritiestodeliveralosslessEthernetfabric
suchasOpenFCoE.
DCBU~D-channelbackup~AnISDNNFASconfigurationwheretwooftheT1
facilitieshaveaD-channel,oneofwhichisusedforsignaling,andtheotherasabackup
incasetheotherfails.
DCC~DataCountryCode~Specifiescountryinwhichaddressisregistered.Codesare
giveninISO3166.Fieldlengthistwooctets.DigitsareencodedinÂBCDÂsyntax.
DCC~DigitalCommandControl~systemsusedtooperatelocomotivesonamodel
railroad
DCC~DirectClient-to-Client~afeatureofsomeÂIRCÂclientsoftware,allowingusers
tocommunicatemessagesandfilesdirectly,bypassingaserver.
DCCP~DatagramCongestionControlProtocol~aminimalgeneralpurposetransportlayerprotocolthatminimizestheoverheadofpacketheadersizeorend-nodeprocessing
asmuchaspossible.
DCE~Datacommunicationsequipment~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
DCE~DataCommunicationsEquipment~Devicesthatprovidethefunctionsrequiredto
establish,maintainandÂterminateadatatransmissionconnection.Normallyitreferstoa
modem.
DCE~DistributedComputingEnvironment~Innetworkcomputing,asetofservicesand
toolsthatsupportsthecreation,use,andmaintenanceofdistributedapplicationsacross
heterogeneousoperatingsystemsandnetworks.
d-channel/Dchannel~deltachannel~InÂISDN,acommonchannelusedforsignaling
andmanagementofthenetwork.
d-channel/Dchannel~datachannel~usedforcommonchannelsignalingbyboththe
telephonecompanyswitchandthecustomerequipment;providesthecallsignalsthatset
upBchannelconnections
DCO~DeviceConfigurationOverlay~AllowssystemvendorstopurchaseHDDsfrom
differentmanufacturerswithpotentiallydifferentsizes,andthenconfigureallHDDsto
havethesamenumberofsectors
DCOM~DistributedComponentObjectModel~AversionofMicrosoft’sÂCOMÂthat
enablesapplicationcomponentstobedistributedoverseveralcomputersthroughtheuse
ofaremoteprocedurecall(RPC).
d-commerce~digitalcommerce~formofe-commercebycompaniesthatsellnews,
documents,subscriptions,oranyothercontentthatcanbedelivereddigitallyoverthe
Web.Undertheultimate‘payasyougo’model,ad-commercecompanyactsasan
electronicmiddleman:Usersestablishanaccountwithad-commercecompanyto
purchasecontentfromavarietypublishers
DCS~Desktopcolorseparation~AnimageformatconsistingoffourseparateCMYK
PostScriptfilesatfullresolution,togetherwithafifthEPSmasterforplacementin
documents.
DCT~DigitalCordlessTelephone~Acordlesstelephonethatusesdigitaltransmission
technologytoprovidemoresecurityandbettersoundqualitythanatraditionalanalog
cordlesstelephone.
DDAP~DigitalDistributionofAdvertisingforPublications~User-drivenorganization
workingtowardsenablingtheuniversalexchangeofdigitaladsthroughopenprocess
integrationandtheuseofaccreditedstandards.Seehttp://www.ddap.org
DDBMS~Distributeddatabasemanagementsystem~Adatabasemanagementsystem
(DBMS)thatenablesendusersorapplicationprogrammerstoviewacollectionof
physicallyseparatedatabasesasalogicalsingle-systemimage.Theconceptthatismost
fundamentaltotheDDBMSislocationtransparency,meaningtheusershouldnotbe
consciousoftheactuallocationofdata.
DDCMP~DigitalDataCommunicationsMessageProtocol~Abyte-oriented,linklayer
protocolthatsupportshalf-orfull-duplexmodesandeitherpoint-to-pointormultipoint
linesinaDigitalNetworkArchitecturenetwork.
DDD~DataDisplayDebugger~apopulargraphicaluserinterfaceforcommand-line
debuggerssuchasGDB,DBX,JDB,WDB,XDB,thePerldebugger,andthePython
debugger.DDDislicensedundertheGNUGPLandisopensource.
DDE~DynamicDataExchange~Amethodofexchangingdatabetweenapplicationson
MacOS,Windows,andOS/2operatingsystems.
DDI~DeviceDriverInterface~Aninterfacethatfacilitatesdriverportabilityacross
differentUNIXsystemversionsonSPARChardware.
DDI~DirectDialling-In~Afacilityenablingtelephoneuserstodialdirectintoafirm’s
PABXextensionsasiftheywerenormalpublictelephonenumbers.KnownasDIDinthe
USA,nottobeconfusedwithDIA.
DDI~DNS,DHCP&IPaddress~solutionsthatcomplementinternalDNS&DHCP
implementation.
DDL~DataDefinitionLanguage~Alanguagefordescribingdataanditsrelationshipsin
adatabase.
DDN~DigitalDataNetwork~AnetworkserviceestablishedinChinain1994,
connectingBeijing,Tianjin,Shanghaiandotherprovincialcapitals.Eachpostand
telecommunicationsadministrationinChinahasadepartmentregulatingDDNservicein
itsregion.
DDNS~DynamicDomainNameSystem~Atechnologythatautomaticallyupdatesthe
logicalnamesofdynamicallyassignedÂIPaddressesintheDNSserverofanIPnetwork.
SpecificationsforastandardapproachtoDDNSweredefinedinRequestforComment
2136,introducedin1997
DDoS~DistributedDenialofService~attackusesmanycomputerstolauncha
coordinatedDoSattackagainstoneormoretargets.Usingclient/servertechnology,the
perpetratorisabletomultiplytheeffectivenessoftheDenialofServicesignificantlyby
harnessingtheresourcesofmultipleunwittingaccomplicecomputers,whichserveas
attackplatforms.
DDP~DatagramDeliveryProtocol~InAppleTalknetworks,aprotocolthatprovides
networkconnectivitybymeansofconnectionlesssocket-to-socketdeliveryserviceonthe
internetlayer.
DDR~double-data-rate~AtypeofSDRAMthatdoublesthedataburstcycle,improving
systemperformance.
DDS~Dataphonedigitalservice~AT&Tlineservicethatallowsthecustomertotransmit
dataonthelineinadigitalformat.
DDS~digitaldataservice~Adedicateddatatransmissionservicethatoperatesover
interconnecteddigitalprivatelines.
DDS~DigitalDataStorage~Thetechnologythatallowsbinaryinformationtobe
recordedtoa4mmDAT.Thedrivemechanismuses4heads-twotowriteandtwotoread.
Thetapemakescontactwiththeheadsata90degreeangletoproduceanangledtrack
knownasahelicalscan.
DDSA~digitaldataserviceadapter~Indatacommunications,adeviceusedwhen
sendingandreceivingdatausinganonswitcheddigitaldataservice.
DDT~Disk-to-Disk-to-Tape~Datastorageandarchivestrategy.Dataisinitiallystored
ondiskthen,accordingtosomecriteria,itiscopiedtoasecondarydiskstorepending
archivingtotape.
DEA~DataEncryptionAlgorithm~InCryptographicSupport,theequivalenttotheData
EncryptionStandard.
DEC~DigitalEquipmentCorporation~acompanywhoseproductsincludedthePDP-8,
PDP-11,andVAXminicomputers,theVT-100terminal,andtheAlphamicroprocessor.In
1998,DigitalEquipmentCorporationwasaquiredbyCompaq,nowpartofHewlettPackard.
DEC(obs.)~DigitalEquipmentCorporation~Organization-PurchasedbyCompaqin
1998.MergedwithHewlett-Packard2002.
DECT~DigitalEnhancedCordlessTelecommunications~Aninterfacespecificationfor
digitalmobiletelephony.DECTemploys10carrierfrequenciesbetween1.88GHzand
1.9GHz,andhasatransmissionspeedof144Kbps.
defrag~defragment~Tooptimizeyourharddrive,usuallywithaprogramthat‘cleansit
up’
DEK~dataencryptionkey~Usedfortheencryptionofmessagetextandforthe
computationofmessageintegritychecks(signatures).
DEL~DELETE~theDELETEkeyonacomputerkeyboard
Demarc~DemarcationPoint~Thepoint,jackorcrossconnectpanel,atwhich
ownershiporresponsibilityforoperatingandmaintainingfacilitiespassesfromoneparty
toanother.
Demux~demultiplexer~Alogiccircuitthattakesasingleinputandsendsittooneof
severaloutputs.
DEN~DirectoryEnabledNetwork~termusedinconjunctionwithanarchitectureand
groupingofnetworkingcapabilitiesthataredevelopedanddrivenbyacentraldirectory.
DEP~DataExecutionPrevention~OSfeaturethat’snewinWindows2003SP1&
WindowsXPSP2.Itservestopreventvirusesandothermaliciouscodefromever
executing
DEP~dynamicenterprisepublishing~combinedatafromanorganization’sCRMand
otherenterpriseapplicationswithcontentfromitscontentmanagementsystemsandother
sourcesaccordingtoÂbusinessrulestodynamicallygenerateattractive,personalized
customercommunicationsfordelivery
DES~DataEncryptionStandard(obs.SeeAES)~Security-FederalInformation
ProcessingStandard(FIPS)FIPS-46-3
DES~DataEncryptionStandard~Anencryptionalgorithm,developedbytheUS
government,thatallowstheuseofvariable-lengthkeys.Thelongerthekey,themore
difficultitistobreakthealgorithm
DES~DynamicEnergySaver~GIGABYTEDynamicEnergySaverisarevolutionary
technologythatdeliversunparalleledpowersavingswiththesimpleclickofabutton.
DET~DirectoryEntryTable~Atableoneverynetworkvolumethatcontainsdirectory
entriesforeachfileonthevolume.Thetable,storedintheserver’smemory,enablesquick
accesstothelocationofeveryfile
DFI~DesignforInnovation~DFIInc.(DesignforInnovation)
DFL~designforlogistics~Aproductdesignapproachthatconsiderslogisticalissues,
suchthemannerinwhichtheproductwillbestoredortransported.
DFM~designformanufacturability~Anapproachfordesigningproductsinwaysthat
optimizetheirmanufacture.
DFM~DeviceFaultManager~Providesreal-timefaultanalysisforCiscodevices
DFM~DigitalFlashMedia~ageneralizationforalltypeofdigitalmediadevicessuchas
butnotlimitedtoCF(CompactFlash),MemoryStick(MS),MMC,SecureDigital(SD),
SmartMedia(SM),USBFlashDrive(USBFD)andxDPictureCard(xD).
DGC~Distributedgarbagecollection~garbagecollectioninasystemwhereobjects
mightnotresideinthesameaddressspaceorevenonthesamemachine.
DHA~directoryharvestattack~anattempttodeterminethevalide-mailaddresses
associatedwithane-mailserversothattheycanbeaddedtoaspamdatabase.
DHCP~DynamicHostConfigurationProtocol~Applicationlayer,InternetLayer-RFC
2131andothers
DHCP~DynamicHostConfigurationProtocol~Anetworkserverusesthisprotocolto
dynamicallyassignIPaddressestonetworkedcomputers.TheDHCPserverwaitsfora
computertoconnecttoit,thenassignsitanIPaddressfromamasterliststoredonthe
server.
DHTML~DynamicHyperTextMarkupLanguage~webpagesÂthatuseacombination
ofÂHTML,ÂJavaScript,andÂCSSÂtocreatefeaturessuchaslettingtheuserdragitems
aroundonthewebpage,somesimplekindsofanimation,andmanymore.
DHX~Diffie-HellmanExchange~anauthenticationmethodusedbytheApplefile
serviceofMacOSXServer.
DI/DO~DispatchIn/DispatchOut~Referstothesourceofareportedtroubleona
telephonecircuit:
DIA~dataintegrationandaccess~needofenterprisesforbetterintegrateddatafor
operationalefficiencyandbusinessintelligence
DIA~DedicatedInternetAccess~ahighlyreliable,predictable,andguaranteed
bandwidthÂInternetÂconnection.
DICOM~DigitalImagingandCommunicationsinMedicine~astandardforhandling,
storing,printing,andtransmittinginformationinmedicalimaging.
DID~directinwarddial~Allowsauseroutsideacompanytodialaninternalextension
numberwithoutneedingtopassthroughanoperatororanattendant.Thedialeddigitsare
passedtothePBX,whichthencompletesthecall.
DIF~DirectoryInteroperabilityForum~Coalitionformedin1999byIBM,Novell,
Oracle,LotusDevelopmentandIsocortopromotetheuseofÂLDAPÂbydevelopers,and
toacceleratedirectoryinteroperabilitystandards.
DiffServ~DifferentiatedServices~Aprotocolthathelpssupportnetworkqualityof
service.DiffServenablesdatapacketfieldstocarryinformationaboutthespecificlevelof
serviceapacketshouldreceiveonthenetwork.
Digerati~digitalversionofliterati(Italian)~areferencetoavaguecloudofpeopleseen
tobeknowledgeable,hip,orotherwisein-the-knowinregardstothedigitalrevolution.
DIIOp~DominioInternetInter-OrbProtocol~allowsexternalprogramstoattachto,and
manipulateDominodatabases
DIMM~DualIn-lineMemoryModule~DIMMisalaterversionofmemorythanthatof
itsearlierSIMMcounterpart.ADIMMmodulewasintroducedforthePentiumprocessor
becausethePentiumprocessorneededa64bitpath.TheSIMMmoduleonlyhasa32bit
path.
DIP~DualInterfacePoll~DualInterfacePollswitchesallowforeitheranONorOFF
settingwithanynumberofcircuits.DIPswitchescommonlyallowyoutochangethe
configurationofacircuitboardtosuityourparticularcomputer.
DIPP~DualInlinePinPackage~Referstothephysicalgeometryofanintegratedcircuit
orotherelectronicpackage;rectangular,withpinsonthetwolongersides
DIR~DIRectory~DIRectory
Dirid~Directoryidentifier~AnumericidentifierusedwithinINFfilestorepresenta
diskdirectory.
DISA~DefenseInformationSystemsAgency~DefenseInformationSystemsAgency
DISA~DataInterchangeStandardsAssociation~DataInterchangeStandards
Association
Disc/Disk~DISKETTE~Athin,flexible,plastic,circularmemorymedium,coatedon
bothsideswithmetaloxideandenclosedinaprotectivejacket.Dataisstored
magneticallyinbinarydigitalformonitssurface(s).
DIT~DirectoryInformationTree~Agraphicaldisplayofanorganization’sdirectory
structure,sites,andservers,shownasabranchingstructure.Thetop-level(root)directory
usuallyrepresentstheorganizationlevel
DITTO~DataInterfileTransfer,TestingandOperations~AnIBMlicensedprogramthat
providesfile-to-fileservicesforcardI/O,tape,anddiskdevices.
Divx~DIgitalVideoExpress~DVD(DVD-ROM)formatbeingpromotedbyseveral
largeHollywoodcompanies,includingDisney,DreamworksSKG,Paramountand
Universal.TheideawasfinancedmainlybyretailelectronicsgiantCircuitCity.
DIX~Digital,Intel,Xerox~ThefirstletteroftheDigitalCorp,theIntelCorp,andthe
XeroxCorp,whicharetheleadingvendorsdefinedtheoriginalEthernetstandards.
DKI~DriverKernelInterface~AninterfacebetweentheUNIXsystemkerneland
differenttypesofdrivers.DKIconsistsofasetofdriver-definedfunctionsthatarecalled
bythekernel.Thesefunctionsareentrypointsintoadriver.
DKMS~DynamicKernelModuleSupport~Designedtocreateaframeworkwhere
kerneldependentmodulesourcecanresidesothatitisveryeasytorebuildmodulesas
youupgradekernels
DL~DensityLine~AnHPbrandnamefortheProLiantDensityLine,whichareservers
inone-,two-andfour-socketdesigns,optimizedforrack-mountedserverenvironments.
DL~double-layer~describingaDVDorsimilardiscrecordedintwolayersfromthe
sameside,givingtwiceasmuchcapacityasasinglelayer.
DLC~datalinkcontrol~Asetofrulesusedbynodesonadatalink(suchasanSDLC
linkoratokenring)toaccomplishanorderlyexchangeofprotocollayerusedbynodeson
adatalinktoaccomplishanorderlyexchangeofinformation.information.
DLC~DigitalLoopCarrier~Digitaltransmissionsystemdesignedforsubscriberloop
plant.Multiplexesmanycircuitsontoveryfewwiresorontosinglefiberpair.
DLCI~datalinkconnectionidentifier~Anumberofaprivateorswitchedvirtualcircuit
inaFrameRelaynetworkthattellstheFrameRelayhowtoroutethedata.
DLDP~DeviceLinkDetectionProtocol~detectthelinkstatusofafibercableortwisted
DLE~datalinkescape~InÂBSC,atransmissioncontrolcharacterusedtoindicatethat
thenextcharacterisacontrolcharacter,notadatacharacter.
DLL~dynamiclinklibrary~AWindowsmechanismthatlinksexecutablecodemodules
toanapplicationprogramorprocess.ADLLisloadedatruntimebytheapplicationor
processthatinvokesit.
DLM~datalifecyclemanagement~apolicy-basedapproachtomanagingtheflowofan
informationsystem’sdatathroughoutitslifecycle:fromcreationandinitialstoragetothe
timewhenitbecomesobsoleteandisdeleted.
DLOS~DirectLine-of-sight~wherethepointsofacircuithaveaphysicallyproven
clearandunobstructedviewofeachother
DLOS~DesktopLine-of-sight~aninitialsurveyconductedonacomputerwith
specialisedplanningsoftwarewhichallowstheusertoascertainifthetwopointsofa
circuithaveprobableline-of-sight
DLP~dataleakprevention~Thetermusedtodescribeasystemthatisputinplaceto
stoptheunauthorisedlossofoutsideofthecontrolofanorganisation.Datalossisa
prevalentproblemthathasresultedinsignificantreputationalandlegalissuesformany
organisations.
DLP~DigitalLightProcessing~Avideoprojectiontechnologythatuseshundredsof
thousandsofrotatingmirrorstoprojecthighquality,highdefinitionimages.DLPwas
originallydevelopedbyTexasInstruments.
DLPBC~DualLoopPortBypassCircuitry~routingcircuitrythatmakesitpossibleto
addandremovenodeswithoutdisruptingthenetwork.
DLPI~DataLinkProviderInterface~TheSVR4STREAMS-basedkernel-level
interfacethatsupportstheservicesoftheDataLinkLayerforbothconnection-modeand
connectionless-modeservices
DLR~DesignLayoutRecord~Thelayoutforthelocalportionofacircuitataparticular
location.
DLT~DigitalLinearTape~Amagnetictapetechnologythatuseshalf-inch,single-hub
cartridges,writes128or208lineartracks,andprovidescapacitiesfrom40to80GB.A
technologydesignedbyDECandsoldtoQuantum
DM~DataMining~Generictermforidentifyingpossiblerelationshipsandtrends
betweendataitems.Typicallydataminingisthestatisticalanalysisofdatatoidentify
commonalitiesandpatterns.
DMA~DirectMemoryAccess~Atechniqueoftransferringdatabetweenthecomputer
memoryandadeviceonthecomputerbuswithouttheinterventionofthemicroprocessor.
DMAA~DiscreteMathematics,AlgorithmsandApplications~DiscreteMathematics,
AlgorithmsandApplications
DMB~DhtmlMenuBuilder~UsedtoidetifyaDHTML/Javascriptmenubuildingtool
calledDHTMLMenuBuilder.Alsousedintheextensionoftheapplication’sprojectfiles
DMCA~DigitalMillenniumCopyrightAct~AcontroversialreformoftheU.S.
copyrightlawsthatisthefirstattempttoupdatethoselawsfortheageofdigital
technology.
DME~distributedmanagementenvironment~AspecificationoftheOpenSoftware
Foundation(OSF)formanagingopensystems.
DMI~DesktopManagementInterface~anAPItoenablesoftwaretocollectinformation
aboutacomputerenvironment.
DML~DataManipulationLanguage~afamilyofcomputerlanguagesusedbycomputer
programsordatabaseuserstoretrieve,insert,deleteandupdatedatainadatabase.The
currentlymostpopularDatamanipulationlanguageisthatofSQL,whichisusedto
retrieveandmanipulatedatainaRelationaldatabase.
DMO~DistributedManagementObject~ThisOLEserverexposesrepresentationsof
SQLServerdatabaseobjects(tables,storedprocedures,serverproperties,andsoon),
manyofwhichareusuallymodifiedthroughTransact-SQL
DMS~DigitalMultiplexSystems~Systemthatcombinesnumberofdigitalcircuits.
DMT~DiscreteMulti-Tone~anADSLmodulationtechniquethatsplitsbandwidthusage
usageintosub-channelsformaximumdatatransfer.Achannelisthenoptimizedfor
modulationifcertainchannelscannottransmitdata.
DMZ~demilitarizedzone~acomputerhostorsmallnetworkinsertedasa‘neutralzone’
betweenacompany’sprivatenetworkandtheoutsidepublicnetwork.Itpreventsoutside
usersfromgettingdirectaccesstoaserverthathascompanydata.Thetermcomesfrom
thegeographicbufferzonethatwassetupbetweenNorthKoreaandSouthKorea
followingtheUN‘policeaction’intheearly1950s.
DNA~Deoxyribonucleicacid~thegeneticorhereditarymaterialinhumansandmostof
theotherlivingorganisms.DNAsaremostlystoredinthenucleusofcellsandcan
replicatethemselves.
DNA~DistributedNetworkArchitecture~Arrangementofnetworkedcomputersin
whichseveralprocessors(theCPUs)arelocatedonscatteredmachines,butarecapableof
workingbothindependentlyandjointlyasrequired.
DNA~~DNAisalsoDeliveryNetworkAccelerator(BitTorrent),DynamicNetwork
Administration(Ericsson),DynamicNetworkAnalyzer(Lucent)
DNIC~datanetworkidentificationcode~A4-digitcodethatspecifiestheX.21call
formatusedbyanetworkinitsInternationalDataNumbertocallanotherstation.
DNLC~DirectoryNameLookupCache~Unixfilecache
DNR~DigitalNoiseReduction~Ensuressuperiorpicturequalityby‘cleaning’images
andreducingpicture‘noise’.Particularlyusefulforoldermovieswherethesourcemaster
haspicturenoise.
DNS~DomainNameSystem~Applicationlayer-Over30RFCshere.
DNS~DomainNameService/Server/System~thewaythatInternetdomainnamesare
locatedandtranslatedintoIPaddresses.Adomainnameisameaningfulandeasy-toremember‘handle’foranInternetaddress.
DNSBL~DNSBasedList,DNSBlacklist,orDNSBlocklist.~ApublishedlistofIP
addressesthatcanbequeriedthroughtheInternet.DNSBLsareusedtopublishIP
addressesassociatedwithe-mailspamandspamming.
DNSSEC~DomainNameSystemSECurityextensions~Techniqueforsecuringthe
DomainNameSystem.ItisasetofextensionstoDNS,whichprovideend-to-end
authenticityandintegrityandwasdesignedtoprotecttheInternetfromcertainattacks.
SeealsoÂhttp://www.dnssec.net/
DOA~DeadOnArrival~Servicetoreplacemalfunctioningdevices.
DOA~DeadOnArrival~InCRM,DOAreporttellsuserswhichproductsarethemost
error-proneorreceivethemostcomplaintsfromcustomers.T
DoCoMo~DoCommunicationovertheMobilenetwork~DoCoMo(meaning
‘anywhere’inJapanese)isaNTTsubsidiaryandJapan’sbiggestmobileserviceprovider
DOCSIS~Data-over-CableServiceInterfaceSpecifications~Definestechnical
specificationsforequipmentatbothsubscriberlocationsandcableoperators’headends.
AdoptionofDOCSISwillacceleratethedeploymentofdata-over-cableservicesandwill
ensureinteroperabilityofequipmentthroughoutsystemoperators’infrastructures.
DO-IT~Disabilities,Opportunities,InternetworkingandTechnology~Disabilities,
Opportunities,InternetworkingandTechnology
Dolly~DigitalDolly~aprogramthatcanquicklyclone(copy)drivestodrives,drivesto
files,filestodrives,orfilestofiles.ItissimilartotheSymantecproductknownasGhost.
DOM~distributedoutputmanagement~Middlewarethatdrivestheoutputprocessand
supportstheautomatedcreationanddeliveryofdocuments.
DOM~DocumentObjectModel~Aplatform-neutralandlanguage-neutralinterfacethat
allowsprogramsandscriptstoaccessandupdatethecontent,structure,andstyleof
documentsdynamically.
DOMAIN~DistributedOperatingMultiAccessInteractiveNetwork~Distributed
OperatingMultiAccessInteractiveNetwork
DOP~DilutionOfPrecision~Oneofmanyqualitymeasurementstoevaluatesolutions
derivedbyapositioningreceiver.Thisisanumericvaluethatrelatesrelativegeometries
betweenpositioningsatellitesaswellasthegeometriesbetweenthesatellitesandthe
receiver.
DoS~denialofservice~TheinabilityofaWebsiteorotherservertorespondto
legitimateconnections.DoSattacksareusedtoblockaccesstoatargetInternetsite.
DOS~DiskOperatingSystem~Acommand-drivenPCOSthatresidesinmainmemory
andusesdisksfordatastorage.ItwasoncethestandardOSforIBM-compatiblePCs.
EarlyversionsofMicrosoftWindowsranontopofDOS.
DOV~Data-Over-Voice~AtechniqueusedinÂFDMÂallowingthecombinationof
voiceanddataonthesameline.DOVusuallyemploystwistedpaircablesassigningsome
oftheunusedbandwidthfordatatransmission.
DPA~DocumentPrintingApplication~AnOSIstandard(ISO/IEC10175)thataddresses
thoseaspectsofdocumentprocessingthatenableusersinadistributedopensystems
environmenttosendelectronicdocumentstoshared,possiblygeographically-dispersed,
printers.
DPC~DestinationPointCode~ThepartofaroutinglabelthatidentifieswhereanSS7
signalingmessageshouldbesent.
DPF~DatabasePartitioningFeature~Afeaturethatcanbeusedtoimprovethe
managementofalargedatabasebydividingitintomultipledatabasepartitionsthatare
physicallyplacedononeormoreservers.
DPI~deeppacketinspection~Anadvancedformoffirewalltechnologythatlooks
deeperintothepacketstreamthantraditionalpacketinspectionapproachestoidentify
attemptsatmaliciousbehaviorandblockthem.
DPI~DistributedProtocalInterface~AnextensiontotheSNMPagentthatpermitsusers
todynamicallyadd,delete,orreplacemanagementvariablesinthelocalMIBwithout
requiringrecompilationoftheSNMPagent.
dpi~DotsPerInch~Animagemeasurementstandardthatmeasuresanimagesresolution
asitappliestoprinters.Itmeasurestheimagespixelsinonesquareinch.Thehigherthe
numberthebettertheimagesresolutionorquality.
DPMA~DynamicPowerManagementArchitecture~Thisarchitectureallowscomputers
tohaveavarietyofadvancedpowermanagementfeatures.
DPMI~DosProtectedModeInterface~allowDOSprogramstoaccesstheextended
memoryofPCarchitecturecomputerswhilemaintainingsystemprotection.DPMIdefines
aspecificsubsetofDOSandBIOScallsthatcanbemadebyprotectedmodeDOS
programs.
DPN~DataPacketNetwork~Networkinwhich“bundlesofinformationare
transmitted,oneafteranother.Differsfromcircuitnetwork,inwhichentirecircuitis
dedicatedtoparticularuser.
DPtoTP~DisplayCoordinatesTOTabletCoordinates~Coordinatesconversion
DPV~DistributedPartitionedView~Joinshorizontallypartitioneddatafromasetof
membertablesacrossoneormoreservers,makingthedataappearasiffromonetable
DPW~DigitalPulseWireless~alsoknownasUltraWidebandRadio.Itisthe
revolutionarywirelesstechnologyfortransmittinglargeamountsofdigitaldataovera
wideelectromagneticradiationspectrumoffrequencybandswithverylowpower.
DQM~DataQualityManager~OracleCDHengine
DR~disasterrecovery~Methodsandproceduresforreturningasystem,networkordata
centertofulloperationafteracatastrophicinterruption-includingtherecoveryoflost
data,theuseofalternativenetworkchannelsiftheprimarychannelsaredisconnectedor
malfunctioning.
DRAC~DellRemoteAssistantCard~InterfacecardfromDellIncthatprovidesout-ofbandmanagementfacilities.Thecontrollerhasitsownprocessor,memory,battery,
networkconnection,andaccesstothesystembus
DRAM~Dynamicrandom-accessmemory~Hardware-
DRAM~DynamicRandomAccessMemory~Thisisacommontypeofrandomaccess
memorythatisusedinpersonalcomputing.The‘dynamic’initsnameisduetothefact
thatthismemoryneedstoberefreshedasopposedtootherSRAMthatis‘static’.The
DRAMisrefreshedbytheuseofelectricalcurrentpulsesthatpassthroughallmemory
cells.DRAMneedstobeperiodicallyrefreshedtoretainthestoreddata.
DRE~DocumentRenderingEngine~CollectionofJavaclassesthatcanbeusedto
defineanabstractdocumentandrenderitinPDForHTML.Adocumentconsistsofa
collectionofelementssuchastext,lists(bulleted,numbered,plain),tables,images,fonts,
color,etc.
DRF~DataRecoveryField~InNTFSfileencryptionkeysarestoredthere
DRi~DisasterRecoveryInstitute~DRIInternationalÂwasfoundedin1988inorderto
developabaseofknowledgeincontingencyplanningandthemanagementofrisk,a
rapidlygrowingprofession.
DRM~DataRelationshipManagement~OracleHyperiontechnologytoprovidestrong
hierarchyvisualizationandmanagementcapabilities
DRM~digitalrightsmanagement~Trustedexchangeofdigitalinformationoverthe
Internetwherebytheuserisgrantedonlytheprivilegesthatthedocumentsenderallows.
DROP~deliveryofreal-timeexecutioninformationprotocol~featureof
variousÂNASDAQÂ(NationalAssociationofSecuritiesDealersAutomatedQuotations)
protocolsthatallowsasubscribertocontinuouslyviewvitalinformationabouttrades
includingthedateandtime,theparticipants(bysymboloricon),orderidentificationdata,
condenseddescriptions,theexchangepricesandrelevantcommissions.
DRP~DisasterRecoveryPlan~refertoDR
DRP~DistributionandReplicationProtocol~ThegoaloftheDRPprotocolisto
significantlyimprovetheefficiencyandreliabilityofdatadistributionoverHTTP
DRU~DiscRemasteringUtility~Tooldesignedtocreateacustomizedcopyofthe
UbuntuLinuxDistribution
DRW~DefectRemediationWindow~Howlongittakestofxor“close�adefect
DS~DifferentiatedService~AIETFstandardforasmall,well-definedsetofper-packet
buildingblocksfromwhichavarietyofservicesmaybebuilt,therebyprovidinga
frameworkfordeliveringÂQoSÂinnetworks
DS0~DigitalSubscriberLevelZero~A64Kbpsunitoftransmissionbandwidth.A
worldwidestandardspeedfordigitizingonevoiceconversation,andmorerecently,for
datatransmission.Twenty-fourDS0s(24x64Kbps)equaloneDigitalSignalLevel1
(DS1).
DS1~DigitalSignalLevel1~Framingspecificationusedintransmittingdigitalsignals
at1.544MbpsonaT1facilityor2.048MbpsonanE1facility.
DSA~DigitalSignatureAlgorithm~Anasymmetriccryptographicalgorithmthat
producesadigitalsignatureintheformofapairoflargenumbers.
DSA~DistributedSystemsArchitecture~Thenetworkingarchitecturedevelopedby
Honeywell-BullfortheGCOSenvironment
DSAP~DestinationServiceAccessPoint~InOSI,aserviceaccesspointusedtoreceive
data.
DSAP~DestinationServiceAccessPoint~InSNAandTCP/IP,alogicaladdressthat
allowsasystemtoroutedatafromaremotedevicetotheappropriatecommunications
support.
DSBM~DesignatedSubnetBandwidthManager~Adeviceonamanagedsubnetwork
thatactsastheSubnetBandwidthManagerforthesubnetworktowhichitisattached
DSE~DirectoryServicesEnvironment~ContainsalistofNamingContextsand
ApplicationPartitionsmaintainedbyaDomainController
DSI~DynamicSystemsInitiative~Microsoft’stechnologystrategyforproductsand
solutionsthathelpbusinessesenhancethedynamiccapabilityofitspeople,process,and
ITinfrastructureusingtechnology
DSL~DigitalSubscriberLine~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
DSL~DigitalSubscriberLine~Itismediumfortransferringdataoverregularphone
linesandcanbeusedtoconnecttotheInternet.
DSL~Domain-SpecificLanguage~anaturalextensionofandcomplementtoUML.
DSLishelpingtoremovethesemanticgapbetweenproblemandsolutiondomainsby
usingtailor-madesyntaxandsemantics.
DSL~DualStressLiner~TechnologybyAMDandIBMtostrainsiliconchipsto
enhancetheirperformance
DSLAM~DigitalSubscriberLineAccessMultiplexor~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
(proposed)
DSLAM~DSLAccessMultiplexer~adevicethatjoinsahigh-speedcomputernetwork
toasetofordinarytelephonelinesinatelephonecompanycentraloffice.
DSM~dependencystructurematrix~ExcellencetoolsKitForDevelopmentProjects
DSM-CC~Digitalstoragemediacommandandcontrol~atoolkitfordevelopingcontrol
channelsassociatedwithMPEG-1andMPEG-2streams.
DSML~DirectoryServiceMarkupLanguage~combinesdirectoryservicestechnology
(LDAP)withXMLsyntaxtoprovideaneasywaytoshareandusepersonalizeddata
acrosscompanyandtechnologyboundaries.
DSn~digitalsignalleveln~Aclassificationofdigitalcircuits.TheDStechnicallyrefers
totherateandtheformatofthesignal,whereastheTdesignationreferstotheequipment
providingthesignals.Inpractice,DSandTareusedsynonymously;forexample,DS1
andT1,DS3andT3.
DSN~dealersoftwarenetwork~Anetwork-resident,standards-basedenvironmentthat
interconnectschainsofapplicationsandservices.
DSO~datasourceobject~ADSOexploitisaformofspywarethattakesadvantageof
databindingtogainaccesstotheharddriveofacomputerconnectedtotheInternet.Such
spywarecanbedifficulttodetectanderadicate,andifitissuccessfullyremoved,itoften
returns.
DSOM~DistributedSystemObjectModel~aversionofSOMthatsupportssharing
binaryobjectsacrossnetworks.DSOMissimilartoMicrosoft’scompetingstandardcalled
DCOM.
DSP~digitalsignalprocessor~Aspecializedcomputerchipoptimizedforhighdatarates
neededtoprocessdigitizedwaveforms,particularlythosederivedfromanalogsources.
Oftenusedinequipmentrequiringvoicedigitization.
DSR~DataSetReady~Aserialconnectivityterm,usedprimarilywithprintersand
modemsinmodernsystems.DSRistheprimarycomputersignallineforhardware
handshakingoveraserialinterface;connectstotheDTRlineatthecomputer.
DSR~DynamicSourceRouting~aself-maintainingroutingprotocolforwireless
networks.Theprotocolcanalsofunctionwithcellulartelephonesystemsandmobile
networkswithuptoabout200nodes.
DSS~igitalSignatureStandard~TheUSGovernmentstandardthatspecifiestheDigital
SignatureAlgorithm(DSA),whichinvolvesasymmetriccryptography.
DSSA~DistributedSystemSecurityArchitecture~acomputersecurityarchitecturethat
providesasuiteoffunctionsincludinglogin,authentication,andaccesscontrolina
distributedsystem.
DSSS~DirectSequenceSpreadSpectrum~Aspreadspectrumtransmissionmethod
whichisalsousedbyIEEE802.11bcompatibledevices.Onebitofthesignalis
transmittedasacodeword,whichisequivalenttomultiplyingthetransmissionrate
(spreadingthetransmissionrate).
DSTN~Double-layerSupertwistNematic~Thisisaformofpassive
matrixÂLCDÂscreen.
DSTP~DataSpaceTransferProtocol~usedtoindexandcategorizedatausingaXML
basedcatalog.
DSU~dataserviceunit~Asimplifiedmodemforthetransmissionofdigitaldataovera
privatelineorforlimited-distancecommunicationsovertheÂPSTN,whereitisnot
necessarytocomplywithalltherequirementsforahigh-speedmodem.
DSU~DigitalServiceUnit~Auserdeviceinterfacingtoadigitalcircuit,suchasDDSor
T1whencom-binedwithaCSU.TheDSUconvertstheuser’sdatastreamtobipolar
formatfortransmission.
DSVD~DigitalSimultaneousVoiceandData~Anall-digitaltechnologyforconcurrent
voiceanddata(SVD)transmissionoverasingleanalogtelephoneline.DSVDisendorsed
byIntel,Hayes,U.S.Robotics
DSX~DigitalSystemCross-connectframe~DigitalSystemCross-connectframe.
DSX1:DigitalSignalCross-connectlevel1
DTD~DocumentTypeDefinition~atypeoffileassociatedwithSGMLandXML
documentsthatdefineshowthemarkuptagsshouldbeinterpretedbytheapplication
presentingthedocument.
DTDS~DisasterTolerantDiskSystems~termfromtheRAIDadvisoryboardwhich
describesserversystemswhichmustbedivisibleintotwoormorezoneswhichcooperate
toprotectagainstlossofaccesstodataintheeventofonesystem’scompletefailure.
DTE~DataTerminalEquipment~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
DTE~DataTerminalEquipment~Devicesactingasdatasource,datasink,orboth
DTM~DocumentTableModel~Interfacetoadocumentmodeldesignedspecificallyfor
theneedsofApache’sXPathandXSLTimplementations.Themotivationbehindthis
modelistooptimizeperformanceandminimizestorage
DTM~DynamicsynchronousTransferMode~aspecificationthatwasunanimously
approvedbythemembersofETSI.
DTMF~DataToneMultipleFrequency~Usedwithmodemstoputmoredatadownone
line.
DTML~DocumentTemplateMark-upLanguage~asubsetofSGMLandasupersetof
HTMLusedforcreatingdocumentsthatdynamicallyadapttoexternalconditionsusingits
owncustomtagsandalittlebitofPython.
DTN~DisruptionTolerantNetworking~anetworkingarchitecturethatisdesignedto
providecommunicationsinthemostunstableandstressedenvironments
DTP~Desktoppublishing~Asystemthatprocessesthetextandgraphicsand,bymeans
ofpagelayoutsoftwareandalaserprinter,produceshigh-qualitypagessuitablefor
printingorin-housereproduction.
DTR~DataTerminalReady~Itisaprimaryserialprintersignalforhardware
handshakingoveraserialinterface;connectstotheDSRpinatthecomputer.
DTS~DigitalTheaterSystem~Specialsystemusedforencodinganddecodinganaudio
signalonmultiplechannels,usedincinemasandhome-usetheatersystemsaswell.Used
forthefirsttimebymoviedirectorStevenSpielberg,DTS’mostcommonchannelarray
comprises5.1channels(5fullrangeandoneforthesubwoofer).DolbyDigitalisDTS’
mostnotablecompetitor.
DTTV~DigitalTerestialTelevison~broadcastsoverearthboundcircuitssosateliites
aren’tusedforanypartofthelinkbetweenÂthebroadcasterandtheenduser.
du~diskusage~duisastandardUnixprogramusedtoestimatethefilespaceusagespaceusedunderaparticulardirectoryorfilesonafilesystem.
DUAL~DiffusingUpdateAlgorithm~ConvergencealgorithmusedinEnhancedIGRP
thatprovidesloop-freeoperationateveryinstantthroughoutaroutecomputation.Allows
routersinvolvedinatopologychangetosynchronizeatthesametime,whilenotinvolving
routersthatareunaffectedbythechange.
DUL~DialUpList~alistofdialupsknowntobeusedbyspammers.Networkscanuse
thelisttoautomaticallyblockallmailfromthosedialups.
DUN~Dial-UpNetworking~CreatingaWANoverdial-upinternet.
DUNS~DataUniversalNumberingSystem~Asysteminwhichinternationally
recognizednine-digitnumbersareassignedandmaintainedbyDun&Bradstreetto
uniquelyidentifyworldwidebusinesses.
DUOW/DUW~distributedunitofwork~AunitofworkthatallowsSQLstatementsto
besubmittedtomultiplerelationaldatabasemanagementsystems,butnomorethanone
systemperSQLstatement.
DUOW/DUW~distributedunitofwork~Inadistributedprocess,allprocessing
betweentwosyncpointstakenbytwoormoreintercommunicatingtransactionsusinga
two-phasecommitprotocol.
DUPS~DigitalUnbundledPortServices~Anelement,notbundledwithaloopor
transportfacility,whichprovidesdigitalaccesstothefunctionalityofalocalswitching
system.
DUV~DataUnderVoice~Thenormallyunusedspectrumatthelowerendofaradio
channelusedtoprovideaT1(1.544mbps)channelfordigitalservices.
DVB-H~DigitalVideoBroadcasting-Handhelds~specificationforbringingbroadcast
servicestobattery-poweredhandheldreceiversthatallowsthereceivingdevicetomove
freelywhilereceivingthetransmission.
DVBMHP~DigitalVideoBroadcastingMultimediaHomePlatform~EuropeandSouth
KoreaInteractiveTV
DVB-SH~DigitalVideoBroadcasting-SatelliteservicestoHandhelds~asystemused
todeliverIPbasedmediacontentanddatatohandheldterminals,likemobilephonesor
PDAs,viasatellite.TheDVB-SHsystemwasdesignedforfrequenciesbelow3GHz,
typicallyintheS-band.
DVCD~DoubleVideoCD~CDcapableofholdingupto99minutesofvideoaswellas
audiodata,withqualitysimilartoVHStape.
DVD~DigitalVersatileDisc~DVDisastoragemediumcapableofstoringprograms
anddata.
DVI~DigitalVideoInterface,originallyDigitalVideoDisc~Aspecificationfora
computermonitorinterfacecapableofcarryingbothanaloganddigitalsignals.DVIwas
developedbytheDigitalDisplayWorkingGroup,anindustrygroupformedbyInteland
othervendors.
DVMRP~DistanceVectorMulticastRoutingProtocol~aninteriorgatewayprotocol
basedonRIPthatsupportsconnectionlessmulticastdatatransmissiontoagroupofhosts
overanetwork.
DVRs~Digitalvideo/Versatilerecorders~Ahard-drive-equippedset-topboxthatmakes
iteasyforconsumerstorecordTVprograms,pauseliveTV,andskipcommercials.
DWDM~densewavedivisionmultiplexing~Atechnologyusedtoincreasefiber-optic
transmissioncapacity.Infiber-opticnetworkssuchasÂSONET,ÂDWDMÂpermits
fiberstocarryuptoeightwavelengthsoflight,thusmultiplyingtheircapacitybythe
numberofwavelengthscarried.
DWF~DesignWebFormat~Fast,efficientwaytodistributedesigndatatoanyonewho
needsit.WithAutodeskExpressViewer,asmall,free,downloadableapplication,youcan
viewandprintthatrichdata
DWM~DesktopWindowsManager~AwindowingsysteminWindowsVistaeditions
(allexceptStarterandHomeBasic)thatsupportAero,whichhandlesdrawingofcontent
tothescreen.
DWS~DialableWidebandService~AlternativenameforMultirateISDN,providing
dialeddataconnectivityatdesiredbandwidthonpercallbasis(from128kbpsthrough
1.536Mbpsin64kbpsincrements).
DX~DirectX/DirectX~MicrosoftDirectXsoftware
dxdiag~directxdiagnostics~autilityprogramfortestingDirectXunderWindows.
DXF~DrawingInterchangeFormat~usedforMacintoshgraphicfiles.Thestandardfileexchangeformatfor3-DandCADprograms.
DXI~DataExchangeInterface~Avariablelengthframe-basedATMinterfacebetweena
DTEandaspecialATMCSU/DSU.TheATMCSU/DSUconvertsbetweenthevariablelengthDXIframesandthefixed-lengthATMcells.
dyld~dynamiclinkeditor~ThelibrarymanagerforcodeintheMach-Oexecutable
format.Thedynamiclinkeditorisadynamiclibrarythat“lives�inallMach-O
programsonthesystem.
~E~
e-~Electronic~Electronicoronline(forinstanceane-zineisanonlinemagazine
publishedonlyinanelectronicform).
EPhone~EmergencyPhones.~telecomslang.
E&M~recEiveandtransMit(orearandmouth)~Trunkingarrangementgenerallyused
fortwo-wayswitch-to-switchorswitch-to-networkconnections.Cisco’sanalogE&M
interfaceisanRJ-48connectorthatallowsconnectionstoPBXtrunklines(tielines).
E&MalsoisavailableonE1andT1digitalinterfaces.
E_D_TOV~errordetecttimeoutvalue~Thetimethataswitchwaitsforanexpected
responsebeforedeclaringanerrorcondition.Thisvalueisadjustablein1microsecond
incrementsfrom2-10seconds.
E1~~AEuropeandigitalcommunicationslinewithatransmissionspeedof2.048Mbps,
asdefinedundertheE-carriersystem.ForDS1,32digitalvoicechannelsaremultiplexed
ontooneE1channel
E2~~AdigitaltelecommunicationsconnectioncategorydefinedundertheEuropeanEcarriersystem.AnE2linehasanaggregatecapacityof8.448megabitspersecond.
E2E~End-to-End~Alsoknownas‘soup-to-nuts’itisanacronymforasectorofthe
industrythatspecializesinprovidingend-to-endsolutions.
E3~ElectronicEntertainmentExpo~Theannualvideogameconferenceandshowatthe
LosAngelesConventioncenter.www.e3expo.com
E3~~AEuropeandigitaltelecommunicationsfacilitywithatransmissionspeedof
34.368Mbps.ForDS3,32voicechannelsaremultiplexedontooneE3channel.
EA~ElectronicArts~EA(NASDAQ:ERTS)isamajorAmericandeveloper,marketer,
publisheranddistributorofvideogames.
EA~EnterpriseAgreement~EAisaMicrosoftvolumesoftwareagreement.
EAB~EnterpriseAddressBook~Acollectionofinformationaboutpeople,departments,
andlocationsinanenterprise.Informationaboutpeoplemayincludetelephonenumbers,
mailingaddresses,andthedepartmentinwhichapersonworks.
EAI~Enterpriseapplicationintegration~EAIisabusinesscomputingtermfortheplans,
methods,andtoolsaimedatmodernizing,consolidating,andcoordinatingthecomputer
applicationsinanenterprise.
EAL~EvaluationAssuranceLevel~4CommonCriteriacertificationofWatchguard
firewall
EAM~EventAggregationModule~TivoliSecurityOperationsManagermodule
EAP~ExtensibleAuthenticationProtocol~aprotocolforwirelessnetworksthatexpands
onauthenticationmethodsusedbythePPP,aprotocoloftenusedwhenconnectinga
computertotheInternet.
EAR~EmergencyAssistanceRequest~usuallyaninternalrequestwithinacompanyfor
technicalassistancebytheirownsupportstafftoassistwithanend-userproblem.Mostof
theseproblemsaretermedasBUGSbyusersandbytheprogrammersasundocumented
features.
EARL~EnhancedAddressRecognitionLogic~acustomCatalyst5000familyswitch
componentsimilartothelearningbridgeorcontent-addressablememory(CAM)ofother
typesofnetworkswitchesandrouters
EAS~enterpriseapplicationserver~enterpriseapplicationserver
EASDAQ~EuropeanAssociationofSecuritiesDealersAutomatedQuotations~An
electronicpan-EuropeanstockexchangefoundedbytheBelgianBankingandFinance
Commission,closelymodeledontheÂNASDAQÂexchangeintheUnitedStates.In
2001,NASDAQacquireda58percentstakeinEASDAQandrenameditNASDAQ
Europe.
EAT~EndAroundTest~Alsoknownasawraptest,returnsoutputsignaltoinputline
EAX~EnvironmentalAudio~Ahardwareandsoftwareaudiostandarddevelopedby
CreativeLabs.ItwasoriginallyusedinSoundBlastersoundboards,andissupportedby
othercompaniesaswellnow.
EB~Exabyte~Thisis2^60bytesor1024petabytes.
EBCDIC~ExtendedBinaryCodedDecimalInterchangeCode~Itisalsocalledthe
ExtendedASCIICode.ThisisacommonasynchronouscodeusedbyIBM.Itis
pronounced‘ehb-suh-dik’.Manycorporationthathavelegacyapplicationsanddatabases
inIBM’sOS/390operatingsystemusethiscodeforthetextfiles.The8bitcharactercode
isusedtorepresent256differentbitpatterns.
EBIF~EnhancedTVBinaryInterchangeFormat~standardundertheSelecTVbrand
announcedinearly2010
EBML~ExtensibleBinaryMetaLanguage~Simple,XML-likebinarylanguagefor
describingdatainstructuredstyle.Seehttp://ebml.sourceforge.net/
EBPP~ElectronicBillPresentationandPayment~Anacronymthatimpliesusingthe
Internettosend,receive,andpaybills,thisisconsideredbysomepeopletobethenext
stepinonlinebanking.
EBS~E-BusinessSuite~Oracle’sordermanagementhubs
EC2~ElasticComputeCloud~AmazonEC2allowscustomerstorentcomputerson
whichtoruntheirowncomputerapplications.EC2allowsscalabledeploymentof
applicationsbyprovidingawebservicesinterfacethroughwhichacustomercancreate
virtualmachines,i.e.serverinstances,onwhichthecustomercanloadanysoftwareof
theirchoice.
ECB~electroniccodebook~Amethodofencipheringanddecipheringdatainaddress
spacesordataspaces.Each64-bitblockofplaintextisseparatelyencipheredandeach
blockoftheciphertextisseparatelydeciphered.
ECB~EventControlBlock~Adatastructureusedtocontrolsendingandreceivingof
packetsinaNovellNetwork
ECC~ellipticcurvecryptography~Approachtopublic-keycryptographybasedon
ellipticcurvesoverfinitefields.
ECC~ErrorCheckingandCorrection~Amethodofdetectingandcorrectingsystem
memoryerrorsbyaddingadditionalbitsandusingaspecialalgorithm.
ECEM~enterprisecarbonandenergymanagement~Acorporatewidesystemofrecord
formonitoring,managing,andreportingenergyuseandcarbonemissions.ECEMisa
Forresterterm,whichwefeelbestdescribesthesystems’functionalityandcustomer
requirements.
ECHS~ExtendedCylinders,Heads,Sectors~Enablesuseofharddrivesupto8.4GBin
size
eCI~eCommerceintegrator~Aserviceproviderthatoffersstrategy,marketing,design,
andtechnicalservicesforeBusiness.Technicalservicesarecustomdevelopment,
commercepackageimplementation,andapplicationintegration,nothostingornetwork
services.
ECM~Enterprisecontentmanagement~asetoftoolsandmethodsthatobtain,organize,
storeanddeliverinformationcrucialtoitsoperation.ThefundamentalobjectivesofECM
aretostreamlineaccess,eliminatebottlenecks,optimizesecurity,maintainintegrityand
minimizeoverhead.
ECMA~EuropeanComputerManufacturersAssociation~Anindustrytradegroup
headquarteredinGeneva.TheECMAhasdevelopedmorethan200computerstandards.
ECMP~EqualCostMultipathRouting~distributestrafficacrossmultiplehighbandwidthlinkstoincreaseperformance.Onecompany’sOSPFimplementationsupports
multipleequal-costpathsbetweenpointsanddividestrafficevenlyamongtheavailable
paths.
ECO~EngineeringChangeOrder~Hardwareminorrevisions,usuallyinthedaysof
minicomputers,whereachangewasn’tmadetothePCBlayout(whichwouldprobably
carrythemajorrevisionnumber/letter)
ECP~electroniccheckpresentment~Theelectronicpresentationofcheckdatato
processingbanks.InthefirstECPphase,onebankpresentsasecondbankwithelectronic
checkinformationbasedonthecheck’sÂMICRÂline,whichstatesthecorrectcustomer
accountandtheamountofthepayment.
ECS~ExtendedCharacterSet~AnindustryacronymforaspecializedASCIIcharacter
set.Themaindifferencesareinthecontrolcharactersandthedecimalcharacter
representationsofdecimal128-255.
ECTF~EnterpriseComputerTelephonyForum~Bringstogetherthebestindustry
thinkersontheplanettodeliveronasharedvisioninthecomputertelephonyindustryto
allowforopenaccesstoadiversityofcommunicationsproductsandservices.See
alsoÂhttp://www.ectf.org/
ED2K~eDonkey2000~adecentralized,mostlyserver-based,peer-to-peerfilesharing
networkbestsuitedtosharebigfilesamongusers,andtoprovidelongtermavailabilityof
saidfiles.
EDA~event-drivenarchitecture~EDAisasoftwarearchitecturepatternthatorchestrates
behavioraroundtheproduction,detectionandconsumptionofeventsaswellasthe
responsestheyevoke.
EDC~electronicdispersioncompensation~EDCtechnologyissupportedbytheOptical
InternetworkingForum(OIF)-agroupcurrentlydefininga10Gbpsinteroperability
specificationtargetingopticallinks.Thetransmissiondistanceofthisspecification
supportsupto120km(2400ps/nm)
EDC~ElectronicDataCapture~EDCsystemisacomputerizedsystemdesignedforthe
collectionofclinicaldatainelectronicformat
EDGE~EnhancedDataRatesforGSMEvolution~Aradiointerfacetechnologywith
enhancedmodulationdesignedtoprovideÂGSMÂandtimedivisionmultipleaccess
(TDMA)networkswiththecapacitytorivalthird-generation(3G)cellularnetworks.
EDI~electronicdatainterchange~Theexchangeofstructuredelectronicdatabetween
computersystemsaccordingtopredefinedmessagestandards.
EDI~ElectronicDataInterchange~Theprocessofautomatingtheexchangeofbusiness
informationsuchaspurchaseorders,deliverynotesandinvoicesoveradatanetwork.
EDIFACT~ElectronicDataInterchangeForAdministration,CommerceandTransport~
internationalEDIstandarddevelopedundertheUnitedNation,alsonamedUN/EDIFACT
e-discovery~Electronicdiscovery~thecollection,processingandreviewoflarge
amountsofESIwithinanenterprisetomeetthemandatesimposedbycommonlaw
requirementsfordiscovery.Thesedemandsmaybeduetocivilorcriminallitigation,
regulatoryoversight,oradministrativeproceedings.Anindependentgroupofconsultants,
legalscholarsandvendorshavecreatedandputintothepublicdomainan‘E-Discovery
ReferenceModel’([EDRM];Âwww.edrm.netÂ)
EDM~ElectronicDocumentManagement~Asystemthatmanagesdifferentkindsof
documents,usingcomputerprogramsandstorage.AnEDMsystemallowsacompanyand
itsuserstocreateadocumentorcapturethehardcopyofafileinelectronicform.
EDM~EMCDataManager~Acentralized,high-performancebackupandrestoresystem
optimizedforlargeenterprisedatabaseenvironments,fromstoragevendorÂEMC.
EDO~ExtendedDataOutput~atypeofdynamicrandomaccessmemory.EDOmemory
ismuchfasterthanDRAMbecauseitcanaccessmorethanoneblockofinformationata
time.EDOmemoryaccessesablockofmemoryandasitissendingtheinformationfrom
oneblockitstartsaccessinganotherblocktofetchinformation.
edress~e-mailaddress~e-mailaddress
EDS~ElectronicDataSystems~Amultibillion-dollarsystemintegrationandITservices
firm,foundedin1962andheadquarteredinPlano,Texas.AcquiredbyHP.
EDW~enterprisedatawarehouse~enterprisedatawarehouse
EEPROM/EPROM~ElectricalErasableProgrammableReadOnlyMemory~This
typeofmemorycanbereprogrammedanderasedelectronicallyrepeatedlybyusinga
deviceprogrammerwhichprovidesanelectricsurge.
EF~ExpeditedForwarding~APer-HopBehaviorintheDifferentiatedServicestandard,
usedtocreateavirtualleasedlineservice
EFI~ExtensibleFirmwareInterface~SoftwarethatrunsautomaticallywhenanIntelbasedMacintoshfirststartsup.Itdeterminesthecomputershardwareconfigurationand
startsthesystemsoftware.
EFM~Enterprisefraudandmisusemanagement~savesusersmoneybyenabling
operationalefficiencies,andbystoppingfraudandmisusethatoccuracrossmultiple
channels,accountsorproducts
EFS~EncryptingFileSystem~Anencryptionmethodbasedondigitalcertificates,
whichallowsuserstoprotecttheconfidentialityoftheirdataonaper-fileorper-folder
basis.
EFS~ErrorFreeSeconds~AunitusedtospecifytheerrorperformanceofTcarrier
systems,usuallyexpressedasEFSperhour,day,orweek.Thismethodgivesabetter
indicationofthedistributionofbiterrorsthanasimpleÂBER.
EFT~ElectronicFundsTransfer~Asystemwheremoneyistransferredelectronically
fromonebankaccounttoanother,withouttheneedforanypaperworksuchasthe
traditionalcheque.
EGA~EnhancedGraphicsAdapter~Acomputerdisplaystandardthatprovidesa
resolutionof640by350pixels,apaletteof64colors,andtheabilitytodisplayasmany
as16colorsatonetime.
EGL~EnterpriseGenerationLanguage~Ahigh-levellanguagethatallowsdevelopersto
focusonbusinesslogicastheycreatecomplexbusinessapplicationsfordeploymentin
anyofseveralenvironments,includingtheWeb.
EGNOS~EuropeanGeostationaryNavigationOverlayService~asatellitebased
augmentationsystemdevelopedbytheEuropeanSpaceAgency.
EGP~ExteriorGatewayProtocol~Areachabilityroutingprotocolusedbygatewaysina
two-levelinternet.EGPisusedintheInternetcoresystem.
EH&S~Environmental,HealthandÂSafety~EH&Scompliancesystemscapture
productorprocessdataaccordingtoaregulatoryÂauthority’sstandards
EHA~EthernetHardwareAddress(MACaddress)~Linklayer-IEEEStd802IEEE
OUIAssignments
EHA~EthernetHardwareAddress~MACaddress,aÂuniqueidentifierÂassigned
toÂnetworkinterfacesÂforcommunicationsonthephysicalnetworksegment.
EHR~ElectronicHealthRecord~nelectronicrecordofhealth-relatedinformationonan
individualthatconformstonationallyrecognizedinteroperabilitystandardsandthatcan
becreated,managed,andconsultedbyauthorizedcliniciansandstaffacrossmorethan
onehealthcareorganization.
EIA~ElectronicsIndustryAlliance~Organization-EIA
EIA~ElectronicIndustriesAlliance~High-techassociationthatrepresentsthefull
spectrumofU.S.electronicsandhigh-techindustrymanufacturers.See
alsoÂhttp://www.eia.org
EIA~enterpriseinformationarchitecture~enterpriseinformationarchitecture
EIGRP~EnhancedInteriorGatewayRoutingProtocol~InternetLayer-CiscoDocID:
16406
EIGRP~EnhancedInteriorGatewayRoutingProtocol~Ciscoproprietaryrouting
protocollooselybasedontheiroriginalIGRP.EIGRPisanadvanceddistance-vector
routingprotocol,withoptimizationstominimizeboththeroutinginstabilityincurredafter
topologychanges
EII~enterpriseintegrationinformationÂ~dataintegration
EIM~EnterpriseIdentityMapping~anopenarchitecturefromIBMforhelpingan
enterprisemanagethemultipleuserregistriesandidentitiesthatenableacomputeruserto
accessmultipleapplicationswithaSSO.
EIM~enterpriseinformationmanagement~anintegrativedisciplineforstructuring,
describingandgoverninginformationassets,regardlessoforganizationaland
technologicalboundaries,toimproveoperationalefficiency,promotetransparencyand
enablebusinessinsight.
EIRP~EffectiveIsotropicRadiatedPower~Theeffectivepowerradiatedfroma
transmittingantennawhenanisotropicradiatorisusedtodeterminethegainofthe
antenna
EIS~enterpriseinformationsystem~InSystemManager,alltheresourcesthatthe
applicationsmanageandthefunctionsformanagingthem.
EIS~enterpriseinformationsystem~Theapplicationsthatcompriseanenterprise’s
existingsystemforhandlingcompanywideinformation.
EIST~EnhancedIntelSpeedStepTechnology~anadvancedmeansofenablingvery
highperformancewhilealsomeetingthepower-conservationneedsofmobilesystems.
ConventionalIntelSpeedStepTechnologyswitchesbothvoltageandfrequencyintandem
betweenhighandlowlevelsinresponsetoprocessorload.
EJB~EnterpriseJavaBeans~AcomponentarchitecturedefinedbySunMicrosystems
forthedevelopmentanddeploymentofobject-oriented,distributed,enterprise-level
applications
EKTS~electronickeytelephoneset~Anykeytelephonewithabuilt-inmicroprocessor
whichallowsaccesstoPBX-likefeaturesaswellasaccesstomultipleCOlinesanduses
two-tofour-pairwiring.
ELAN~EmulatedLocalAreaNetwork~Alogicalnetworkinitiatedbyusingthe
mechanismsdefinedbyLANE(LANEmulation).ThiscouldincludeATMandlegacy
attachedendstations.
ELM~Expertiselocationandmanagement~theidentificationofhumanexpertise,
determiningthestatusofthatresourceandintegratingthatpersonintotheinteraction
process.
ELT~extract,load,andtransform~Theprocessofextractingdatafromoneormore
sources,loadingitdirectlyintoarelationaldatabase,andthenusingthedatabaseengineto
rundatatransformations.
EMA~EnterpriseManagementAssociates~leadingindustryanalystfirmthatprovides
deepinsightacrossthefullspectrumofITanddatamanagement
technologies.Âwww.enterprisemanagement.com
EMC~ElectromagneticCompatibility~capabilityofsystemsorequipmenttobetested
intheintendedenvironmentatdesignedlevelsofefficiencywithoutdegradationdueto
electromagneticinteractions
EMF~ElectroMagneticField~Thesefieldsareproducedbypowerlines,transformers,
appliancesandradiofrequency-RFsourcessuchasmicrowaveovens,cellularphones,
AM/FM/TVtransmitters,radars,etc.
EMF~ElectroMotiveForce~usetodescribeanythingwhichbehaveslikeanelectrical
pump.Batteries,generators,thermoelectricdevices,solarcells,andpiezoelectriccrystals
alldothesamejobinanelectricalcircuit.
EMI~Electromagneticinterference~Analiasforthistermis‘RFI’or‘RF’or‘induced
noise’.Insensitiveand/orbadlydesignedequipment,EMIcancauseseriousmalfunctions
orlossofcontrol.EMCaimstopreventthiseverhappening.
EMI~EnhancedMultilayerImage~Cisco’smulticastroutingimplentationpermitsany
hosttosendapacketbutonlymembersofthemulticastgrouptoreceiveitif‘EMI’is
enabledontheStackMaster.
EMOTICON~EMOTionICON~Agroupofsymbolsusedtoindicateemotionsin
emailornewsgroups.
EMPI~EnterpriseMasterPatientIndex~EMPIisadatabasethatcontainsaunique
identifierforeverypatientintheenterprise.
EMR~electronicmedicalrecord~Asystemusedtocompilecomputerizedpatient
healthcareinformation.EMRsgenerallydealwithinformationonlyintheformof
documentimagesortextformattedforoutputtoaprinterorvideodisplay.
EMS~EnhancedMessagingService~Messagingcomprisingsimplepictures,sounds,
animations,andmodifiedtext.
EMS~enterprisemessagingsystem~enterprise-gradesystemthatenables‘program-toprogram’messagingbetweenapplicationsandsystemsthroughoutanenterprise.
EMS~ExpandedMemorySpecification~atechniqueforutilizingmorethan1MBof
mainmemoryinDOS-basedcomputers.Thelimitof1MBisbuiltintotheDOSoperating
system.
EMV~Europay-MasterCard-Visa~Anemerginggeneralpaymentstandardforsmart
cards.
ENIW~Web-enabledEthernetNetworkingInterface~modulepresentsadditionalremote
Webcapabilitiesbyprovidingread/writeaccessviatheInternet.
ENQ~Enquiry~AcontrolcharacterusedintheASCIIcodesettorequestidentification
status.
ENS~enterprisenervoussystem~Gartner’stermfortheintelligentnetworkthat
providesunifyingconnectivityamongpeople,applicationsystemsanddevicesindifferent
locationsandbusinessunitsacrossavirtualenterprise.
ENTL~ElectronicNewHire/Termination/LeaveofAbsence~electronicdocumentused
tosetupnewstaff,termination,orleave.
ENUM~electronicnumbering/ElectronicNumberMappingsystem~ENUMisan
IETFstandardformappingthepublictelephonenumberaddressspaceintotheDNS.
ENX~EuropeanNetworkExchange~thecommunicationsnetworkoftheEuropean
automotiveindustry.Âwww.enxo.com
EOF~EndOfFrame(HDLC,etc.)~Linklayer-HDLCframing
EOF~end-of-file~Onadatamedium,acodedcharacterindicatingtheendofthe
medium.
EOF~end-of-file~Acodethatsignalsthatthelastrecordofafilehasbeenreadend-offiledelay
EOL~EndOfLife~Itusuallyreferstothetimeperiodofsupportforasoftwareproduct
afteranewrevisionhasbeenplacedintouse.Fromtimetotime,hardwarevendorsalso
usethetermtodescribeatimeperiodofsupportforagivenhardwareitem.
EoS/EoSDH~EthernetoverSONET/EthernetOverSDH~EoSisasetofprotocols
whichallowEthernettraffictobecarriedoversynchronousdigitalhierarchynetworksin
anefficientandflexibleway.EthernetframeswhicharetobesentontheSDHlinkaresent
throughan‘encapsulation’blocktocreateasynchronousstreamofdatafromthe
asynchronousEthernetpackets..
EPABX~ElectronicPrivateAutomaticBranchExchange~refertoÂPABX
e-paper~Electronicpaper~e-paperarangeofdisplaytechnologywhicharedesignedto
mimictheappearanceofordinaryinkonpaper.
ePC~electronicproductcode~avisionforusingnext-generationtechnologytosupplant
thebarcodebasedUniversalProductCode(UPC)systemforidentifyingsupplychain
objectssuchasvehicleandpalletloads,caseloadsandindividualarticles.
EPG(s)~electronicprogramguides~two-waytelevisionservices
EPGs~electronicprogramguides~two-waytelevisionservices
EPIC~ExplicitlyParallelInstructionComputing~designedtofullyincorporateallof
thefeaturesoftheItaniumseriesofprocessorsfromIntel.TheuniquelydesignedEPIC
architectureallowsthehighestpossibleperformancevianewlevelsofparallelismfor
enterpriseandtechnicalapplications.
EPL~EthernetPrivateLine~Apoint-to-pointservicethatemploysdedicatedSONET
channelsoverasharedSONETinfrastructure
EPM~EnterprisePerformanceManagement~OracleFusionrelease
EPN~ExtendedPortNetwork~Aremoteswitchingmoduleofatelephoneswitch.
Differentvendorsusedifferentnames.EPNisspecifictoAvayaandDefinitylineof
PBXs.
ePO~EPolicyOrchestrator~McAfeetoolthatdeliversreal-timeinformationand
applicationintegrationfornetwork,desktop,andserversecurity
EPO~emergencypoweroff~Ameansofturningoffpowerduringanemergency,
referringusuallytoaswitch.
EPOC~ElectronicPieceofCheese~A32-bitoperatingsystemdesignedbySymbian
andwritteninC++.ItisusedinmobilephonesandPDAs,includingPDAsmanufactured
byPsion.
EPP~EnhancedParallelPort~Anenhancedversionoftheparallelportspecificationfor
PCs.
EPP~EnterprisePortalPlatform~RedHat’sJBossEPPisthecommercialversionofthe
open-sourceGateIncommunityportal.
EPR~ElectronicPatientRecord~designedtoallowfastandeasyon-lineaccesstoeach
patient’srecordsinallareasacrosstheHopkinscontinuumofcare,thusenhancingpatient
care.
EPR~EndPointReference~CombinationofWebserviceselementsthatdefinethe
addressforaresourceinaSOAPheader
EPS~EncapsulatedPostScript~Adobefileformatforgraphicsandtextsupportedby
severalgraphicsdrawingapplications.
EPS~EventsPerSecond~metricusedinevaluatinglogmanagementandrelatedtools.It
representsthetotalnumberofnetworkandsecurityevents,accumulatedfromvarious
networkdevices,thatmustbemanagedpersecond.
EPU~EnergyProcessingUnit~ASUSEPUutilizesinnovativetechnologytodigitally
monitorandfinetunetheCPUpowersupplywithimprovedVRresponsesinheavyor
lightloadings.
ERL~EchoReturnLoss~Afrequency-weightedmeasureofreturnlossoverthemiddle
ofthevoiceband(approximately560to1965Hz)wheretalkerechoismostannoying.
ERMS~electronicrecordsmanagementsystems~electronicrecordsmanagement
systems
ERP~Enterpriseresourceplanning~applicationsrepresentthecorebusiness
applicationsofmostenterprises.Theseapplicationsencompassmanagementand
administrativefunctions,includingfinancialmanagementandHR,aswellascomponents
formanagingrevenueactivitiesandexpendituresandoperations.
ERP~errorrecoveryprocedure~Aproceduredesignedtohelpisolateand,where
possible,torecoverfromerrorsinequipment.Theprocedureisoftenusedinconjunction
withprogramsthatrecordinformationonmachinemalfunctions.
ERR~ERRor~ERRor
eRX~e-Prescribing~atypeofcomputertechnologywherebyphysiciansusehandheldor
personalcomputerdevicestoreviewdrugandformularycoverageandtotransmit
prescriptionstoaprinterortoalocalpharmacy.
ESA~EnthusiastSystemArchitecture~NvidiaESAistheindustry’sfirstopenstandardPCmonitoringandcontrolprotocolforreal-timecommunicationandcontrolof
systemthermal,electrical,acousticandoperating
characteristics.Âhttp://www.nvidia.com/object/nvidia_esa.html
ESB~enterpriseservicebus~ESBbringsflow-relatedconceptssuchastransformation
androutingtoaService-OrientedArchitecture.
ESCD~ExtendedSystemConfigurationData~SetupdatathatisstoredinaPlug-andPlay-compatiblesystemBIOS.Itconsistsofthesystemresourcerequirementsoflegacy
(non-PNP)devices,andthelastworkingconfigurationofPlug-and-Play-compliant
devices.
ESCON~EnterpriseSystemsConnection~anIBMfiberopticconnectiontechnology
thatinterconnectsS/390mainframecomputers,workstationsandnetwork-attachedstorage
devicesacrossasinglechannelandsupportshalfduplexdatatransfers.
ESDI~EnhancedSmallDeviceInterface~Thiswasapopularformofharddriveand
controllerinterfacebeforeIDEtookoverthePCmarket.
ESE~ExtensibleStorageEngine~Storesallactivedirectoryobjects
ESF~ExtendedSuperframeFormat~AT1framingformatthatusestheframingbitto
providemainte-nanceanddiagnosticfunctions.
ESG~EnterpriseStrategyGroup~anintegrated,full-serviceITanalystandbusiness
strategyfirm,world-renownedforforward-lookingmarketintelligence,analysis,and
consultingservicesthatdeliverproven,measurable
results.Âwww.enterprisestrategygroup.com
ESI~EdgeSideInclude~AtechnologysupportingcacheableandnoncacheableWeb
pagecomponentsthatcanbegatheredandassembledattheedgeofanetwork.
ES-IS~EndSystemtoIntermediateSystem~TheInternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization’sOpenSystemsInterconnection(OSI)protocolbywhichendsystems
announcethemselvestointermediatesystems.
ESL~electronicshelflabels~programmablewirelesselectronicdevicethatcan
beÂaffixedtostoreshelves/shelfchannels
ESM~EnterpriseSecurityManager~Symantecscalablesecuritypolicycomplianceand
host-basedvulnerabilityassessmenttool
ESM~EnterpriseSecurityManager~ArcSightÂESMisthemarket-leadingsecurity
correlationengine
ESM~EnterpriseServiceManagement~consistsofsolutionsandrelatedprofessional
servicesintheITmanagementareas
ESN~electronicserialnumber~Uniqueidentificationnumberembeddedinawireless
phonebythemanufacturertopreventfraud.
ESP~estimatedstreetprice~amanufacturerordeveloper’sestimatedpriceforaproduct
inaspecificregionormarketsector.
ESP~EncapsulatedSecurityPayload~InaVPN,asecurityprotocolthatprovidesdata
confidentialityandintegrity.
ESPN~EntertainmentandSportsProgrammingNetwork~ESPNisanAmericanglobal
cabletelevisionnetworkfocusingoncomprehensivesports
coverage.Âhttp://espn.go.com/
ESRB~EntertainmentSoftwareRatingBoard~anon-profit,independentorganization
establishedin1994thatreviewsentertainmentsoftwareandwebsitesandassigns
standardizedratingsbasedonsuitabilityforchildren.Âwww.esrb.org
ESS~Extendedserviceset(Wi-Figroup)~Wireless-IEEEStd802.11-2007
ESS~employeeself-service~Oncesimplydefinedasemployeeaccesstohuman
resources(HR)systems,forthepurposeofreviewingorupdatingbenefitsoraddress
informationthathadpreviouslybeeninanHR-staff-controlleddomain.
ESS~ExtendedServiceSet~asetofoneormoreinterconnectedBSSsandintegrated
localareanetworksthatappearasasingleBSStothelogicallinkcontrollayeratany
stationassociatedwithoneofthoseBSSs.
ETA~EmbeddedTransportAcceleration~IntelETAistheabilitytodeliverhighperformanceservercommunication
ETAS~EncryptedTransactionAuditSystem~Thistechnology,developedbyComputer
SupportGroup,isusedwithinmanybusinesswebsites.I-BizandEcommercesoftwareare
toenablesecurityandspecialtransactionauditingandtracking.
etc~EssentialTextConfiguration~Inanyunix(andvariantslikelinux)systemthe/etc
directory
ETC~EnhancedThroughputCellular~CellularmodemprotocolbyAT&T
ETL~Extract,TransformandLoad~Usedtorefertosetsoftoolsorprocessesfor
extractingdatafromadatawarehouse,transformingdatainadatawarehouseorloading
dataintoadatawarehouse.
ETN~electronictandemnetwork~Aprivatetelecommunicationsnetworkinwhichcalls
areautomaticallyswitchedoverspecifictrunks.
ETRN~ExtendedTurn~anextensiontotheSMTPmaildeliveryprotocolthatallowsan
SMTPservertorequestfromanotherSMTPserveranye-mailmessagesithasfora
specificdomain.
ETSI~EuropeanTelecommunicationsStandardisationInstitute~produce
theÂtelecommunicationsstandardsÂthatwillbeusedthroughoutEuropeand
beyond.ÂEuropeanTelecommunicationsStandardisationInstitute
ETTb/ETTh~EthernetToTheBusiness/Home~Telecommunicationscarrierservice
providingEthernettoabusinesssubscriber(ETTb)orhomesubscriber(ETTh).
ETX~end-of-textcharacter~TheBSCtransmissioncontrolcharacterusedtoenda
logicalsetofrecordsthatbeganwiththestart-of-textcharacter.
EUC~ExtendedUNIXCode~Aprotocolthatcansupportsetsofcharactersfrom1to4
bytesinlength.EUCisameansofspecifyingacollectionofcodepagesratherthan
actuallybeingacodepageencodingschemeitself.
EUEM~enduserexperiencemonitoring~enduserexperiencemonitoring
EULA~End-UserLicenseAgreement~Thestandardlicenseagreementdeliveredwith
eachcopyofaMicrosoftsoftwareproduct,describingthesoftwarerightsthatpertainto
theuserofthatparticularcopy
EUP~EnterpriseUnifiedProcess~EUPisasoftwaredevelopmentmethodologythat
helpscompaniescreatesoftwareinanstructuredandorganizedmanner.Itisanextension
oftheRationalUnifiedProcess(RUP),addingtwonewdevelopmentphases—
ProductionandRetirement.
Eutelsat~EuropeanTelecommunicationsSatelliteOrganization~AParis-based
Europeansatellitenetworkoperator.Itofferscapacityon23satellitesfortelevisionand
radiobroadcasting,datanetworks,Internetservicesandmobilecommunications.
EVA~EnterpriseVirtualArray~enterprisestoragediskarraysoldbyHewlett-Packard.
EVDO~EvolutionDataOnly/EvolutionDataOptimized~Providesfastwireless
broadband3Ginternetservicetoyourlapviapcmcislot.Youcantaketheinternetwith
youinyourcar,airport,train,anywhereyourserviceprovidersupportsinordertosurfthe
webatyourconvenience.
EWS~EarlyWarningStatus~Systemthatalertsthehostsystemifdriveperformance
approachesunacceptablereliabilitylevels
EX~exchange~Aroomorbuildingequippedsothattelephonelinesterminatingthere
maybeinterconnectedasrequired.Theequipmentmayincludemanualorautomatic
switchingequipment.
EX~exchange~Atelephoneswitchingcenter;anaggregateoftraffic-carryingdevices,
switchingstages,controllingandsignalingmeansatanetworknodethatenables
subscriberlinesand/orothertelecommunicationcircuitstobeinterconnectedasrequired
byindividualcallers.
EX~exchange~Theterritoryservedbyanexchange,withinwhichlocalservicerates
apply;alsoknownastheexchangeareaorlocalservicearea.Â
EXE~EXEcutable~commonfilenameextensiondenotinganexecutablefile(aprogram)
intheDOS,OpenVMS,MicrosoftWindows,Symbian,andOS/2operatingsystems.
EXIF~EXchangeableImageFileformat~Standardforstoringinterchangeinformation
inimagefiles,especiallythoseusingJPEGcompression.Mostdigitalcamerasnowuse
theEXIFformat.Seealsohttp://www.exif.org/
~F~
FA~ForeignAgent~NodeinamobileIPnetworkthatenablesroameduserstoregister
ontheforeignnetwork.TheFAwillcommunicatewiththeHA(HomeAgent)toenableIP
datagramstobetransferredbetweenthehomenetworkandtheroameduserontheforeign
network
FACCH~FastAssociatedControlChannel~thechannelderivedbypreempting
informationinatrafficchannel.Itisusedtosendhandoffandsimilarmessages.
FAN~FileAreaNetwork~AFileAreaNetwork(FAN)enhancesstandardnetworkand
storageinfrastructure.FANtechnologyprovidescentralized,heterogeneous,and
enterprise-widenetworkfilemanagementandcontrol.
FAQ~FrequentlyAskedQuestions~MostInternetsitesandmanyÂISPÂareaswill
havea‘FAQ’sectiontoexplainwhatisintheareaandhowtouseitsfeatures.While
manyFAQareasaretruecompilationsofusers’questions,someareattemptsat
anticipatedquestions.
FAR~falseacceptancerate~oneofthemostimportantspecificationsinanybiometric
system,isdefinedasthepercentageofidentificationinstancesinwhichfalseacceptance
occurs.Thiscanbeexpressedasaprobability.
FARE~FilmAutomaticRetouchingandEnhancement~Canonfilmscannertechnology
FASS~FastAccessStationSwitching~aconceptintheÂWiMAXÂnetwork,isa
methodbywhichanMScanchangeitsaccessstationfromframetoframedependingon
thestationselectionmechanism.
FAST~FederationAgainstSoftwareTheft~AEuropeanvendororganizationconcerned
withpreventingpiracyandotherformsofunauthorizedsoftwareusage.
FAST~FileAndSettingsTransfer~TheFASTwizardhelpsyoutransferfilesin
windowsXP
FAT~fileallocationtable~Anindexformappinglogicalfilestophysicallocationsona
diskstoragedevice.EachFATentryis16-or32-bitslong(dependingonwhetheritis
FAT16orFAT32).
favicon~favoritesicon~Asmallimageoriconusedbymostrecentwebbrowsers
(InternetExplorer5andabove).Itcanbedisplayedinanumberofdifferentplaces
dependingonwhichbrowseryou’reusing.
FAW~FrameAlignmentWord~auniquedigitalwordusedbycodecstoallowthemto
resynchronizetotheframingstructureintheeventoferrors.
FAX~FACSimile~FACSimile
FBA~fixed-blockarchitecture~Anarchitectureforalogicaldevicethatspecifiesthe
formatofandaccessmechanismsforthelogicaldataunitsonthedevice.Thelogicaldata
unitisablock.
FBD~FullyBufferedDIMM~FullyBufferedDIMM(orFB-DIMM)isamemory
technologywhichcanbeusedtoincreasereliability,speedanddensityofmemory
systems.Conventionally,datalinesfromthememorycontrollerhavetobeconnectedto
datalinesineveryDRAMmodule.
FBGA~Fine-pitchBallGridArray~FBGAisachip-scalepackageoptionforAMD
flashdevices.
FBSS~FastBaseStationSwitching~definedintheIEEE802.16-2005(mobile
WiMAX)network,isamethodtoallowswitchingbetweenanytypeofaccessstations
FC/FCS~FibreChannel(Standard)~TheFibreChannelStandard(FCS)[1]definesa
high-speeddatatransferinterfacethatcanbeusedtoconnecttogetherworkstations,
mainframes,supercomputers,storagedevicesanddisplays.
FC-AL~FibreChannelArbitratedLoop~Aring-stylenetworktopologycomprising125
nodes,usuallyconfiguredasadoublelooptoprotectthesystemagainstdevicefailure.
FCC~FederalCommunicationsCommission(US)~Organization-USFCC
FCC~FederalCommunicationsCommission~theagencyoftheU.S.governmentthat
regulatesallequipmentthatproducesradio-frequencysignals,including
computers.Âhttp://www.fcc.gov
FCCH~FrequencyCorrectionChannel~thelogicalchannelinGSMsystemsusedto
transmitafrequencycorrectiondataburstofall‘zeros’.Theresultingfrequencyshiftseen
bythemobileisthenusedforfrequencycorrection.
FCD~Floatingcardataorfloatingcellulardata~amethodtodeterminethetrafficspeed
ontheroadnetwork.
FCH~FrameControlHeader~afieldintheIEEE802.16-2004WIMAXprotocol.The
FCHspecifiestheburstprofileandthelengthofoneormoreDLburststhatimmediately
followtheFCH.
FCIP~FibreChanneloverInternetProtocol~FCIPmechanismsenablethetransmission
ofFibreChannel(FC)informationbytunnelingdatabetweenSANfacilitiesoverIP
networks;thiscapacityfacilitatesdatasharingoverageographicallydistributedenterprise
FCL~FrameworkClassLibrary~AcollectionofclasseswhicharepartofMicrosoft’s
.NETplatform
FCoE~FibreChanneloverEthernet~FCoEisaproposedstandarddesignedtoenable
FibreChannelcommunicationstorundirectlyoverEthernet.Thus,FCoEmakesit
possibletomoveFibreChanneltrafficacrossexistinghigh-speedEthernetinfrastructures
andextendthereachandcapabilityofstorageareanetworks(SANs).Thisabilityallows
organizationstoprotectandextendexistinginvestmentsintheirstoragenetworks.
FCP~FibreChannelProtocol~heserialSCSIcommandprotocolusedonFibreChannel
networks.
FCPGA~FlipChipPinGridArray~thepackageofcertainIntelCeleron,PentiumIII,
andPentium4microprocessors.FC-PGAprocessorsfitintoSocket370orSocket478
motherboardsockets.
FCS~Framechecksequence(Ethernet)~Linklayer-EthernetFrameIEEEStd802.3
FCS~FluorescenceCorrelationSpectroscopy~asingle-moleculedetectiontechniquefor
high-sensitivitymeasurementofmolecularinteractions.UniquefeaturesofFCS
measurementsmakeitidealforuseinassayingtechniques.
FCS~FrameCheckSequence~Anymathematicalformulathatderivesnumericvalue
basedonbitpatternoftransmittedblockofinformationandusesthatvalueatreceiving
endtodetermineexistenceofanytransmissionerrors.
FCSI~FibreChannelSystemsInitiative~formedbyHewlett-Packard,IBM,andSunin
1993.
FDD~FrequencyDivisionDuplex~usedincellularcommunicationsystemssuchas
GSM,isaradiotechnologyusingapairedspectrum.
FDDI~FiberDistributedDataInterface~Linklayer-AmericanNationalStandards
InstituteX3T9.5(nowX3T12),ISO/IEC9314-x
FDDI~FiberDistributedDataInterface~Astandardfortransmittingdataonoptical
fibercablesatarateofaround100,000,000bits-per-second(10timesasfastas10BaseTEthernet,abouttwiceasfastasÂT-3).
FDE~Full-diskencryption~FDEisencryptionatthehardwarelevel.FDEworksby
automaticallyconvertingdataonaharddriveintoaformthatcannotbeunderstoodby
anyonewhodoesn’thavethekeyto“undo�theconversion.Withouttheproper
authenticationkey,eveniftheharddriveisremovedandplacedinanothermachine,the
dataremainsinaccessible.
FDM~FeatureDownloadManagement~AnADSIprotocolthatenablesanumberof
alternativekeyandscreenoverlaystobestoredinanADSItelephoneandtobeselected
bypredeterminedeventsatthetelephone.
FDM~FrequencyDivisionMultiplexing~Methodbywhichtheavailabletransmission
frequencyrangeisdividedintonarrowerbands;eachofthesebandsisusedforaseparate
channel.Thisallowsseveralsignalstobesentoverthesametransmissionmedium.
FDM~fuseddepositionmodeling~HPDesignjetÂ3DprintersÂemployStratasys’
patentedFDMtechnology
FDS~FraudDetectionSystem~VeriSign’sproduct,acquiredbySymantecinthemiddle
of2010
FDX~FullDuplex~Simultaneoustwo-waycommunicationpath.
FE~FastEthernet~AnextensionoftheIEEE’s802.3standard-IEEE802.3usupporting100-Mbpsdataratesinsteadof10Mbps,andusing100Base-Tor100Base-F
familiesofcablingstandards
FE~fieldengineer~Anengineerwhoworkson-site(i.e.,‘inthefield’).
FEC~FastEtherchannel~AproprietarytechnologydevelopedbyCiscothatcreatesa
teamoftwotofour10/100Ethernetadaptersorportstoincreasetransmissionand
receptionthroughput.
FEC~ForwardErrorCorrection~Sendingredundantdatasothatifdatalossoccurs,data
recoveryispossiblewithoutretransmission
FECN~ForwardExplicitCongestionNotification~Abitsentbyaframerelaynetwork
tonotifyaninterfacedevice(DTE)thatcongestionavoidanceproceduresshouldbe
initiatedbythereceivingdevice
FEFO~FirstEnded,FirstOut~Amessageorderinginwhich,amongmessagesofthe
sameprioritylevel,themessageswhicharefinishedfirstwillbetransmittedfirst.
FEMA~Failuremodeandeffectsanalysis~provideananalyticalapproach,when
dealingwithpotentialfailuremodesandtheirassociatedcauses.
FEP~Front-EndProcessor~telephonyandcomputerterm.AFEPcommunications
computerassociatedwithahostcomputerthatmanagesthelinesandroutingofdata
throughthenetwork.
FER~FrameErasure/ErrorRate~ameasureofthenumberofframesofdatathat
containederrorsandcouldnotbeprocessed.FERisusuallyexpressedasapercentageor
exponent.
FERPA~FamilyEducationalRightsandPrivacyAct~federallegislationintheUSthat
protectstheprivacyofstudents’ÂPII.Theactappliestoalleducationalinstitutionsthat
receivefederalfunds.
FET~fieldeffecttransistor~Atransistorinwhichthecurrentbetweenasourceterminal
andadrainterminaliscontrolledbyavariableelectricfield.
FEXT~FarEndCrossTalk~Thisisatermusedinnetworkcabletroubleshooting.Itisa
displayedsymptomofelectronstravelingthenetworkandbouncingaroundthereforlack
ofanywhereelsetogo.
FFD~FlickerFreeDisplay~Acomputerscreenthathasafastenoughrefreshratethat
noflickercanbedetected;thiskindofdisplayiseasierontheeyes.
FFPF~fairlyfastpacketfilter~analternativeplatformfornetworkmonitoringunder
Linux.Itisastream-basednetworkingsubsystemforLinuxthatspansfromhardwareto
userspacetoofferhigh-speedcommunicationpathstoallapplications.
FFT~FastFourierTransform~anefficientalgorithmtocomputethediscreteFourier
transform(DFT)anditsinverse.FFTsareofgreatimportancetoawidevarietyof
applications,fromdigitalsignalprocessingtosolvingpartialdifferentialequationsto
algorithmsforquicklymultiplyinglargeintegers.
FGA/B/C/D~featuregroupA/B/C/D~Thedifferenttypesandqualitiesofpublic
switchednetworkconnectionbetweenlocaltelephonecompaniesandlongdistance
companies.Â
FHS~FanHeat-Sink~FanHeat-Sink,seealsoHSF.
FHSS~FrequencyHoppedSpreadSpectrum~aspread-spectrummethodoftransmitting
signalsbyrapidlyswitchingacarrieramongmanyfrequencychannels,usinga
pseudorandomsequenceknowntobothtransmitterandreceiver.ItisusedinWLAN
802.11physicallayer.
FICON~FiberConnection~IBM’sfiberopticchanneltechnologythatextendsthe
capabilitiesofitspreviousfiberopticchannelstandard,ESCON.
FIDNET~FederalIntrusionDetectionNetwork~extensivecomputermonitoringsystem,
developedbytheFederalBureauofInvestigation(FBI),toprotectU.S.governmentand
privatedatanetworksfrombeingattackedbyterroristsorhostileforeigngovernments.
FIFO~firstin,firstout~Anetworkqueuingmethod,whereindatapacketsaredealtwith
inasimplequeueonafirst-come,first-servedbasis.Nopacketsaregivenpreferential
treatment;allarequeuedintheorderinwhichtheyarereceived.
FIGS~FiguresShift~AcontrolcharacterusedintheBaudotCodetoenabletheprinting
ofsymbolsandnumbersbyactuallyallowingaphysicalshiftofthecarriage.
FIM~federatedidentitymanagement~anarrangementthatcanbemadeamongmultiple
enterprisesthatletssubscribersusethesameidentificationdatatoobtainaccesstothe
networksofallenterprisesinthegroup.Theuseofsuchasystemissometimescalled
identityfederation.
FINDDEST~FindDestination~AninternalserviceinÂIMSÂusedforfinding
certainÂIMSÂresources,mostofwhichrepresentIMSdestinations.Forsearchesother
thanCVBsandCCBs,iftheblockisnotfound,thenifrequested,asearchforanLU6.2
descriptorismade.
FINRA~FinancialIndustryRegulatoryAuthority~anassociationthatregulatesits
membersthroughtheadoptionandenforcementofrulesandregulationsgoverning
businessconductofmemberfirms.Âwww.finra.org
FiOS~FiberOpticService~FiOSisadatacommunicationsserviceprovidedbyVerizon
thatusesfiberopticcablestotransferdata.FiOSiscalleda‘FibertothePremises,’or
FTTPservice,sinceitbringsfiberopticdatatransmissiontoresidentialhomesaswellas
businesses.
FIPS~FederalInformationProcessingStandards~Standardsthatarepublicly
recognizedbytheU.S.FederalGovernment;alsoforusebynon-governmentagenciesand
contractors.
FIR~FiniteImpulseResponse~atechniqueusedtocharacterizeelectricalcircuitsandã€
€networksinthetimedomain.
FIRST~ForumofIncidentResponseandSecurityTeams~Anonprofitvolunteergroup
whosegoalistofostercooperationandcoordinationinincidentpreventionacrossdiverse
sectors,andpromptrapidreactiontoincidents.ThroughanannualconferenceanditsWeb
siteatÂwww.first.org
FISMA~FederalInformationSecurityManagementAct~definesacomprehensive
frameworktoprotectgovernmentinformation,operations,andassetsagainstnaturalor
humanmadethreats.FISMAwassignedintolawpartoftheElectronicGovernmentActof
2002.
FIX~FinancialInformationExchange~Amessagingstandardfortheelectronic
exchangeofsecuritiestransactions.FIXisapublic-domainspecificationownedand
maintainedbyFIXProtocol,Ltd.
FLAC~FreeLosslessAudioCodec~apopularfreeaudiocompressioncodecthatis
lossless.UnlikelossycodecssuchasMP3andAAC,itdoesnotremoveanyinformation
fromtheaudiostreamandissuitablebothforeverydayplaybackandforarchivingaudio
collections.Âhttp://flac.sourceforge.net/
FLAG~FiberLinkAroundtheGlobe~Anunderseafiber-opticcablenetwork
connectingEuropetotheAsia/Pacificregion.Itbecameoperationalin1997.
FLOGI~fabriclogin~Theprocessbywhichadevicegainsaccesstothefabric.
FLOPS~FloatingPointOperationsPerSecond~Aslightlymoremeaningfulmeasureof
processorspeedthanMIPS.Computersessentiallyworkwithintegernumbers.Decimal
valuesarehardertoprocess,particularlyifthefiguresafterthedecimalpointarenot
fixed.
FM~FrequencyModulation~Aprocessbywhich,say,musicistransmittedusinga
radiosignal.Inputaudio-frequencysignalsmodifythefrequencyofthetransmittedsignal
arounditsnominalvalue.
FM-200~Firemaster/FireMaster200~FireMaster(FM-200)isgas-basedfire
suppressionsystems
FMA99~FinancialServicesModernizationActof1999~SignedintoU.S.lawin
November1999,thislegislation-alsoknownasthe‘Gramm-Leach-BlileyAct,’afterthe
senatorswhosponsoredit-allowedmanyfinancialinstitutionstoengageinabroader
spectrumofactivities.
FMC~fixed-mobileconvergence~FMCisthetrendtowardsseamlessconnectivity
betweenfixedandwirelesstelecommunicationsnetworks.Thetermalsodescribesany
physicalnetworkthatallowscellulartelephonesetstofunctionsmoothlywiththefixed
networkinfrastructure.
FMEA~FailureModeandEffectsAnalysis~analyticalmethodsusedtoidentify
potentialweaknesses.FMEAismainlyemployedinthedesignanddevelopmentofnew
productsandprocesses.
FMH~functionmanagementheader~Oneormoreheaders,optionallypresentinthe
leadingrequestunits(RUs)ofanRUchain
FMH~functionmanagementheader~InSNA,arecordthatcontainscontrolinformation
forthedatathatfollows.
FMV~Full-MotionVideo~Videothatrunsatthesamerateatwhichitwasfilmed.
Movingvideoimagesandsoundavailableonacomputer;usuallystoredonCD-ROM
becauseofthelargesizeofthefiles.
FOC~FieldOrientedControl~FieldOrientedControl
FoIP~FaxOverInternetProtocol~enablesthetransmissionoffaxmessagesoveraVoIP
line.Inthistechnology,everydigitalmessageisdistributedintovariouspacketsandthen
relayedthroughtheInternet.
FOIRL~FiberOpticInterRepeaterLink~Fiberopticcommunicationsignaling
methodologybasedlooselyontheIEEE802.3fiberopticspecificationand10Base-F
guideline.FOIRLisaforerunnerofthe10Base-FLspecification,whichisdesignedto
enhanceandreplaceit.
FOMA~FreedomofMobileMultimediaAccess~thebrandnameforthe3Gservices
beingofferedbyJapanesemobilephoneoperatorÂNTTDoCoMo.FOMAwastheworld’s
firstW-CDMA3Gservicewhenlaunchedin2001.
FOP~FormattingObjectsProcessor~anXSL-FOprocessorwritteninJava,which
providesthefeaturetoconvertXSL-FOfilestoPDFordirect-printable-files.
FORTRAN~formulatranslation~theoldestcomputerlanguageintheworld.Itis
typicallycompiledandisquitefast.Itsprimarydrawbacksareportabilityandease-of-use
—oftendifferentFORTRANcompilersondifferentplatformsbehavequitedifferentlyin
spiteofstandardizationeffortsin1966(FORTRAN66orFORTRANIV),1978
(FORTRAN77),and1991(FORTRAN90).
FOSS~Freeandopensourcesoftware~softwaredevelopedbyinformalcollaborative
networksofprogrammers.Thesourcecodeislicensedfreeofcharge,encouraging
modificationsandimprovements.
FOSSIL~FidoOpusSeadogStandardInterfaceLayer~FidoOpusSeadogStandard
InterfaceLayer
FOT~FiberOpticTerminal~Connectsopticalfibertocopperwire.
FOTS~FiberOpticTransmissionSystem~FiberOpticTransmissionSystem
FPA~FloatingPointAccelerator~Specialhardwareforperformingmathematical
calculationswithfloatingpointnumbers;theFPAmayfunctionasacoprocessortothe
centralprocessingunit.
FPA~Functionpointanalysis~amethodusedtogaugethesizeandcomplexityof
computersoftware,employingafunctionpointasaunitofmeasure.Functionpointsarea
unitmeasureforsoftwaresize,muchlikeanhouristomeasuretime.
FPE~ForefrontProtectionforExchange~ae-mailsecuritysoftwaresolutionthatruns
onExchange
FPGA~FieldProgrammableGateArray~Amicrochipthatcanbemadewiththousands
ofprogrammablelogicgates.FPGAsareoftenusedforprototypeorcustomdesigns,
includingDSPandlogicemulation.
FPM~FastPageMode~AkindofDRAMmemory.Fastpagemodeimproveduponthe
originalpagemodememorybyeliminatingthecolumnaddresssetuptimeduringthepage
cycle.
FpML~FinancialProductsMarkupLanguage~Aprogramminglanguage-based
onÂXMLÂ-introducedbyJ.P.MorganandPricewaterhouseCoopersinJune1999.
FPP~FullProductPackage~FullProductPackage.
FPS~framespersecond~Avideotransmissionmetric.
FPS~FlexiblePaymentsService~Amazon’spaymentservices
FPU~floatingpointunit~apartofaCPUspeciallydesignedtocarryoutoperationson
floatingpointnumbers.NotallCPUshaveadedicatedFPU.
FQDN~FullyQualifiedDomainName~Theofficialnameassignedtoanindividual
computer.
FR~framerelay~Anetworktechnologythattransmitsdatapacketsathighspeeds
acrossadigitalnetworkencapsulatedinatransmissionunitcalledaframe.Itrequiresa
dedicatedconnectionduringthetransmissionperiod.Itisusedonwideareanetworksand
alsoinprivatenetworkenvironmentswithleasedlinesoverT1lines.
FR~FrameRelay~Atechnologyfortransmittingdatapacketsinhigh-speedbursts
acrossadigitalnetworkencapsulatedinatransmissionunitcalledaframe.Framerelay
requiresadedicatedconnectionduringthetransmissionperiod.Â
FRAD~FrameRelayAccessDevice~Acombinationofhardwareandsoftwarethatis
usedtoconvertcommunicationspacketsfromformatslikeTCP,SNA,IPX,andothers
intoframesthatcanthenbesentoveraframerelaynetwork.
FRAG(21)~FinancialReporting&AuditingGroupGuidelines~FinancialReporting&
AuditingGroupGuidelines
FRDS~FailureResistantDataSystems~termfromtheRAIDadvisoryboardwhich
describesserversystemswhicharedesignedtoprotectagainstdatalossduetoanysingle
componentfailurewithinthesystemandagainstlossofdatatosinglediskfailure.
FRED~FairRandomEarlyDetection~AvariationofRandomEarlyDetection(RED)
FreeBSD~FreeBerkeleySoftwareDistribution~aUnix-likefreeoperatingsystem
descendedfromAT&TUNIXviatheBSDbranchthroughthe386BSDand4.4BSD
operatingsystems.ItrunsonprocessorscompatiblewiththeIntelx86family,aswellas
onmanyotherprocessorssuchasAMD64andPowerPCprocessors.
freeware~freesoftware~severalkindsofcomputersoftwarethatcanlegallybecopied
andgivenfreeofchargetootherusers
FRR~fastretransmitandrecovery~congestioncontrolalgorithmthatmakesitpossible
toquicklyrecoverlostdatapackets.
FRS~FileReplicationService~AserviceonWindowsServers(2000andlater)thatis
responsibleforreplicatingpoliciesandscriptstoclients.
FRU~field-replaceableunit~Anassemblythatisreplacedinitsentiretywhenanyone
ofitscomponentsfails.
FSAA~FullScreenAnti-Aliasing~Amethodusedby3Dgraphicscardstoprovideantialiasingtoallobjectsina3Denvironment.Thisactstosmoothoutthejaggedappearance
ofedgesonsome3Dobjects.
FSAM~FederatedStorageAreaManagement~HPnaturallyscalableenvironmentof
pooled,federated(i.e.,availablewhenneeded),modular,multivendorstorageresources
FSB~frontsidebus~TheFSBconnectsthecomputer’sprocessortothesystemmemory
(RAM)andothercomponentsonthemotherboard.Thesecomponentsincludethesystem
chipset,AGPcard,PCIdevices,andotherperipherals.
FSM~finitestatemachine~amodelofbehaviorcomposedofstates,transitionsand
actions.Astatestoresinformationaboutthepast,i.e.itreflectstheinputchangesfromthe
systemstarttothepresentmoment.
FSML~FinancialServicesMarkupLanguage~AlanguagedevelopedbytheFinancial
ServicesTechnologyConsortiumtocontroltheidentificationandprocessingofelectronic
checks.
FSMO~FlexibleSingleMasterOperations~afeatureofMicrosoft’sAD.Theschema
masterFSMOroleholderisthedomaincontrollerresponsibleforperformingupdatesto
thedirectoryschema.
FSN~Full-ServiceNetwork~Avideonetworkthatmakesitpossibleforthetelevisionto
worklikeacomputer,throughtheuseofspecialequipment;usershaveaccesstovideo,
homeshopping,interactivegames,andotherservices.
FSPF~fibrechannelshortestpathfirst~Aroutingprotocolusedbyfibre-channel
switches.
FSS~Filesystemserver~TheStorNextFileSystemtermforthecomputerthatmanages
metadatainaSAN.InXsan,thisiscalledametadatacontroller.
FSSS~FastServingStationSwitching~referstotheservingstationswitchingwith
whichaMobleStation(MS)canchangeitsservingstationfromframetoframedepending
ontheservingstationselectionmechanism.
FSTC~FinancialServicesTechnologyConsortium~Anonprofitorganizationwhose
membershipincludesbanks,governmentagencies,universities,andhigh-techbusinesses;
FSTCisinterestedindevelopinge-commerceandmakingitpractical.Âwww.fstc.org
FTA~failuretoacquire~abiometricstermthatisusedtodescribeabiometricsystem’s
failuretoextractusableidentificationdatafromabiometricsample.
FTAM~FileTransferAccessandManagement~TheInternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization’sÂOSIÂremotefileserviceandprotocol
FTAM~FileTransfer,Access,andManagement~anapplicationlayerprotocolforfile
transferandremotemanipulation(ISO8571).
FTBFS~FailsToBuildFromSource~FailsToBuildFromSourceincomputer
programming
FTDS~FailureTolerantDataSystems~termfromtheRAIDadvisoryboardwhich
describesserversystemswhichmustoffercontinuousdataavailabilityintheeventofany
singlesystemcomponentfailure.
FTL~FlashTranslationLaye~newsoftwarelayerthatredirectseachupdatetoanempty
blockwhichisalreadyerasedandcopiesothervaliddatatoanewlocation.
FTNS~FixedTelecommunicationNetworkServices~FTNSaretelecommunications
servicesprovidedbetweenfixedpoints.
FTP~FileTransferProtocol~Applicationlayer-RFC959andothers
FTP~FileTransferProtocol~ATCP/IPstandardusedtologontoanetwork,list
directoriesandcopyfiles.FTPauthenticatesusersandallowsthemtotransferfiles,list
directories,deleteandrenamefilesonaremotehost,andperformwild-cardtransfers.
FTP~FileTransferProtocol~InLANtechnologyforuserauthentication,filetransfer,
listdirectoriesoftheforeignhost,etc.
FTP~FileTransferProtocol~Theusualwayyousendfilestoyourserver(orreceive
some).UsingFTP,youcanalsoupdate(delete,rename,move,andcopy)filesataserver.
PeoplewhocreateWebhomepagesuseFTPtogettheirfilestotheserverwheretheywill
beaccessed.
FTTB~Fibertothebuilding~Thistechnologyinvolvesbringingfiberallthewaytothe
building.Insidethebuilding,signalswouldbecarriedovertheexistingcopperwireor
coaxialcable,oroveropticalfiber.
FTTN~Fibertotheneighborhood~Thistechnologyinvolvesbringingfiberintothe
neighborhood.Fromthere,signalswouldbecarriedtobusinessesandresidencesviathe
existingcopperwiring.
FUD~Fear,Uncertainty,andDoubt~Asetofsalestacticsemployedbymarketleaders
tocastaspersiononcompetingcomputerproducts.
FUSC~FullyUsedSubChannel~alsoknownasFullyUsedSubCarrier,isamethod
usedintheWiMAXnetworkthatusesallthesubchannelsandemploysfull-channel
diversitybydistributingtheallocatedsubcarrierstosubchannelsusingapermutation
mechanism.
FW~Firewall~AboundarythathelpskeepcomputersontheInternetprivate.Firewall
softwarehelpspreventusersfromcomingtoasecuresite,orconversely,keepsusers
insidethefirewallfromgoingout.Firewallscanalsoverifywebsites,helpingtoensure
theyoriginatefromanauthorizedsource.
FWA~Fixedwirelessaccess~alsoknownaswirelesslocalloop,isawirelesssystemin
whichofficeorhomeusersdirectlyconnectwiththeswitchingcenterofthe
telecommunicationscarrierortheinter-exchangechanneltousethesystem.
FX~foreignexchange~Accountsettlementsortransfersofcreditorcurrencyacross
nationalborders,aprocessthattypicallyreliesheavilyoncomputertechnology.
FX~foreignexchange~Atelecommunicationsconnectionbetweenacustomer’slocation
andaremoteexchange.seealsoFXO,FXS
FXO~ForeignExchangeOffice~AnFXOinterfaceconnectstotheÂPSTNÂcentral
officeandistheinterfaceofferedonastandardtelephone.Cisco’sFXOinterfaceisanRJ11connectorthatallowsananalogconnectionatthePSTN’scentralofficeortoastation
interfaceonaPBX.
FXP~FileeXchangeProtocol~allowsyoutocopyfilesfromoneFTPservertoanother
FTPserver(tworemotehosts)usinganFXPclient.
FXP~ForeignExchangeProtocol~asimple,automaticwayofretrievingcurrency
exchangeratesovertheInternet.
FXP~fxp~fileextensionforthecompiledsourcecodeforFoxPro
FXS~ForeignExchangeStation~AnFXSinterfaceconnectsdirectlytoastandard
telephoneandsuppliesring,voltage,anddialtone.Cisco’sFXSinterfaceisanRJ-11
connectorthatallowsconnectionstobasictelephoneserviceequipment,keysets,and
PBXs.
~G~
G~giga~Prefixfor10power9(or,inITparlance,2power30)
G2C~GovernmenttoCitizen~Lagan’sunderlyingplatformforthe
GovernmentÂCRMÂsolutionforcontactcentersandcitizenself-service
GAIA~GUIApplicationInteroperabilityArchitecture~GAIAisacronymofGUI
ApplicationInteroperabilityArchitecture
GAMS~GeneralAlgebraicModelingSystem~high-levelmodelingsystemfor
mathematicalprogrammingproblems.Theprogramitselfconsistsofalanguagecompiler
andagroupofintegratedsolvers.
GAP~Groups,AlgorithmsandProgramming~ASystemforComputationalDiscrete
Algebra,withparticularemphasisonComputationalÂGroupÂTheory.Âhttp://www.gapsystem.org/
GAPE~GoogleAppsPremierEdition~Google’sweb-basedmessagingand
collaborationappsrequirenohardwareorsoftwareandneedminimaladministration,
creatingtremendoustimeandcostsavingsfor
businesses.http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/details.html
GARP~GenericAddressResolutionProtocol~AnIEEEstandardforagenericmethod
bywhichvariousdevices(e.g.,clients,servers,andbridges)canautomatically
disseminateattributeinformationacrossabridgedLAN.GARPisaLayer2(i.e.Data
LinkLayer)protocolusedextensivelyinVLANs.
Gas~GNUAssembler~thedefaultGNUCompilerCollection(GCC)back-endandis
usedtocompileLinuxandotheroperatingsystemssuchastheGNUoperatingsystem.It
isapartoftheGNUBinutilspackage.Itrunsandassemblesonandforanumberof
differentarchitectures.
gb~Gigabit~1,024megabitsor1billioninformationbits.
GB~Gigabyte~Approximately1billionbytesofdata(actually1,073,741,824bytes)
GBIC~Gigabitinterfaceconverter~Hardware-SeagateSpecification
GBIC~GigaBitInterfaceConverter~Atransceiverthatconvertsbetweenelectricaland
opticalsignalsforhigh-speednetworking
GBP~groupbufferpool~Acouplingfacilitycachestructurethatisusedbyadata
sharinggrouptocachedataandtoensurethatthedataisconsistentforallmembers.
Gbps~Gigabitpersecond~Physicallayer-Gigabitpersecond
Gbps~gigabitspersecond~Ameasureofdatatransmissionspeed
GCC~GNUCompilerCollection~thefreecompilerthatmadethefreeLinuxoperating
systempossible.TheGCCC/C++languagetoolssupportthecross-compilerrequirements
foranumberoftargetprocessorsfamiliesandtheirvariants.
GCD~GrandCentralDispatch~atechnologyforexecutingasynchronoustasks
concurrently.GCDisavailableinMacOSXv10.6andlaterandisnotavailableiniPhone
OS.
GCG~GreyComponentReplacement~Atechniqueforreplacingalltheneutraltonesof
animagewithanappropriateamountofblack.
GCGID~graphiccharacterglobalidentifier~A4-to8-characteralphanumericidentifier
assignedtoaregisteredgraphiccharacter.Eachgraphiccharacterthatistobeassigneda
codepointmusthaveaGCGID.
GCI~GeneralCommunicationInc.~atelecommunicationscorporationoperatingin
AlaskaÂhttp://www.gci.com/
GD&T~geometricdimensioningandtolerancing~asymboliclanguageusedon
engineeringdrawingsandcomputergeneratedthree-dimensionalsolidmodels(CAD)for
explicitlydescribingnominalgeometryanditsallowablevariation.
GDB~GNUdebugger~GNUdebugger
GDI~GraphicsDeviceInterface~GDIprovidesacommonsetofdrawingroutines
(includingbothtextandgraphics).TheGDIcanbeusedtodrawtomostdevices,suchas
screens,printers,plottersorbitmapimages.CentraltotheGDIistheconceptofaDevice
Context(DC)whichisahandletothespecificdevicetobewrittento.
GDM~globalÂdeliverymodel~themodelofapplicationstestingservices
GDP~GatewayDiscoveryProtocol~GatewayDiscoveryProtocol
GDPS~GeographicallyDispersedParallelSysplex~Anapplicationthatintegrates
ParallelSysplextechnologyandremotecopytechnologytoenhanceapplication
availabilityandimprovedisasterrecovery.
GDS~Globaldatasynchronization~consistsoftechnologyandapplicationsused
toÂreceive,approveandmanageproduct,price,forecast,promotionandcontractdata
fromsuppliersviatheGDSN,insupportofstandardsfromtheGlobalCommerce
Initiative.
GDSN~GlobalDataSynchronizationNetwork~GlobalDataSynchronizationNetwork
GDTs~Globaldatatypes~Theenterpriseserviceinterfaceisdefinedbasedonstandard
datatypes,andGDTsarethebasicdatabuildingblocks.
GEAR~GigabyteEnhancedAgpRiser~UsedtoprovideAGPsupportforPCI-E
motherboards
GEDCOM~GEnealogicalDataCOMmunication~Acommonfileformatusedto
exchangecomputerizedgenealogicaldatabetweendifferentgenealogyprograms.
GEMMS~GlobalEnterpriseManufacturingManagementSystem~Aprocess
manufacturingproductonceofferedbyDatalogix(whichwasacquiredbyOraclein
1997).
GEnie~GeneralElectricNetworkforInformationExchange~Anonlineservicefrom
GEInformationServices,withnews,sports,business,computertechnicalsupport,games,
softwaredownloads,referenceservices,chat,bulletinboards,email,andfax.
GEO/GEOS~Geo-StationaryEarthOrbitSystem~Asystemthatcommunicateswith
satellitesingeosynchronousorbitsome22,300milesabovetheearth.
GEOS~graphicenvironmentoperatingsystem~alightweightOSwithaGUI.Itrunson
severaldifferentprocessors,includingthe65xx,thex86andnumerousdifferentPDAs,
embeddeddevices,andhand-heldmachines.
GEPOF~GigabitEthernet(over)PlasticOpticalFiber~Physicallayer-IEEEP802.3bv
GERAN~GSM(GPRS)/EDGERadioAccessNetwork~the3GPPstandardsfor
GSM(GPRS)/EDGEradioaccess,whichhasbeenspecifiedtoconnecttheA,GbandIu
interfacestotheCN(CoreNetwork).ThearchitectureallowstwoBSS(BaseStation
Subsystem)tobeconnectedtoeachother.
gfortran~GNUFortrancompiler~GNUFortrancompilerispartoftheGNUcompiler
collection.Âhttp://gcc.gnu.org/fortran/
GFP~GenericFramingProcedure~amultiplexingtechniquedefinedbyITU-TG.7041.
Thisallowsmappingofvariablelength,higher-layerclientsignalsoveratransport
networklikeSDH/SONET.
GFS~Grandfather,Father,Son~Backupmethodology
GGP~Gateway-gatewayprotocol~protocolontheInternet.
GGSN~GatewayGPRSSupportNode~agatewayfromacellularnetworktoanIP
networkthatallowsmobilecellphoneuserstoaccessthepublicdatanetwork(PDN)or
specifiedprivateIPnetworks.
GHC~GlasgowHaskellCompiler~alsoknownasGloriousHaskellCompiler,isan
opensourcenativecodecompilerforthefunctionalprogramminglanguageHaskellwhich
wasdevelopedattheUniversityofGlasgow.
Ghost~GeneralHardware-OrientedSoftwareTransfer~adiskcloningprogram,
originallyproducedbyBinaryResearch,butpurchasedbySymantecin1998.
GIAC~GlobalInformationAssuranceCertification~Certificationprogramsdesignedto
servethepeoplewhoareorwillberesponsibleformanagingandprotectingimportant
informationsystemsandnetworks.Seealsohttp://www.giac.org/
GiB/gib~gibibyte~1,073,741,824bytes.1024mebibytes.
GID~groupidentificationnumber~A4byte,unsignedinteger(GID)thatisusedto
identifyagroupprofile.
GIF~GraphicInterchangeFormat~Acommonformatforimagefiles,especially
suitableforimagescontaininglargeareasofthesamecolor.GIFformatfilesofsimple
imagesareoftensmallerthanthesamefilewouldbeifstoredinÂJPEGÂformat,butGIF
formatdoesnotstorephotographicimagesaswellasJPEG.
GIFT~GNUImageFindingTool~aContentBasedImageRetrievalSystem(CBIRS).
TheGIFTisbasedonViper,theresultofaresearcheffortattheVisionGroupatthe
computersciencecenteroftheUniversityofGeneva.TheGIFTisanopenframeworkfor
content-basedimageretrieval.Itisdesignedtoaccommodatenewwaysofqueryingthe
framework.
GIGO~GarbageIn,GarbageOut.~Itmeansthatifinvaliddataisenteredinacomputer
program,theresultingoutputwillalsobeinvalid.Soifaprogramaskedyoutoentera
letterofthealphabetandyoudecidedtobefunnyandenter‘3.14159’,there’sagood
chancetheresultsyouwouldgetbackwouldbeprettymessedup,or‘garbage.’Because
wecomputerusersaren’talwayssmartenoughtoentervaliddata,programmershaveto
takeextensivemesaurestopreventGIGOerrors.
GIMP~GnuImageManipulationProgram~Freelydistributedpieceofsoftwaresuitable
forsuchtasksasphotoretouching,imagecompositionandimageauthoring.
SeeÂwww.gimp.org
GINA~GraphicalIdentificationandAuthentication~thesubsystemthathandlesthe
logonpresentationtotheuser.TheMicrosoftGINAisrepresentedbythelogonscreenthat
popsuponthePCwhentheuserpressesCtrl+Alt+Delete.
GINI~GatewayInterfaceforNetworkInitialization~AprocessonlargeEnterprise
systemstosetupanentirenetworkfromanothernetwork.
GIOP~GeneralInter-ORBProtocol~AprotocolthatCommonObjectRequestBroker
Architecture(CORBA)usestodefinetheformatofmessages.
GIS~GeographicalInformationSystem~Acomputerapplicationinvolvingmapsand
thestorageandmanipulationofdataassociatedwiththem.
GIX~GlobalInterneteXchange~Aroutingexchangepointthathelpsnetworksallover
theworldtoconnecttotheInternet.
GKTMP~GatekeeperTransactionMessageProtocol~AproprietaryCiscoprotocolused
forcommunicationbetweentheCiscoIOSGatekeeperandexternalapplications.
GLA~GenericLogAdapter~Atoolthatallowsgenericdatacollectionfrommultiple
heterogeneousdatasourcesbyconvertingindividualrecordsandeventsintotheCommon
BaseEventformat.
GLB/GLBA~Gramm-Leach-Bliley(Act)~coversthefinancialservicesindustry,
basicallydefiningfinancialinstitutionsasdepositoryinstitutionsandtheirholding
companies,securityfirmsandbroker/dealers.
GLONASS~GlobalNavigationalSatelliteSystem~Asatellite-basedgeographiclocationsystemrunbytheRussiangovernment.
GLPK~GNULinearProgrammingKit~asoftwarepackageintendedforsolvinglargescalelinearprogramming(LP),mixedintegerprogramming(MIP),andotherrelated
problems.
GLUT~openGLUtilityToolkit~awindowsystemindependenttoolkitforwriting
OpenGLprograms.ItimplementsasimplewindowingÂAPIÂforOpenGL
GMA~GmailDrive~Afreeshellnamespaceextension(‘add-on’)forMicrosoft
WindowsExplorer,makesitpossibletocreateanewnetworkshareontheworkstation.In
ordertousethisadd-on,youneedaGmailaccountfromGoogleGmail.
GMM~GPRSMobilityManagement~aGPRSsignalingprotocolthathandlesmobility
issuessuchasroaming,authentication,andselectionofencryptionalgorithms.
GMR~GiantMagnetoResistance~Atechnologyforaread/writeheadwhichusesthin
filmlayerstogetagreaterchangeinresistance,andismoresensitivethanMR(Magneto
Resistance).
GMRP~GarpMulticastRegistrationProtocol~Itallowsadevicetodeclaremembership
ofaLayer2multicastgroup
GMRS~GeneralMobileRadioService~GMRShasbeentransformedfromthenow
antiquatedClassAsectionoftheCitizensRadioServicetothepersonalradioservice
availableforconductinganindividual’spersonalandfamilycommunications.
GMS~generalizedmainscheduling~Asetofalgorithmsthatallowthesystem
programmertotailorjobschedulingandselectiontothespecificneedsoftheinstallation.
GMS~GeneralÂMIDIStandard~Astandarddesignationofspecificinstrumentsto
specificMIDIpatchlocations,sothatacompositionproducedononesystemwillsound
thesamewhenplayedonanother
GMS~GlobalMessagingService~Novellservice.
GMS~GoogleMessageSecurity~Googleservicesthatprotectyouremailfromspam
andvirusesandsetemailpoliciestostaycompliant.Âwww.google.com/postini/
GMSK~GaussianMinimumShiftKeying~amodulationtechniqueinvolvingGaussian
filteringoftheinputdatapriortoitsapplicationtothephasemodulator.
GMX~GlobalMaileXchange,inGermany:GlobalMessageeXchange~GMXMailisa
German-basedfreewebmailserviceprovidedbyGMX.http://www.gmx.com/
GNAT~GNUNYUAdaTranslator~theGNUAdaCompilerbasedonGNUCompiler
Collection(GCC).Thefront-endandruntimearewritteninAda,andarelicensedusing
theGeneralPublicLicense.
GNN~GlobalNetworkNavigator~AcollectionoffreeservicesontheInternet,
includingTheWholeInternetCatalog,theInternetHelpDesk,andNetNews.
GNOME~GNUNetworkObjectModelEnvironment~themostpopulargraphical
desktopenvironmentforLinux,basedontheXWINDOWSYSTEMandsimilarinlook
andfeeltoWindows95and2000
GNSO~GenericNamesSupportingOrganization~ICANNÂSupporting
OrganizationÂresponsiblefordevelopingpolicyfortheÂDNS
GNU~GNU’snotUnix~AnongoingprojectbytheFreeSoftwareFoundationtocreate
afree,freelydistributable,setofUNIXlikeutilities.
GOCA~GraphicObjectContentArchitecture~Anarchitecturethatprovidesacollection
ofgraphicsvaluesandcontrolstructuresusedtointerchangeandpresentgraphicsdata.
GOLC~GrowthOpportunityLicenseCharge~AnIBMsoftwarepricingprogram.
GOMS~Goals,Operators,Methods,andSelectionrules~akindofspecializedhuman
informationprocessormodelforhumancomputerinteractionobservation.
GOPS~Giga(billion)OperationsPerSecond~Aunitofmeasurementofcomputing
speed.
GOS~GradeofService~ameasureofthesuccessasubscriberisexpectedtohavein
accessinganetworktocompleteacall.
GOSIP~GovernmentOSIProfile~AstandardissuedbytheNationalInstituteof
StandardsandTechnology.GOSIPspecifiesthedetailsofan
interoperableÂOSIÂconfigurationfornetworkingproductsprocuredbytheU.S.
government.
GOW~GearsofWar~GearsofWarisamilitarysciencefictionthird-personshooter
videogamedevelopedbyEpicGamesandpublishedbyMicrosoftGame
Studios.Âhttp://www.gearsofwar.com/
GOW~GodofWar~GodofWarisanactionadventurevideogameforthePlayStation
2firstreleasedbySonyComputerEntertainment’sSantaMonicadivisioninMarch
2005.Âhttp://www.godofwar.com/
GPF~GeneralProtectionFault~anerrorthatarisesinMicrosoftWindowswhena
programtriestoaccessalocationinmemorythatisnotallocatedtoit.GPFsareusually
causedbyprogrammingerrorssuchasuninitializedpointers.
GPIO~general-purposeI/O~Customizableinput/outputpinsonamicrocontroller.
GPL~GeneralPublicLicense~NormallytakentothemeantheGNUGPL.Alicense
statementfromGNU,usedonmostoftheirsoftwareandonmanyfreesoftwarepackages
fromothersources.
GPL~GeneralPublicLicense~www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.htmlÂ-FulltextoftheGNU
GeneralPublicLicense.
GPO~GroupPolicyObject~IntheWindows2000operatingsystem,aGPOisa
collectionofsettingsthatdefinewhatasystemwilllooklikeandhowitwillbehavefora
definedgroupofusers.Microsoftprovidesaprogramsnap-inthatallowsyoutousethe
GroupPolicyÂMMC.
GPRS~generalpacketradioservice~GPRSisapacket-orientedoverlaytoGSM
networkssupportingconnection-andconnectionless-orientedservicesanddiversequalityof-servicemechanisms.Thetheoreticalmaximumspeedis171.2ÂKbps,butreal-lifeuser
throughputisexpectedtobe56Kbpsorless.
GPS~GlobalPositioningSystem~asatellitenavigationsystemusedtodetermine
groundpositionandvelocity(location,speed,anddirection).Thoughitwascreatedand
originallyusedbytheU.S.military,GPSisnowavailabletothegeneralpublicalloverthe
world.
GPS~GNATProgrammingStudio~afreemulti-languageIDEforGNU/Linux,MS
WindowsandSolaris/Sparc.GPSusesGTK+asgraphicaluserinterface.
GPSL~GeneralPurposeScriptingLanguage~GeneralPurposeScriptingLanguage
GPSS~GeneralPurposeSimulationSystem~Apowerfulgeneralpurposesimulator
whichprovidesawiderangeofcapacitiesfordiscretesystemmodeling.
GPU~GraphicsProcessingUnit~LiketheCPU(CentralProcessingUnit),itisasinglechipprocessor.However,theGPUisusedprimarilyforcomputing3Dfunctions.
GPWW~grouppracticewithoutwalls~Anumbrellaorganizationforagroupof
independentphysicianpracticesthatperformscertainbusinessoperations,suchas
technologyprocurement.
GRC~governance,riskandcompliance~GRCreflectsanewwayinwhich
organizationscanadoptanintegratedapproachtothesethreeareas.
GRC.SQ~Governance,RiskManagement,Compliance,Security,andDataQuality~
usedoftenbyDataGovernanceandDataQualityprogramstoacknowledgethe
interdependenciesofthesefivedisciplinesinmanagingdata.
GRCM~GRCmanagement~themanagement,measurementandreportingofIT
controls,andthedistributionandattestationofpolicies,compliancereportingandrisk
assessment.
GRE~genericroutingencapsulation~TunnelingprotocoldevelopedbyCiscothatcan
encapsulateawidevarietyofprotocolpackettypesinsideIPtunnels,creatingavirtual
point-to-pointlinktoCiscoroutersatremotepointsoveranIPinternetwork.
grep~global-regular-expression-print~aUNIXutilitythatallowstheusertosearchone
ormorefilesforaspecificstringoftextandoutputsallthelinesthatcontainthestring.
GROW~GNURemoteOperationsWeb~Anarchitectureforbuildingnetworked
applicationsandservicesusingWWW.
GRT~GranularRecoveryTechnology~asingle-passbackupwhilemaintainingfullDR
andindividualemail,folderormailboxrestores
GSAM~generalizedsequentialaccessmethod~Adatabaseaccessmethodthatallows
batchapplicationprogramstoaccessasequentialdatasetrecordthatisdefinedasa
databaserecord.
GSC~GeckoSystemConnect~abususedinmanyoftheHP9000workstationsand
servers.TheGSCbuswas32-bitandreached40MHzinitsfinaliterations.
GSI~GigascaleIntegration~Gigascaleintegrationisalong-termgoalofmakingchips
withbillionsofcomponentsonthem.
GSK~GlobalSecurityKit~Atoolkitformanagingdigitalcertificatesusedin
implementingSecureSocketsLayer(SSL)security.
GSM~GlobalSystemforMobilecommunication~Acronymforthedigitalcellularradio
systembasedonpan-Europeanspecifications.OriginallystoodforGroupeSpeciale
Mobile,nowGlobalSystemforMobilecommunication.
GSO~globalsign-on~Aflexiblesinglesign-onsolutionthatenablestheusertoprovide
alternativeusernamesandpasswordstotheback-endWebapplicationserver.
GSR~GigabitSwitchRouter~AfamilyofrouterproductsfromCiscoSystems.
GTL~GunningTransceiverLogic~Alow-powerstandardforelectricalsignalsusedin
CMOScircuitswhichallowsforlowelectromagneticinterferenceathighspeedsof
transfer.
GTM~globaltrademanagement~theprocessesandtechnologiesusedtosupportthe
uniquelogistical,regulatory,andfnancialaspectsoftheimportandexportprocesses.
GTM~GlobalTrafficManager~F5producttoperformgeography-baseddatacenter
trafficmanagement
GTP~GPRSTunnelingProtocol~protocolusedbytheGPRSbackbonenetworkfor
packetswitching.GTPisaprotocoldefinedonboththeGnandGpinterfacesbetween
GSNsinaGPRSnetwork.
GTS~GenericTrafficShaping~Amechanismtocontrolthetrafficflowonaparticular
interface.
GTT~GlobalTitleTranslation~GTTisaprocessthatallowsdialeddigitstobe
translatedintoanetworknodeaddressandanapplicationaddress.Theprocessis
performedintheSS7networkbytheSTP.
GUA~graphicaluserauthentication~Agraphicalpasswordisanauthenticationsystem
thatworksbyhavingtheuserselectfromimages,inaspecificorder,presentedinaGUI.
GUI~GraphicalUserInterface~Pronouncedgoo-ee.Apictorial‘frontend’programto
simplifytheoperationofcomputersliketheIBMPCandtheAppleMacintosh.
Documentsarestoredinpictures(‘icons’)ofdrawersorfilingcabinets(whichrepresent
filesordirectoriesindiskdrives).
GUID~GloballyUniqueIdentifier~a128-bitnumberusedbyMicrosoftWINDOWSto
identifyauser,softwarecomponent,orotherentity.GUIDsaremostoftenwrittenas
groupsofhexadecimaldigitsinbraces.
GUTBN~GloballyUniqueTimeBasedNumber~appliestoa‘code’thatisuniqueinall
theworld.Globallyuniquetimebasednumbersaregloballyuniqueidentifiers(GUID)
thatyoucancreatebyyourselfandthatareregisteredforyou.
GVN~Globalvaluenumbering~compileroptimizationbasedontheSSAintermediate
representation.Itsometimeshelpseliminateredundantcodethatcommonsubexpression
evaluation(CSE)doesnot.
GVPN~GlobalVirtualNetworkService~GlobalVirtualNetworkServiceisamultinetworkinternationalserviceproposedbytheÂITU.GVNSallowsserviceprovidersto
offersubscribingcustomersaservicewithfeaturesandfunctionalitysimilartothatofa
privatenetworkwithoutrequiringthecustomerstopurchaseandmanagethenetworks.
GVRP~GenericÂVLANResolutionProtocol~aGARPapplicationthatprovides
registrationservicesinaVLANcontext.
GVU~Graphic,Visualization,andUsability~Graphic,Visualization,andUsability
GWEN~GroundWaveEmergencyNetwork~communicationssystemthattheUS
militaryconstructs.Itoperatesinavery-low-frequencyrange,withtransmissionsbetween
150and175kHz.
GWT~GoogleWebToolkit~OpensourceJavasoftwaredevelopmentframeworkthat
makeswritingAJAXapplicationslikeGoogleMapsandGmaileasyfordeveloperswho
don’tspeakbrowserquirksasasecondlanguage
GXA~GlobalXMLWebServicesArchitecture~anannouncementbyMicrosoftin2002
ofseveralproposalsforextensionstoSOAP.SomeofthecomponentsofGXAwere
developedintostandardsincombinationwithothercompanies,includingIBM.
GXS~GlobalÂexchangeservices~deliversglobalB2Be-commerceintegration
solutionsÂwww.gxs.com
gzip~GNUzip~aGNUfreesoftwarefilecompressionprogram.ItwascreatedbyJeanloupGaillyandMarkAdler.gzipisbasedontheDEFLATEalgorithm,whichisa
combinationofLZ77andHuffmancoding.
~H~
H&H~Hoot&Holler~Adedicatedpoint-to-pointvoicefacilitybetweeninternational
officesofatradingfacility.
H/SLAN~High-SpeedLocal-AreaNetwork~AÂLANÂoperatingat4Mbitsper
secondormoretofacilitaterapidexchangeoffiles,mail,etc.,withinabroader
departmentalordivisionalenvironment.
H3C~(previous)HuaweiTechnologies-3Com~HPcompany,supplierofrouters,
Ethernetswitches,wirelessLAN,securityandVoice/VideooverIPandnetwork
managementsystemsÂwww.h3c.com
HA~highavailability~Pertainingtoaclusteredsystemthatisreconfiguredwhennode
ordaemonfailuresoccur,sothatworkloadscanberedistributedtotheremainingnodesin
thecluster.
HA~highavailability~TheabilityofITservicestowithstandalloutagesandcontinue
providingprocessingcapabilityaccordingtosomepredefinedservicelevel.
HAAT~HeightAboveAverageTerrain~ameasureofanantenna’sheightaboveaverage
terrain.ThisvalueisusedbytheFCCindeterminingcompliancewithheightlimitations
andtransmittingpowersforhighsites.
HACMP~High-AvailabilityClusterMulti-Processing~Softwarethatprovideshost
clustering,sothatjobsaremovedtootherhostswithintheclusterifonehostfails.
Hactivism~from‘hack’and‘activism’~theconceptofhackingintoaWebsiteor
computersysteminordertocommunicateapoliticallyorsociallymotivatedmessage.
HAD~HolographicAutostereoscopicDisplay~SimpleconversionofLCDtechnology,
replacingtheLCD’sbacklightwithanHOE(holographicopticalelement)
HADR~highavailabilitydisasterrecovery~Adisasterrecoverysolutionthatuseslog
shippingandprovidesdatatoastandbysystemifapartialorcompletesitefailureoccurs
onaprimarysystem.
HAE~HeightAboveEllipsoid~Verticaldifferencebetweenareferenceellipsoidmodel
andtheknown,orderived,elevationatagivenspatiallocation(typicallyinmeters).
HAL~HardwareAbstractionLayer~AtranslationprotocolinWindowsNTforporting
NTtoanotherplatform.
HAN~homeareanetwork~anetworkcontainedwithinauser’shomethatconnectsa
person’sdigitaldevices,frommultiplecomputersandtheirperipheraldevicesto
telephones,VCRs,televisions,videogames,homesecuritysystems,‘smart’appliances,
faxmachines
HARC~HitachiAsynchronousRemoteCopy~AremotecopyfunctionforHDSstorage
products.HARCallowsmovementoflargeamountsofdataoveranydistancewithfull
dataintegrityandminimalimpactonperformance.
HARQ~HybridAutomaticRepeatreQuest~ashemewhereininformationblocksare
encodedforpartialerrorcorrectionatreceiverandadditional,uncorrectederrorsare
retransmitted.
HASP~HoustonAutomaticSpoolingProgram~Amainframespoolingprogramthat
providestaskmanagement,jobmanagement,anddatamanagementfunctions.
HAT~HeapAnalysisTool~ToolfortrackingdownheapproblemsinJavaprograms
HAVi~HomeAudioVideointeroperability~avendor-neutralaudio-videostandard
aimedspecificallyatthehomeentertainmentenvironment.
HBA~hostbusadapter~Anadapterusedtoconnectsahostcomputertoastorage
network.
HCI~HostControllerInterface~BlueToothtechnology
HCI~Human-ComputerInteraction~Thestudyofhowhumansinteractwithcomputers,
usedtodesigncomputerswhichareeasyforhumanstouse.
HCL~HardwareCompatibilityList~Alistofcomputersandperipheralsthathavebeen
testedbyMicrosofttoworkwithWindowsNTorWindows2000.
HCM~humancapitalmanagement~Socialsoftwarecoversarangeoffunctionality,
fromwikisandblogstosocialnetworksandsocialbookmarking.
HCO~High-CapacityOptical~HCOdrivesuseblue-lasertechnologyandstandard120millimeterCD/DVD-sizediscsforasmuchassixtimesthecapacityoftraditional5.25inchmagneto-optical(MO)technology.
HCR~HuffmanCodewordReordering~MPEG-4AudioErrorResilience(ER)
techniquethatavoidserrorpropagationwithinspectraldata
HCT~hardwarecompatibilitytests~AsuiteoftestsfromWHQLtoverifyhardwareand
devicedriveroperationsunderaspecificoperatingenvironment.Thesetestsexercisethe
combinationofadevice,asoftwaredriver,andanoperatingsystemundercontrolled
conditions.
HD/HDD~HardDiskDrive~permanentstoragemediumusedoncomputers.AHDD
consistsofanumberofrigiddiscsthatstoreallofthecomputerprogramsanddataonthe
computer,evenwhenthepowertothecomputerisswitchedoff.
HDDVD~high-densityDVD~ahigh-densityopticaldiscsimilarto,butnotcompatible
with,BLU-RAYDISC,formerlymarketedbyToshibabutdiscontinuedin2008.
HDA~HeadDiskAssembly~Themechanicalpartsofadiskdrive,includingthe
read/writeheads,platters,andothernon-electroniccomponents.
HDCP~High-bandwidthDigitalContentProtection~aspecifiedmethodfromIntelfor
protectingcopyrighteddigitalentertainmentcontentthatusestheÂDVIÂbyencrypting
itstransmissionbetweenthevideosourceandthedigitaldisplay(receiver).
HDLC~High-levelDataLinkControl~Linklayer-ISO13239
HDLC~HighLevelDataLinkControl~AnITU-TSSlinklayerprotocolstandardfor
point-to-pointandmulti-pointcommunications.
HDMI~High-DefinitionMultimediaInterface~HDMIisadigitalinterfacewhose
purposeistopermitthetransmissionofaudioandvideosignalsthroughasinglecable,
whilesupportingfasterdataratesthanitsnormalcounterparts.Âhttp://www.hdmi.org/
HDML~HandheldDeviceMarkupLanguage~SpecificationsallowInternetaccessfrom
wirelessdevicessuchashandheldpersonalcomputersandsmartphones.
HDR~headerlabel~Asetofinformationonadisketteortapethatdescribesthecontents
ofthedisketteortape.
HDR~headerlabel~Thelabelordatasetlabelthatprecedesthedatarecordsonaunit
ofrecordingmedium.
HDR~High-dynamic-rangeimagingorHigh-dynamic-rangerendering~digitalimaging
oranimagerenderingtechnique
HDR~host-discoveredresource~Asetofstoragehardwareresourcesthatareattachedto
ahostsystemandareavailableontheoperatingsystem.
HDS~HitachiDataSystems~Avendorofenterpriseandmodularstoragesystemsand
software.HDSisawhollyownedsubsidiaryofTokyo-basedelectronicsfirmHitachi,Ltd.
HDSL~Highbit-rateDigitalSubscriberLine~Providesrepeaterlessdigitaltransmission
at2Mbit/sforabout12000feet(4km)overtwistedpair.
HDTP~HandheldDeviceTransportProtocol~ItpresentstheHDMLtotheHDML
interpreterinanappropriateformat.DevelopedbyHTTP://WWW.PHONE.COMÂforuse
inwirelessapplications.
HDTV~HighDefinitiontelevision~HighDefinitiontelevisionmeansbroadcastof
televisionsignalswithahigherresolutionthantraditionalformatsallow.It’sastepchange
intelevisiontechnologywhichprovidesfarclearerandmoredetailedpicturesthannormal
‘standarddefinition’TV.
HDx/HD~Halfduplex~Adevicecaneitherreceiveorsenddataatagiventime.
HE-AAC~HighEfficiencyAdvancedAudioÂCoding~Lossydatacompressionscheme
forstreamingaudio.Itcombinesthreetechniques:AAC,SpectralBandReplication
(SBR),andParametricStereo(PS)
HEC~HeaderErrorControl~UsingfifthoctetinATMcellheader,ATMequipment
maycheckforerrorandcorrectcontentsofheader.Checkcharacteriscalculatedusing
CRCalgorithmallowingsinglebiterrorinheadertobecorrectedormultipleerrorstobe
detected.
HEL~HardwareEmulationLayer~Thisprovidessoftware-basedemulationoffeatures
thatarenotdirectlyavailableinhardware.
HEP~horizontalenterpriseportal~Aportalthatservesabroadpopulationofusers
acrossanenterprise-unlikeaÂVEP,whichservesonlyaspecificsegmentofthis
population
HERF~highenergyradiofrequency~AHERFgunisusedtodisruptdigitalequipment
suchascomputersbyblastingthemwithHERFemissions.
HFC~HybridFiberCoax~secondgenerationcableTVinfrastructure.HFCnetworks
combinebothoptical-fiberandcoaxialcablelines.Opticalfiberrunsfromthecablehead
endtoneighborhoodsof500to2,000subscribers.
HFS~HierarchicalFileSystem~HFSisthefilesystemusedfororganizingfilesona
Macintoshharddisk.WhenaharddiskisformattedforaMacintoshcomputer,the
hierarchicalfilesystemisusedtocreateadirectorythatcanexpandasnewfilesand
foldersareaddedtothedisk.
HFS+~HierarchicalFileSystemPlus~TheMacOSExtendedfile-systemformat.This
formatwasintroducedaspartofMacOS8.1,addingsupportforfilenameslongerthan31
characters,Unicoderepresentationoffileanddirectorynames,andefficientoperationon
verylargedisks.
HGFS~Host-GuestFileSystem~VMware’snamefortheguest-visibleaspectofa
SharedFolder.
HGML~HypertextGeneralMarkupLanguage~Aformattingcodeformarkinguptext
files,whichmakesuppartofSGML.
HHO~HardHandOff~usedinCDMAsystems,describesahand-offinvolvinga
frequencychange.
HHT~Hand-HeldTerminal~Hand-heldprogrammingterminaltocommunicatewitha
programmablelogiccontroller(PLC)onthefly
HID~High-IntensityDischarge~Lightbulbtechnologyusedmainlyinprojectors
HID~HumanInterfaceDevice~TheHIDprofiledefinestheprotocols,proceduresand
featurestobeusedbyBluetoothHIDsuchaskeyboards,pointingdevices,gamingdevices
andremotemonitoringdevices.
HIDAM~hierarchicalindexeddirectaccessmethod~Adatabaseaccessmethodusedfor
indexedaccesstorecordsinahierarchicdirectorganization.Itprovidesindexedaccessto
therootsegmentsandpointeraccesstosubordinatesegments.
HIDS~HostbasedIntrusionDetectionSystem~Asystemfordetectingunauthorised
accesstoasinglecomputer.AHIDSmaymonitorlogsoractivityonnetworkports,oruse
othertechniquestodetectpossibleintrusions
HiFD~HIgh-capacityFloppyDisk~Sonyterm.
HighMAT~High-performanceMediaAccessTechnology~asetofstandardscodevelopedbyMicrosoftandMatsushita(Panasonic)forCDsandDVDsthatarecreated
onpersonalcomputersbutplayedbackonconsumerelectronicdevicessuchasCD
playersandDVD-equippedtelevisionsets.
HIL~Hardware-in-the-Loop~applicationsusedbydesignandtestengineerstoevaluate
andvalidatevehiclecomponentsduringdevelopmentofnewsystems
HIMEM~HIghMEMory~ADOSandWindowsextendedmemorymanager.
HIP~HostIdentityProtocol~hostidentificationtechnologyforuseonIPnetworks,such
astheInternet.
HIPAA~HealthInsurancePortabilityandAccountabilityAct~AnactpassedbytheU.S.
congressinAugust1996.HIPAA’sdirectivescallfortheuseofEDIÂinhealthcare
transactions,andforprotectingtheprivacyofpatienthealthcareinformation.
HiPerLinks~High-PerformanceLinks~Ahigh-speedcoupling-linktechnology
introducedbyIBMin1997foritsS/390mainframes.
Hiperspace~High-PerformanceSpace~IntroducedwithESA/370,ahiperspaceis,in
essence,anaddressspaceoccupiedonlybydataandtowhichaccessiscontrolledby
hardwareviaspecialinstructions.
HIPPI~HIghPerformanceParallelInterface~Ahigh-speedcommunicationsbusused
withsupercomputersorhigh-speedLANs.
HIS~healthcareinformationsystem~Asystemorapplicationusedtomanagehospitalor
otherhealthcare-relatedoperations(suchasfinancial,registration,schedulingandbackofficefunctions);alsocalleda‘hospitalinformationsystem.’
HISAM~hierarchicalindexedsequentialaccessmethod~Adatabaseaccessmethod
usedforindexedaccesstorecordsinahierarchicsequentialorganization.
HITECH~HealthInformationforEconomicandClinicalHealth~Actcollectively
referstothehealthinformationtechnologyprovisionsincludedatTitleXIIIofDivisionA
andTitleIVofDivisionBoftheARRA.
HIToolbox~HumanInterfaceToolbox~AcollectionofproceduralÂAPIsÂthatapply
anobject-orientedmodeltowindows,controls,andmenusforCarbonapplications.
HKCC~HKey_Current_Config~WindowsNTRegistrykey
HKLM~HKey_Local_Machine~WindowsNTRegistrykey
HL7~HealthLevel7~HL7isastandardinterfaceforexchangingandtranslatingdata
betweencomputersystems.HL7isalsoanot-for-profitorganizationaccreditedby
theÂAmericanNationalStandardsInstitutes(ANSI)Âthatdevelopsstandardsfordata
transfer.http://www.hl7.org/
HLA~HighLevelArchitecture~ageneralpurposearchitecturefordistributedcomputer
simulationsystems.UsingHLA,computersimulationscancommunicatetoother
computersimulationsregardlessofthecomputingplatforms.
HLLAPI~HighLevelLanguageApplicationProgrammingInterface~usedwithIBM
mainframestoallowPC’stocommunicatewiththemainframeusinganemulator.
HLR~HomeLocationRegister~adatabaseresidinginalocalwirelessnetworkthat
checkstheidentityofalocalsubscriber.HLRcontainsinformationaboutsubscriberstoa
mobilenetworkandregisterssubscribersforaparticularserviceprovider.
HMA~HighMemoryArea~Methodtoaccessthefirst64kBsegmentabovethe1MB
boundaryinDOS/Windows16-bits
HMD~HeadMountedDisplay~Ahelmetwithstereoscopicgogglesforthewearer’s
eyes,andstereoheadphonesovertheears;usedasaninterfacethroughwhichthewearer
canexperienceavirtualrealityenvironment.
h-menu~Hierarchicalmenu~Apull-downmenuthathassub-menus.Thesub-menusare
indicatedbyarrows.Puttingthepointerontheitemthathasanarrowopensupthesubmenu.
HMP~HybridMultiprocessing~referstoakindofmultitaskingwhichprovidessome
elementsofsymmetricmultiprocessing,usingadd-onIBMsoftwarecalledMP/2.IBM
OS/2supportsHMP.
Honeynet~Anetworkofhoneypots.~Anetworkofhoneypots.
HOSED~HardwareOrSoftwareErrorDetected~Generalerrornotyetdiagnosed.
HP~Hewlett-Packard~Amanufacturerofworkstations,electronicinstrumentationand
testequipmentetc.Foundedin1939byStanfordUniversitygraduates,WilliamR.
HewlettandDavidPackard,HPistheoriginalgaragestart-up.Âwww.hp.com
HP~HoneyPot~AnInternet-attachedserverthatactsasadecoy,luringinpotential
hackersinordertostudytheiractivitiesandmonitorhowtheyareabletobreakintoa
system
HPA~HighPerformanceAddressing~Akindofdisplayusedonsomemultimedia
notebookcomputers,thatdelivershigh-qualitygraphicscomparabletoActiveMatrix
(TFT)Displays.
HPB~HighPingBastard~Networkmultiplayergamesattribute
HPC~HighPerformanceComputing~HPCisagenericandrelativetermsincethe
desktopcomputersoftodayarecapableofthesameperformanceassupercomputersfrom
afewyearsback.
HPF~HighPassFilter~atelephonyterm.Asignalfilterwhichwouldbeinstalledina
customerpremisesADSLmodem(ATU-R),whichonlyallowhigherfrequencydatatobe
deliveredtothemodem.
HPFS~HighPerformanceFileSystem~ThefilesystemforIBMOS/2.
HPGL~Hewlett-PackardGraphicsLanguage~HPLanguagetodescribevectorgraphics
(usuallyforplotters)
HPIB~HewlettPackardInterfaceBus~IsaversionofGPIB(alsoknownasIEEE.488)
andwasusedonHewlettPackard(NowAligentTechnologies)labequipment.Early
versionsusedadifferentconnector
HPNA~HomePhonelineNetworkingAlliance~Analliancetoadvancetechnologiesfor
high-speedlocal-areanetworkingoverconventionalphonewires.Itwasfoundedin1998
by3Com,ÂAMD,AT&TWirelessServices,Compaq,ConexantSystems,HP,IBM,Intel,
LucentandTutSystems.
HPR~High-PerformanceRouting~IBM’stechnologytoenableusersto
sendÂSNAÂtrafficoverframeandcell-basednetworks,makingformoreefficient
communications.
HR~horizontalrule~tagusedinHTMLtoindicateahorizontalrule.
HR/DSSS~HighRate/DirectSequenceSpreadSpectrumPhysicalLayer~theenhanced
physicallayerdefinedbyIEEE802.11bwhichsupportsdatatransferatupto11Mbps.
HRAA~HighResolutionAntiAliasing~TechnologyfoundinthenVidiaGeForce3Chip
HRC~HitachiRemoteCopy~Acontroller-basedremote-copycapabilityusedinHitachi
DataSystemsstorageproducts.
HRMS~humanresourcemanagementsystem~Businessapplicationsforthe
managementofhumanresource(HR)transactions,bestpracticesandenterprisereporting.
FunctionstypicallyincludecoreHRtracking,payrollandbenefits.
HRPD~HighRatePacketData~alsoknownasTIA/EIAIS-856or1xEV-DO,isa
packetdataprotocolinthe3GmobilecommunicaitonsnetworkbasedonCDMA2000.
HSB/HSV~Hue,Saturation,Brightness(orValue)~HSVisawayofdefiningacolour
basedonacolourwheel.Huemeasurestheanglearoundthecolourwheel.Thesaturation
indicatestheradiusonthecolourwheelsoindicatestheproportionbetweendarktopure
colourtowhite.Valueindicatesthebrightness.
HSCSD~HighSpeedCircuitSwitchedData~acircuit-linkedtechnologyforhigher
transmissionspeeds—upto57kilobitspersecond—primarilyinGSMsystems.
HSD~HighSpeedData~InterfacenormallyusingV.35orEIA53standards.
HSDPA~High-SpeedDownlinkPacketAccess~alsocalled3.5G,apacket-baseddata
serviceinW-CDMAdownlinkwithdatatransmissionupto8-10Mbit/s(and20Mbit/sfor
MIMOsystems)overa5MHzbandwidthinWCDMAdownlink.
HSF~HeatSinkFan~Thisisacombinationofafanblowingairacrossthefinsofa
heatsink,usuallyonahighhorsepowermicroprocessor.
HSF~HighSierraFormat~AlogicalformatandfilestructureforÂCD-ROMsthat
pavedthewayforÂISOÂ9660.Astheindustrybegantoevolvemanydifferent
proprietaryCD-ROMformats,theneedforacommonstandardbecameobvious.
HSIL~HostSideIgmpLibrary~Ciscoterm
HSM~HardwareSecurityModule~Generateand/orstoresecretsforuseincrytography,
commonlyusedincardpaymentsystems
HSM~Hierarchicalstoragemanagement~Theautomatedmigrationofdataobjects
amongstoragedevices,usuallybasedoninactivity.Byacceptingloweraccess
performance(higheraccesstimes),onecanstoreobjectslessexpensively.
HSO~HotSpotOperator~Acompanythatsetsupandoperatescommercialhotspotsin
cafes,airports,hotels,trainstations,conventioncentersandofficebuildings.AnHSO
typicallyinstallsoneormoreaccesspointsandanaccesscontroldevicealongwithahigh
speedInternetconnectiontothelocation.
HSR~HorizontalScanRate~Thenumberofscanlinesdisplayedpersecondona
computermonitor,expressedinkHz.
HSRP~HotStandbyRouterProtocol~Provideshighnetworkavailabilityand
transparentnetworktopologychanges.HSRPcreatesaHotStandbyroutergroupwitha
leadrouterthatservicesallpacketssenttotheHotStandbyaddress.Theleadrouteris
monitoredbyotherroutersinthegroup,andifitfails,oneofthesestandbyroutersinherits
theleadpositionandtheHotStandbygroupaddress.
HSS~HomeSubscriberService~akeycomponentintheIPMultimediaSubsystem
(IMS),referstoasystemincludingthemasteruserdatabaseandsoftwarethatsupports
IMSnetworkentitiesthathandlecallsandsessions.
HSSDC~HighSpeedSerialDirectConnect~AtypeofconnectorusedonFibreChannel
opticalcables.
HSSI~HighSpeedSerialInterface~Standardforaserialinterfaceathighspeeds(64
Kbpsandhigherupto52Mbps)betweenDTEandDCEequipmentoververyshort
distances.UsedforaphysicalconnectionbetweenarouterandaDSU.
HSUPA~High-SpeedUplinkPacketAccess~partofthespecificationsfor3GPPRelease
6.Itimprovesupstreamdatabitrateson3GsystemsandcomplementsHigh-Speed
DownlinkPacketAccess(HSDPA),theoreticallyuptoamaximum5.8Mbpsuplinkdata
rateatthecelllevel.
HT~Hyper-Threading~Inteltechnologywithwhichasingleprocessorcanfunctionas
twovirtualprocessorsandexecutetwothreadssimultaneously.
HT~HyperTransport~AMDTechnologyisahigh-speed,lowlatency,point-to-pointlink
designedtoincreasethecommunicationspeedbetweenintegratedcircuitsincomputers,
serversandembeddedsystemsupto48timesfaster
HTC~formerlyHighTechComputerCorporation~aTaiwan-basedmanufacturerof
smartphonesÂhttp://www.htc.com/
HTMLorHTM~HyperTextMarkupLanguage~Thecodinglanguageusedtocreate
Hypertextdocumentsforuseontheworldwideweb.HTMLlooksalotlikeold-fashioned
typesettingcode,whereyousurroundablockoftextwithcodesthatindicatehowit
shouldappear.Additionally,inHTMLyoucanspecifythatablockoftext,oraword,is
linkedtoanotherfileontheInternet.
HTML5~HyperTextMarkupLanguage5~awholesetofnewelementsthatmakeit
mucheasiertostructurepages,whichcommencedin2004,iscurrentlybeingcarriedout
inajointeffortbetweentheÂW3CHTMLWGÂandtheÂWHATWG.
HTT~Hyper-ThreadingTechnology~Implementationofsimultaneousmultithreading
onIntelPentium4,MobilePentium4,andXeonprocessors
HTTP~HyperTextTransferProtocol~Applicationlayer-W3CChangeHistoryfor
HTTP
HTTP~HyperTextTransportProtocol~Theprotocolformovinghypertextfilesacross
theinternet.RequiresaHTTPclientprogramononeend,andanHTTPserverprogramon
theotherend.HTTPisthemostimportantprotocolusedintheworldwideweb(WWW).
HTTPS~HyperTextTransferProtocolSecure~Transportandotherlayers-SSL3.0
Specification
HTTPS~SecuredHTTPorHTTPSecure~AnInternetprotocolthatisusedbyWeb
serversandWebbrowserstotransferanddisplayhypermediadocumentssecurelyacross
theInternet.
HTTPS~HTTPoverSSL~AWebprotocolforsecuretransactionsthatencryptsand
decryptsuserpagerequestsandpagesreturnedbytheWebserver.
HUD~HeadUpDisplay~Adisplaythatisusuallyprojectedtoapositionwheretheuser
onlyhastolookuptosee.
HURSE~HaspUnitRecordSErvice~IBMterm.Togetapunchorprintofyourcards
HWS~highwatermarksetup~Amethodtoallocateaminimumnumberofunique
devicetypesthatfulfilltherequirementsforeachjobstep.Devicesusedinonestepcanbe
releasedandusedagaininlatersteps.
HXRC~HitachiExtendedRemoteCopy~Aremote-copyfunctionforHitachiData
Systemsstorageproducts.HXRCusesanasynchronouscopyapproachtodeliverhigh
dataintegritywithminimaldisruptionandperformanceimpacttotheprimarysystem.
Hz~hertz~Aunitoffrequencyequaltoonecyclepersecond.
~I~
I/O~Input/Output~Input/Output
I2~Internet2~next-generationInternetreferstoconsortiumandgovernmenteffortsto
defineanext-generationhigh-speedInternetwithstrongeducationaltools.
I2C~Inter-IntegratedCircuit~2-wirebusdevelopedbyPhilipsSemiconductorsinthe
early1980’sforefficientinter-ICcommunications.
I²C~Inter-IntegratedCircuit~amulti-masterserialcomputerbusinventedbyPhilips
thatisusedtoattachlow-speedperipheralstoamotherboard,embeddedsystem,or
cellphone.Thenameispronouncedeye-squared-seeoreye-two-see.
IA-32/64~IntelArchitecture-32/64~acronymusedinthenamesofIntelprocessor
architectures.
IA-32/64~IntelArchitecture-32/64~IA-32:IntelproprietaryÂCISCÂarchitecture
IA-32/64~IntelArchitecture-32/64~IA-64:basedonExplicitlyParallelInstruction
ComputingandcertainlydesignedasthefoundationforIntel’slineofmicroprocessors
through2005.
IaaS~integrationasaservice~integrationasaservice
IAB~InternetArchitectureBoard(previousInternetActivitiesBoard)~Thegroupthat
administratesthedevelopmentoftheInternetsuiteofprotocolsÂTCP/IP.TheIABhas
twoinvestigativetaskforces,theIRTFandtheIETF.Âhttp://www.iab.org/
IAD~integratedaccessdevice~Anetworkdevicethatcollectsmultipletypesoftraffic
(suchasvoice,dataorvideo)atanenterprisesitefortransmissionoveraservice
provider’snetwork.
IAM~IdentityandAccessManagement~IAMisanauthoritativeassociationofpeople
withidentifierssuchasIDnumbersandIDcards,accesscredentialssuchas
usernames/passwordsandauthorizationtoaccessdataandservices.Identityandaccess
managementisfundamentalforprovidingaccesstouniversityservices.
iAMT~IntelActiveManagementTechnology~Hardware-basedtechnologyforremotely
managingandsecuringPCsout-of-band
IANA~InternetAssignedNumberAuthority~Organization-IANA
IANA~InternetAssignedNumbersAuthority~theymanageIPaddressspace,root
nameserversanddomainnamesamongotherthings.They’rebeingreplacedby
ICANN.Âhttp://www.iana.org/
IAP~InternetAccessProvider~acompanythatprovidesaccesstotheInternet.IAPs
generallyprovidedial-upaccessthroughamodemandPPPconnection,thoughcompanies
thatofferInternetaccesswithotherdevices
IAS~InternetAuthenticationService~aRADIUSServerwhichperformsconnection
authenticationandaccountingforremoteaccess.
IAT~InsideAirTemperature~Thisisusedintheelectronicsindustrytomeanthe
ambientairtemperatureoftheairmasswithintheunitindiscussion.
IB~InterfaceBus~IBstandsforInterfaceBus
IBG~interblockgap~Thespacebetweenrecordsonastoragemedium.Anareaorspace
onadatamedium(tapeordiskette)toindicatetheendofaphysicalrecordorblock.
IBM~InternationalBusinessMachines~Knowninformallyas‘BigBlue,’IBMisoneof
thelargest,mostwell-knowncorporationsthatdesignsandmanufacturescomputer
systems,software,networkingsystems,storagedevices,and
microelectronics.Âwww.ibm.com
IBO~industrybusinessunit~SAP’sPublicServicesSolutionManagement
IBR~intelligentbrowserreferencing~Webaccelerationfunction
IBSG~InternetBankingSystemGroup~IBSistermforInternetBankingSystem
IBSG~InternetBusinessSolutionsÂGroup~
IBT~IntelliLightBroadbandTransport~ASONET-basedpoint-to-pointservice
providinghighbandwidthinterfacesoversharedSONETinfrastructurefacilities.
IBT~InternetBasedTraining~Evolutionofthecomputerbasedtraining,whichoffers
real-timelearningovertheInternetwithateacher.
IC~IntegratedCircuit~Manytransistorsandothercircuitelements“integrated�on
asinglesiliconchip
IC~Isee~Shorthandslang,IC,meaning‘Isee’.
ICA~IndependentComputingArchitecture~Aproprietaryprotocolforanapplication
serversystem,designedbyCitrixSystems.Theprotocollaysdownaspecificationfor
passingdatabetweenserverandclients,butisnotboundtoanyoneplatform.
ICA~InternationalComplianceAssociation~InternationalCompliance
AssociationÂwww.int-comp.org
ICANN~InternetCorporationForAssignedNamesandNumbers~TheICANNisan
non-profitcorporationthatisresponsibleforallocatingIPaddressandmanagingthe
domainnamesystem.EverycomputerconnectedtotheInternet,fromserverstohome
PCs,hasanIPaddress.Âhttp://www.icann.org/
ICC~InternetCommerceCorporation~Providesbusiness-to-businesselectronic
commerceserviceslikeInternetEDI,EDIfax,webcommerce,infosafedocument
managementandsubsidiaryservices.Âwww.icc.net
ICCs~integrationcompetencycenters~SOACOEs,ICCsrelyonmetadatarepositories
andserviceregistriestohelpthemmanagetheever-changingSOAandintegration
scenarios.
ICDL~InternationalComputerDrivingLicence~TheICDLFoundationworksto
promoteanInternationalcertificationofindustry-standardcomputingskills.
SeeÂhttp://www.ecdl.com
ICE~in-circuitemulator~ICEisadebuggingtoolthattakestheplaceof(emulates)the
processoronthetargetboard.
ICE~informationandcontentexchange~ICE,anXML-basedstandardprotocolfor
electronicbusiness-to-business(B2B)assetmanagement.
ICE~InteractiveConnectivityEstablishment~ICEisanetworkprotocol
ICF~InternetConnectionFirewall~ICFisaWindowsXPfeaturethatprotects
computersconnectedtotheInternetfromunauthorizedaccess.WhenICFisenabled,
WindowskeepsalogofincomingrequestsfromothersystemsontheInternet.Ifthe
requestissomethingtheuserhasrequested,likeaWebpage,thetransmissionwillnotbe
affected.
ICI~Information-centricinfrastructure~atechnologyframeworkthatenables
informationproducersandinformationconsumerstoorganize,shareandexchangeany
content,anytime,anywhere.
ICI~InterexchangeCarrierInterface~Theinterfacebetweencarriernetworksthat
supportSMDS(SwitchedMultimegabitDataService).
ICM~incentivecompensationmanagement~applicationsautomatefunctionsfor
calculatingandreportingoncommissionsandassociatedvariablecompensationmethods
forsaleschannels
ICMP~InternetControlMessageProtocol~InternetLayer-RFC792
ICMP~InternetControlMessageProtocol~Wheninformationistransferredoverthe
Internet,computersystemssendandreceivedatausingtheÂTCP/IPÂprotocol.Ifthereis
aproblemwiththeconnection,errorandstatusmessagesregardingtheconnectionare
sentusingICMP,whichispartoftheInternetprotocol.
ICMS~incentivecompensationmanagementsystem~Asystemthatprovidethesales
managerwithdecisionsupporttoolstomodelvariouscompensationscenarios,measure
theimpactofthoseplansonsalesperformanceandeffectivelycommunicateincentive
compensationobjectives
ICP~InternetContentProvider~ICPlicenseisapermitissuedbytheChineseMinistry
ofIndustryandInformationTechnologytopermitChina-basedwebsitestooperatein
China.TheICPlicensenumbersforChinesewebsitescanoftenbefoundonthebottomof
thefrontwebpage.
ICPP~IntelChannelPartnerProgram~aprogramthatprovidesbenefitsandsupportto
registeredmemberssellingIntelproducts,orsolutionsbasedonIntelproducts.TheICPP
providesitsmemberswithresourcesandsupporttohelpbuild,promote,sell,andservice
Inteltechnologies.
ICQ~ISeekYou~Instantmessengerprogram
ICRA~InternetContentRatingAssociation~anorganizationthatpromotesvoluntary
labelingofthecontentofwebpagessothatfiltersoftwarecanpreventaccessto
objectionablesites.SeeÂwww.icra.org.
ICS~IncrementalChangeSynchronization~Amechanismtomonitor,export,and
importchangeditems(bothhierarchyandcontent)betweenadatabaseandaninformation
storeorbetweentwoinformationstores
ICS~InternetConnectionSharing~AbbreviationusedbyMicrosofttorefertothe
internetconnectionsharingfacilitybuiltintomorerecentversionsofWindows.Allows
multiplecomputerstoshareasingleinternetconnectionwhichisprovidedbyone
computerinagroup.
ICSA~InternationalComputerSecurityAssociation~InternationalComputerSecurity
Association
ICSI~InstituteforClinicalSystemsImprovement~ICSIisanon-profitorganizationthat
bringstogetherdiversegroupstotransformthehealthcaresystemsothatitdelivers
patient-centeredandvalue-drivencare.http://www.icsi.org/
ICT~informationandcommunicationtechnology~Acategoricaltermsometimesused
(particularlyinEurope)toreferthecombinedfieldsofcomputingandcommunications.
Morecommonly,‘informationtechnology’(IT)isusedinthissense,sincethelatterterm,
bydefinition,includesbothtypesoftechnology.
ICU~InternationalComponentsforUnicode~anOpenSourcesetofC/C++andJava
librariesforUnicodeandsoftwareinternationalizationsupport.Forinformation,
seeÂhttp://www.icu-project.org/
ID~identifier~Asequenceofbitsorcharactersthatidentifiesauser,program,device,or
systemtoanotheruser,program,device,orsystem.
ID~identifier~IntheClanguage,asequenceofletters,digits,andunderscoresusedto
identifyadataobjectorfunction.
ID~identifier~InCOBOL,adatanamethatisuniqueorismadeuniquebythecorrect
combinationofqualifiers,subscripts,orindexes.
ID~identifier~ThenameofaniteminaprogramwrittenintheJavalanguage.
ID~identifier~Oneormorecharactersusedtoidentifyornameadataelementand
possiblytoindicatecertainpropertiesofthatdataelement.
IDA~(Verizon)InternetDedicatedAccess~Verizon’sIDAofferspermanentlyopen,
highbandwidth,dedicatedconnectionstoaglobalInternetbackbonenetworkviaaccess
circuits
IDARS~integrateddocumentarchiveandretrievalsystem~IDARSisaconsolidated
systemforstoring,accessing,managing,distributingandviewingfixedcontent,which
includesprint-stream-originatedreports,imagesandotherfixedcontent.
IDC~Internetdatacenter~AdatacentercontainingInternet-relatedfacilitiesfortheuse
ofenterprises,Internetserviceproviders,ÂASPs,e-commercecompaniesandotherfirms.
IDSstypicallyprovideserveroutsourcing,hostingandcolocationservices,Internet
connectivity,ÂVPNs,andothernetworkandtransportservices.
IDD~internationaldirectdial/dialing~Theplacementofinternationalcallsbydialing
themdirectly,ratherthanusingoperatorassistance.
IDE~IntegratedDevelopmentEnvironment~Adevelopmentenvironmentthatis
integratedintoanapplication.
IDE~integrateddriveelectronics~Astandardcomputerinterfaceforstoragedevices,
suchasinternalharddiskdrives.Alaterversion,enhancedIDE(EIDE),supportsmore
capacityandperipherals.
IDEA~InternationalDataEncryptionAlgorithm~Patented,symmetricblockcipherthat
usesa128-bitkeyandoperateson64-bitblocks.
I-DEAS~Integrated-DesignEngineeringAnalysisSoftware~aCAD/CAMsoftware
packageofSDRCwhichwasboughtin2002byEDSandnowmergedintoUGS’sproduct
NX(Unigraphics).
IDEMA~InternationalDiskdriveEquipmentandMaterialsAssociation~International
not-for-profittradeassociationthatrepresentstheHardDiskDrive(HDD)industryandits
infrastructure.SeealsoÂhttp://www.idema.org/
iDEN~integrateddigitalenhancednetwork~AMotorola-enhancedmobileradio
networktechnologythatintegratestwo-wayradio,telephone,textmessaging,anddata
transmissionintoasinglenetwork.
IDF~Intermediatedistributionframe~Physicallayer-StructuredcablingorTelecom
Glossary
IDIM~IdentityInformationManagement~Asetofprinciples,practices,policies,
processesandproceduresthatareusedwithinanorganizationtomanageidentity
informationandrealizedesiredoutcomesconcerningidentity
IDIOT~IntrusionDetectionInOurTime~Projecttodevelopanewapproachtoefficient
misusedetectionmethods.Itsdesignmadeuseofanewclassificationofintrusion
methodsbasedoncomplexityofmatchingandtemporalcharacteristics
IDIQ~indefinitedelivery/indefinitequantity;~Contractsthatenablegovernment
customerstobuyITservicesfrompre-selectedvendorsatpre-negotiatedrates.These
contracts,developedandadministeredbyindividualgovernmentorganizationstomeet
theirownITservicerequirements,areusuallyavailabletoallfederalagenciesforasmall
administrativefee.
IDL~InterfaceDefinitionLanguage~Alanguageusedtodescribetheinterfacetoa
softwarecomponentorroutineinamannerthatisnotdependentonaparticular
programminglanguageoroperatingsystem.
IDM~InternetDownloadManager~IDMisatooltoincreasedownloadspeedsbyupto
5times,resumeandscheduledownloads.Âhttp://www.internetdownloadmanager.com/
IDOL~IntelligentDataOperatingLayer~heartofÂAutonomy’sÂinfrastructure
IDOM~integrateddocumentandoutputmanagement~Gartner’stermforanintegrated
collectionoftechnologies,architecturesandservicesaimedatapplyingthevalueof
informationindocumentstobusinesspractices.IDOMtakesadigitalapproachto
reducingtheburdenandcostofpaper-baseddocuments.
IDQ~InformaticaDataQuality~InformaticaÂDataQualitySolutiondeliverspervasive
dataquality
IDR~IntelligentDisasterRecovery~Backupexecoptionfortape-basedsystemrecovery
IDS~IntrusionDetectionSystem~Security-CiscoProductIndex
IDS~intrusiondetectionsystem~Softwarethatdetectsattemptsorsuccessfulattackson
monitoredresourcesthatarepartofanetworkorhostsystem.
IDS~intrusiondetectionsystem~Softwarethatnotifiestheuserofattemptstohackinto,
disrupt,ordenyservicetothesystem.
IDT~(originally)InternationalDiscountTelecommunications~atelecommunications
andenergycompanyheadquarteredinNewark,NewJersey.http://www.idt.net/
iDTV~Interactivedigitaltelevision~Adigitaltelevisionbroadcastlinkedtoareturn
paththatenablesconsumerstosendandreceiveindividualizedmessagesinrealtimeon
theirtelevisionset.
IDU~interfacedataunit~interfacedataunit
IE~InternetExplorer~MicrosoftInternetExplorer.cfIE4,IE5,IE6,MSIE.
IEC~CommissionElectrotechniqueInternationale(French)~Organization-IEC
IEC~Inter-exchangeCarrier~Alongdistancetelephonecompany.
IEC~InternationalElectrotechnicalCommission~anorganizationthatsetsnumerous
standardsfortheelectronicsindustry.Webaddress:www.iec.ch.
IEE~InstitutionofElectricalEngineers~SeethematÂHTTP://IEE.ORG
IEEE~InstituteforElectricalandElectronicEngineers~Organization-IEEE
IEEE~InstituteofElectricalandElectronicsEngineers~Anorganizationofengineers,
scientistsandstudentsinvolvedinelectrical,electronicsandrelatedfields.IEEE802
standardisthemostwidelyrecognizedinthecomputerindustry.See
also:Âhttp://www.ieee.org/
IES~IntegratedEnvironmentalSolutions~TheIESSketchUpplug-inisatoolbarthat
sitswithintheÂGoogleSketchUpÂapplicationandgivesdirectaccesstoallofIntegrated
EnvironmentalSolutions(IES)buildingsimulationtools.
IETF~InternetEngineeringTaskForce~Organization-IETF
IETF~InternetEngineeringTaskForce~ThissubgroupoftheInternetSocietyis
responsibleforrecommendingprotocolsandproceduresusedovertheInternet.It
comprisesrepresentativesfromvendor,governmentandacademiccommunities,andis
dividedintosixsubcommittees.Âhttp://www.ietf.org/
IFB~InternetFree/Busy~MicrosoftOutlookfeature
iFCP~InternetFibreChannelProtocol~anemergingprotocoldealingwithbackupand
storage.Itisagateway-to-gatewayprotocolfortheimplementationofaFibreChannel
fabricinwhichTCP/IPswitchingandroutingelementsreplaceFibreChannel
components.
IFL~IntegratedFacilityforLinux~anIBMmainframeprocessordedicatedtorunning
theLinuxoperatingsystem,withorwithoutz/VM.
iFrame~inlineframe~abrowserfeaturethatenablesanHTMLpagetobedisplayed
withinitsownrectangleanywhereonanotherHTMLpage.Whennecessary,inlineframes
containhorizontalandverticalscrollbarstoenableuserstoviewallofthepage’scontents
withintheframe.
IFRS~InternationalFinancialReportingStandards~principles-basedStandards,
InterpretationsandtheFramework(1989)[1]adoptedbytheInternationalAccounting
StandardsBoard(IASB).
IGF~InternetGovernanceForum~amulti-stakeholderforumforpolicydialogueon
issuesofInternetgovernance.ItsestablishmentwasannouncedbytheUNSecretary
GeneralinJuly2006.ItfirstconvenedinOctober/November2006.
IGMP~InternetGroupManagementProtocol~TheTCP/IPprotocolthatpermits
InternethoststotakepartinIPmulticasting.Itisanefficientmeansofbroadcasting
messagestogroupsofend-stations
IGP~interiorgatewayprotocol~Atypeofnetworkprotocolusedbyinteriorroutersto
moveinformationwithinanautonomoussystemorgroupofnetworksunderthecontrol
andauthorityofasingleentity.IGPstransferpacketsfromonenetworktoanadjacent
one.
IGRP~InteriorGatewayRoutingProtocol~KindofIGPwhichisadistance-vector
routingprotocolinventedbyCisco,usedbyrouterstoexchangeroutingdatawithinan
autonomoussystem
IGS~IBMGlobalServices~IBMGlobalServices
IHS~IntegratedHeatSpreader~ThetopsurfaceoftheIHSisdesignedtobethe
interfaceforcontactingaHS/HSF.Allowsmoreeffecientheattransferoutofthepackage
toanattachedcoolingdevice.Transformnon-uniformheatfromthedietothetopofthe
IHSformoreuniformspread
IHV~Independenthardwarevendor~ahardware-manufacturingcompanythat
specializesinaspecifictypeofhardwaredeviceandnotacompletecomputersystem.
IIOP~InternetInter-ORBProtocol~aprotocolthatextendsTCP/IPbyaddingCORBA
definedmessagesforobjectstoconnecttoeachotheroverthenetwork.
IIS~InternetInformationServer~Microsoft’sHypertextTransportProtocol(HTTP)
server,originallypackagedwiththeWindowsNToperatingsystem.
IKE~InternetKeyExchange~anIETFstandardapproachtoexchangingkeysfor
communications,typicallyusedwithimplementationsofIPSec.
ILEC~IndependentLocalExchangeCarrier~Thesecompaniesarethehistorical
‘Independents’whooperatealocaltelephonebusiness.
ILEs~Immersivelearningenvironments~learningsituationsthatareconstructedusinga
varietyoftechniquesandsoftwaretoolsincludinggame-basedlearning,simulation-based
learningandvirtualworlds.
ILM~IBMLicenseManager~PlannedtechnologyannouncedbyIBMaspartofthe
zSeriesproductlaunchinOctober2000.TheILMmonitorwouldhaveallowedIBMand
otherparticipatingvendorstosupplyusageinformationtodeterminelicensecompliance
andprovideavehicleforsoftwareassetmanagement.
ILM~InformationLifecycleManagement~InformationLifecycleManagement.
iLO~IntegratedLights-Out~RemotemanagementfeatureonHPservers.
ILP~initialloaderprogram~readsanexistingfilecontainingdatabaserecords;also
calledaboot-loader
IM~IdentityManagement~anintegratedsystemofbusinessprocesses,policiesand
technologiesthatenableorganizationstofacilitateandcontroltheirusers’accesstocritical
onlineapplicationsandresourceswhileprotectingconfidentialpersonalandbusiness
informationfromunauthorizedusers.
IM~InstantMessaging~Thefacilitytosendandreceivevirtuallyinstantaneoustext
messagesacrosstheinternetallowingatextbasedconversationinrealtime.Thisallows
two(ormore)peoplewiththesame(orcompatible)instantmessagingsoftwaretotype
messagestoeachother.
IMAC~installations,moves,addsandchanges~Generaltermfortheroutinework
performedoncomputerequipmentinanenterprise,includinginstallations,relocationsand
upgrades
IMAP~InternetMessageAccessProtocol~Applicationlayer-RFC3501
IMAP~InternetMessageAccessProtocol~Itisamethodofaccessinge-mailmessages
onaserverwithouthavingtodownloadthemtoyourlocalharddrive.Thisisthemain
differencebetweenIMAPandanotherpopulare-mailprotocolcalled‘POP3.’POP3
requiresuserstodownloadmessagestotheirharddrivebeforereadingthem.The
advantageofusinganIMAPmailserveristhatuserscanchecktheirmailfrommultiple
computersandalwaysseethesamemessages.
IMAPI~ImageMasteringApplicationProgrammingInterface~Allowsanapplicationto
stageandburnasimpleaudioordataimagetoCD-RorCD-RWdevices
IMC~IntelligentManagementÂCenter~HP’ssinglepanemanagementplatformthat
allowsforÂmanagement/visibilityandintegrationoftraditionallyseparatemanagement
tools
IMC~InternetMailConsortium~aninternationalorganizationfocusedoncooperatively
managingandpromotingtherapidly-expandingworldofelectronicmailonthe
Internet.Âhttp://www.imc.org/
IME~InputMethodEditor~Aprogramthatperformstheconversionbetween
keystrokesandideographsorothercharacters,usuallybyuser-guideddictionarylookup.
IMEI~InternationalMobileEquipmentIdentifier~Uniquecodegiventomobilephones
toidentifythem.Thecodeislockedtothephoneandnotthesim.
IMS~InformationManagementSystem~DBMSfromIBM
IMS~IPmultimediasystems~IMSisanemergingarchitecturestandardthatdefines
hownetworkelementsinteroperatetoprovidevoice,data,andvideoservicesand
applicationsinanycombination,onanynetwork(fixedormobile).
IMSI~InternationalMobileSubscriberIdentity~AuniquenumberwithintheSIMcard
thatidentifiesthesubscribertothesystem
IMUX~InverseMultiplexer~InverseMultiplexer
INAP~IntelligentNetworkApplicationProtocol~Allowsapplicationstocommunicate
betweenvariousnodes/functionalentitiesofanintelligentnetwork.Theprotocoldefines
theoperationsrequiredtobeperformedbetweennodes/functionalentitiesforproviding
intelligentnetworkservices
INC~InternationalNetworkofCrackers~oneofthepremiercracking/releasingwarez
fortheIBMPCduringtheverylate1980sandearly90s.
InfoSec~InformationSecurity~Protectionofinformationtoinsureconfidentiality,
integrity,andavailability.
INIfile~initializationfile~CommonlyusedinMicrosoftWindows3.xÂandearlier,INI
fileshavebeenusedbyboththeoperatingsystemandindividualapplicationstostore
persistentsettingsrelatedtoanapplication,driver,orpieceofhardware.
Inmarsat~InternationalMaritimeSatelliteOrganization~Aglobalmobilesatellite
communicationsoperatorwithheadquartersinLondon.Originallyformedasan
intergovernmentalorganization,Inmarsatbecamealimitedcompanyin1999.
INTAP~InteroperabilityTechnologyAssociationforInformationProcessing~The
technicalorganizationthatofficiallydevelopsJapaneseOSIprofilesandconformance
tests
Intel~INTegratedELectronics~CPUmarketleader.
InterNIC~InternetNetworkInformationCenter~heInterNICisanorganizationcreated
bytheNationalScienceFoundationtoprovideInternetinformationanddomainname
registrationservices.WhiletheInterNICwasstartedasajointeffortbetweenNetwork
SolutionsandAT&T,itisnowrunbytheInternetCorporationForAssignedNamesand
Numbers(ICANN).
IOA~input/outputadapter~AfunctionalunitorapartofanI/Ocontrollerthatconnects
devicestoanI/Oprocessor.
IOA~input/outputadapter~Fordevices,theelectricalcircuitsonalogiccardthat
connectonedevicetoanother.
IOA~input/outputadapter~Acircuitboardcontaininglogicandinternalsoftwarethat
bridgesaninternalprocessorormemoryinterconnectschemeandanexternal,common,
standardchannelorlink.
IOCA~ImageObjectContentArchitecture~Adefineddatastreamusedtostoreraster
imagedata.
IOCA~ImageObjectContentArchitecture~Anarchitecturethatprovidesacollectionof
constructsusedtointerchangeandpresentimages.
IOD~in-orderdelivery~Infibre-channeltechnology,aparameterthat,whenset,
guaranteesthatframesareeitherdeliveredinorderordropped.
iODBC~IndependentOpenDataBaseConnectivity~Opensource,platformindependent
implementationofboththeODBCandX/Openspecifications.Itisrapidlyemergingas
theindustrystandardfordevelopingsolutionsthatarelanguage,platformanddatabase
independent.SeealsoÂhttp://www.iodbc.org/
IOM~IntegratedObjectModel~asetofobject-basedinterfacestofeaturesorservices
thatareprovidedbyBaseSASsoftware.IOMenablesapplicationdeveloperstouse
industry-standardprogramminglanguages,programmingtools,andcommunication
protocolstodevelopclientprogramsthataccesstheseservicesonIOMservers.
IONL~InternalOrganizationoftheNetworkLayer~TheISO/OSIstandardforthe
architectureofthenetworklayer.TheIONLdividesthenetworklayerintosubnetworks
interconnectedbyconvergenceprotocols(internetworkingprotocols),resultingina
catenetorinternet
IOP~Interoperability~Abilityofequipmentfromdifferentmanufacturers(ordifferent
implementations)tooperatetogether.
IOPS~Input/Outputoperationspersecond~Input/Outputoperationspersecond.
IoS~InternetoverSatellite~ThistechnologyallowsausertoaccesstheInternetviaa
satellitethatorbitstheearth.Fromafixedposition(alsoreferredtoasGEOS),the
statelliteisabletomaintainareliableconnectiontotheantennasontheearth.Itorbitsthe
earthattheexactspeedoftheearth’srotation.
iOS~iPhoneOS~iOS(previouslyiPhoneOS)isamobileoperatingsystemdeveloped
byAppleInc.anddistributedexclusivelyforApplehardware.Itistheoperatingsystem
thatpowersmanyofthecompany’siDevices.
IOS~internationaloperatorservices(IOSTelecom)~callcenteroperator-services
providersintheU.S.Âhttp://www.iostelecom.com/
IOS~InternetworkOperatingSystem~thesoftwareusedonthevastmajorityofCisco
SystemsroutersandcurrentCisconetworkswitches.
IoT~InternetofThings~IoTiswhentheInternetandnetworksexpandtoplacessuchas
manufacturingfloors,energygrids,healthcarefacilities,andtransportation.
IOTP~InternetOpenTradingProtocol~anIETFspecificationwhichdefinesawayto
createabusinesstradingenvironmentthatismorereliableandpersonalthanexisting
methodsbygivingtheconsumermoreopportunitiestointeractdirectlywithallpartiesof
atransaction.
IP~InternetProtocol~InternetLayer-RFC791RFC1606
IP~IntellectualProperty~IPistherightsinideas(e.g.inaninventionwhichwillbe
protectedbypatentlaw)orexpressionofideas(e.g.abookordrawingwhichwillbe
protectedbycopyrightlaw)
IP~InternetProtocol~ThebasicunderlyingprotocoloftheInternet,originally
developedduringa15-yearperiodundertheauspicesoftheU.S.DepartmentofDefense.
UsedinconjunctionwithTCP,itprovidesacommonaddresssystemandcommunications
protocoltotracktheaddressesofnetworknodes,routeoutgoingmessagesandrecognize
incomingones.
IPaddress/number~InternetProtocoladdresss/number~InternetProtocoladdress(IP
address)isauniquenumberconsistingof4partsseparatedbydots,e.g.165.113.245.3
EverymachinethatisontheInternethasauniqueIPnumber.
IPPBX~InternetProtocolprivatebranchexchange~IPPBXvendorsreplacethe
traditionalTDM/PCMcircuitswitchingandofferaIP-switchingplatformforvoice
communications.Thecommunicationserversprovidetruemultimediacapabilityandoffer
manyadvantagesforhighbandwidthapplications.
IPtelephony~InternetProtocoltelephony~Voicetrafficordatatrafficthathas
traditionallybeentreatedlikevoicetraffic-itistransmittedoveranIPnetwork.Three
distincttypesofIPtelephonytrafficexist:real-timevoice,non-real-timevoiceandfax.
IPA~intelligentprocessautomation~Theautomationofrepeatableoperationaldecisions
withinbusinessprocesssets
IPAM~Intellectualpropertyassetmanagement~Discoveringandexploitinggapsin
competitors’patentstrategiesandtheirownpatentstrategiesandinventingoracquiring
intellectualproperty(IP)tocoverthosegaps.
IPAM~IPAddressManagement~IPAddressManagement
IPC~interprocesscommunication~Theprocessbywhichprogramssendmessagesto
eachother.
IPC~interprocesscommunication~Amechanismofanoperatingsystemthatallows
processestocommunicatewitheachotherwithinthesamecomputeroroveranetwork.
IPL~initialprogramload~Theprocessthatloadsthesystemprogramsfromthesystem
auxiliarystorage,checksthesystemhardware,andpreparesthesystemforuser
operations.
IPL~initialprogramload~Theprocessofloadingtheoperatingsystemandotherbasic
softwareintomainstorage.
IPL/IPLC~internationalprivateline/internationalprivateleasedcircuit~point-topointprivatelineusedbyanorganizationtocommunicatebetweenofficesthatare
geographicallydispersedthroughouttheworld.
IPM~InternetworkPerformanceMonitor~Cisconetworkresponsetimeandavailability
troubleshootingapplication
IPMX~IPmanagementexchange~Aservice,residinginthenetwork,operatedbya
neutralproviderthatmediatesqualityofservice,revenuesettlement,andperformance
managementamongdifferentcarriernetworks.
I-PNNI~IntegratedPrivateNetwork-NetworkInterface~PNNI-compatibleprotocol
usedtoexchangeinformationbetweenroutersthataugmentorreplaceprotocolssuch
asÂOSPFÂandIPX.
IPP~InternetPrintingProtocol~Aclient-serverprotocolforprintingovertheInternet.
TheMacOSXprintinginfrastructureandtheMacOSXServerprintservicethat’s
builtonitsupportIPP.
IPPP~Internetpresenceproviderandpromoter~acompanythathelpsanenterprise
createaWebsite,arrangeforhosting(housing,maintaining,andprovidingInternet
access)fortheWebsite,andpromoteanaudienceforit.
IPR~IntellectualPropertyRights~alegalfieldrelatedtocreationsofthemindsuchas
musical,literary,andartisticworks;inventions;andsymbols,names,images,anddesigns
usedincommerce,includingcopyrights,trademarks,patents,andrelatedrights.
IPRM~intellectualpropertyrightsmanagement~IPRmanagement
IPRR~Intellectualpropertyrightsandroyalties~softwareletscompanieswithdigital
mediaassetsmonetizethoseassetsbyissuingcontractsthatlicensetheuseoftheirIPfor
distribution,incorporationwithadvertising,useinconsumerproducts,ordisplay
throughÂtraditionalanddigitalmeansinvehiclesotherthanthoseownedbythe
copyrightholder.
IPS~Intrusionpreventionsystem~Security-‘NIST-GuidetoIntrusionDetectionand
PreventionSystems(IDPS)’.2007-02.Retrieved2010-08-24.
IPS~intrusionpreventionsystem~BeyondanIDS,anIPStakestheadditionalstepof
blockingtheattemptedintrusion.IPSmonitorsnetworkand/orsystemactivitiesfor
maliciousorunwantedbehaviorandcanreact,inreal-time,toblockorpreventthose
activities.
IPSec~IPSecurity~AcollectionofInternetEngineeringTaskForce(IETF)standards
thatdefineanarchitectureattheIPlayertoprotectIPtrafficbyusingvarioussecurity
services.
IPSec~IPSecurity~Aprotocolthatprovidescryptographicsecurityservicesatthe
networklayer.
IPT~IdentityProtectionTechnology~technologyin2ndGenerationIntel®Core™
processorplatforms
IPT~IPtelephony~thetransmissionofvoiceconversations(phone-to-phone)over
packetIPT-switchedIPdatanetworks,suchasprivateenterpriseLANs,WANs,
intranetsandtheInternet.Specifically,IPtelephonyinvolvesthedeliveryofthetelephony
applicationoverIP,insteadofacircuit-switchedorothermodality.
IPTV~InternetProtocolTelevision~atermusedtodescribethedistributionofvideo
andTVservicesviaabroadbandconnectionusingInternettechnology.IPTViscommonly
associatedwiththedeliveryofon-demandTV,whereviewersaccessprogrammingasand
whentheywantwithoutwaitingforbroadcastschedules.
IPTV~InternetProtocolTelevision~InPCInternetterms,IPTVisusedtodescribethe
deliveryofcontentoverInternetinfrastructureusingasetofproprietaryprotocols
developedbyatechnologyprovidersuchasJoost.
IPv4~InternetProtocol,version4~ThemostwidleyusedversionoftheIP.IPv4allows
foratheoreticalmaximumofapproximatelyfourbillionÂIPNumbersÂ(technically232),
buttheactualnumberisfarlessduetoinefficienciesinthewayblocksofnumbersare
handledbynetworks.
IPv6~InternetProtocalversion6~Everycomputersystemanddeviceconnectedtothe
InternetislocatedbyanIPaddress.ThecurrentsystemofdistributingIPaddressesis
calledIPv4.Thissystemassignseachcomputera32-bitnumericaddress,suchas
120.121.123.124.
IPv6CP~IPv6PPPControlProtocol~responsibleforconfiguring,enablingand
disablingtheIPv6protocolmodulesonbothendsofaÂPPPÂlink.
IPX~InternetworkPacketExchange~Itisanetworkingprotocolusedtoconnect
networksbasedonNovell’sNetWare.IPXis‘connectionless,’meaningitdoesn’trequire
connectionstobemaintainedduringanexchangeofpackets,likeaphonecalldoes.
IR~InfraRed~AnIRdeviceisonewhichisabletouseinfraredforcommunication,a
typeofwirelessdevice.
IR~InternetRegistry~TheIANAhasthediscretionaryauthoritytodelegateportionsof
itsresponsibilityand,withrespecttonetworkaddressandAutonomousSystemidentifiers,
haslodgedthisresponsibilitywithanIR.
IRC~InternetRelayChat~Basicallyahugemulti-userlivechatfacility.Therearea
numberofmajorIRCserversaroundtheworldwhicharelinkedtoeachother.Anyone
cancreateachannelandanythingthatanyonetypesinagivenchannelisseenbyall
othersinthechannel.
IRF~IntelligentResilientFramework~HPfrankworkbuilttofailovertootherswitches
incaseofanoutageorotherdisaster.
iRMC~IntegratedRemoteManagementController~ImplementationofaRemote
AccessCard(RAC)byFujitsu
IRP~I/oRequestPacket~DatastructureusedbyWindowstocommunicatetokernelmodedevicedrivers
IRQ~InterruptRequest~PCsuseinterruptrequeststomanagevarioushardware
operations.Devicessuchassoundcards,modems,andkeyboardscanallsendinterrupt
requeststotheprocessor.
IRS~InterruptSource~Synonymouswithbadguys,snakes,nightmares,ulcers,high
bloodpressure,auditsandsystemcrashes!SeethematÂHTTP://WWW.IRS.GOV
IRTF~InternetResearchTaskForce~agroupfocusedonresearchingInternetprotocols,
applications,architectureandtechnologyÂhttp://www.irtf.org/
IRU~IndefeasibleRightofUse~acontractualagreementbetweentheoperatorsofa
communicationscable,suchassubmarinecommunicationscable
IS~InformationSystems~thedepartmentthatisinchargeofinformationservices,
informationmanagementandcomputingingeneralinlargerbusinesses.
ISA~IndustryStandardAdapter~Theoriginal8-and16-bitexpansioncardstandard
usedinPCs.ISAcardsrunatabusspeedof8MHz.
ISA~InternetSecurityandAcceleration~MicrosoftFirewallClient.
ISACA~InformationSystemsAuditandControlAssociation~
SeeÂhttp://www.isaca.org/
ISAM~IndexedSequentialAccessMethod~apopularformofrecordretrievalfrom
filesonlargersystems.ThismethodwasconsistentwithÂIBM’sÂmethodofdealing
withmultipleusersinthesamefileatthesametime.
ISATAP~Intra-SiteAutomaticTunnelAddressingProtocol~anIPv6transition
mechanismmeanttotransmitIPv6packetsbetweendual-stacknodes
ISC~InternetSoftwareConsortium~anonprofitcorporationdedicatedtoproductionqualitysoftwareengineeringforkeyInternetstandardsÂhttp://www.isc.org/
iSCSI~InternetSCSI~Aproposednetworktransportstandard-supportedbyagroup
ofvendorsthatincludeCiscoSystems,AdaptecandIBM-designedto
enablesÂSANsÂtobebuiltusingÂSCSIprotocols.ItworksbyencapsulatingSCSIdata
inIPpacketsfortransportoverIP-basednetworks.
ISDN~IntegratedServicesDigitalNetwork~Telecom-IECArea716-xx
ISDN~IntegratedServicesDigitalNetwork~Atechnicalstandardanddesignphilosophy
fordigitalnetworks.ISDNprovideshigh-speed,high-bandwidthchannelstosubscribers
viathepublicswitchedtelephonenetwork,achievingend-to-enddigitalfunctionswith
standardequipmentinterfacedevices.
ISIS~ImageandScannerInterfaceSpecification~Acommoninterfacestandardthat
allowsconsistentscannercontroldialogue.CreatedbyPixelTranslations(nowpartof
ActionPoint),ISIShasbecomeapopularstandardfordocument-imagingscanners.
IS-IS~IntermediateSystemtoIntermediateSystem(routingprotocol)~InternetLayerISO/IEC10589:2002
IS-IS~Intermediate-System-to-Intermediate-System~Aroutingmethodamong
intermediatesystemsthatrequirestheendsystems,ratherthantheintermediatesystems,
toberesponsibleforprovidingerrorcorrection.Itreducescomplexityandoverheadof
routingprotocols.
ISL~inter-switchlink~Thephysicalconnectionthatcarriesaprotocolfor
interconnectingmultipleroutersandswitchesinaSAN.
ISM~industrial,scientificandmedical~Theindustrial,scientificandmedical(ISM)
radiobands.
ISN~InitialSequenceNumbers~Anumber,createdbyanoperatingsystem,that
computersusetoreconstructdatasentovertheInternet.
ISO~InternationalOrganizationforStandardization~ISOfollowedbyanumberisused
toidentifyoneofthepublishedISOstandards.
ISOC~InternetSOCiety~BasedinHerndon,Virginia,theInternetSocietypromotesthe
Internetandcoordinatesstandards.Youcanvisittheirsite(http://www.isoc.org/)
ISP~Internetserviceprovider~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
ISP~InternetServiceProvider~AninstitutionthatprovidesaccesstotheInternetin
someform,usuallyformoney.
ISR~interruptserviceroutine~Asmallpieceofsoftwareexecutedinresponsetoa
particularinterrupt.
ISS~InternetSecuritySystems~AnsecuritysoftwarevendorheadquarteredinAtlanta.
acquiredbyIBM
ISSAC~InformationSystemforAdvancedAcademicComputing~Servesasa
clearinghouseforinformationabouttheuseofIBM-compatiblehardwareandsoftwareas
aidstoinstructionandresearchinhighereducation.Membershipisfreetoallstudents,
faculty,andstaffattheseinstitutions.
ISTG~InterSiteTopologyGenerator~Managingactivedirectoryreplication
ISUP~ISDNUserPart~partoftheSS#7whichisusedtosetuptelephonecallsin
PSTN
ISV~independentsoftwarevendor~Asoftwareproducerthatisnotownedorcontrolled
byamajorITvendor.AnISVisacompanywhoseprimaryfunctionistodistribute
software.
IT~InformationTechnology~broadsubjectconcernedwithtechnologyandother
aspectsofmanagingandprocessinginformation,especiallyinlargeorganizations.
ITAD~ITassetdisposition~Processestoredeploy,remarket,donate,recycle,ordispose
ofITassetsincompliancewithdatasecurity,environmental,andindustryregulations.
ITAM~ITassetmanagement~AsystematicapproachtomanagingITassetsthroughout
theirlifecycle,fromprocurementthroughretirementanddisposal.
ITC~ITconsolidation~ITconsolidation
ITCAM~IBMTivoliCompositeApplicationMonitoring~IBMTivoliITmanagement
sofware
ITCM~ITChangeManagement~toolfunctionalitygovernsdocumentation,review,
approval,coordination,scheduling,monitoringandreportingofRFCs.Thebasic
functionalrequirementsbeginintheareaofcasedocumentation,withindustry-standard
assignmentcapabilitiesofclassificationandcategorization.
ITCS~IntermodalTransportControlSystem~Performance-mindedtransportsystem
placehighdemandsonthequalityoftheirtransportnetwork.
ITeS~InformationTechnologyEnabledServices~outsourcingofprocessesthatcanbe
enabledwithinformationtechnologyandcoversdiverseareaslikefinance,HR,
administration,healthcare,telecommunication,manufacturingetc.Armedwith
technologyandmanpower,theseservicesareprovidedfrome-enabledlocations.
ITIL~InformationTechnologyInfrastructureLibrary~Aninitiativedevelopedbythe
CentralComputingandTelecommunicationsAgencyconsultancyforthegovernmentof
theUnitedKingdom.Itoffersasetofbestpracticesin24servicedeliveryandITservice
supportareas,includinghelpdesk,problemmanagement,changemanagement,software
distributionandcostcontrol.
ITL~InstructionalTechnologyLab~TheACCC’sITL,whichhelpsfacultyand
computersupportstaffworkwithinstructionaltechnology.seetheÂITLhomepage.
ITLA~IncrementedThreeLetterAcronym~atonetimeIBMranoutofTLAs.Inorder
tomovetofourletteracronyms,theyhadtocomeupwithafourletteracronymtoreplace
TLA.SoITLAwasadoptedasthe‘standard’todescribeallfourletteracronyms!
ITO~IToutsourcing~Thecontractualvehiclethroughwhichenterprisesuseexternal
sourcestoprovidelifecycleserviceandsupportoperationsfortheirITinfrastructure.
Outsourcingcanbepartialortotal,andcaninvolvenotonlyoperationsbutalsothe
acquisitionofcustomerassetsandpersonnel.
ITOM~IToperationsmanagement~IToperationsmanagement
ITU~InternationalTelecommunicationUnion~Thisisaninternationalorganization,
headquarteredinGeneva,Switzerland,withinwhichgovernmentsandtheprivatesector
coordinateglobaltelecommunicationsnetworksandservices.See
also:Âhttp://www.itu.int/
ITU-T~InternationalTelecommunicationsUnion~Organization-http://www.itu.int
ITWAB~ITWorkloadAutomationBrokerTools~technologydesignedtoovercomethe
staticandmanualnatureofschedulingjobs.It’scapableofmanagingmixedworkloads
basedonbusinesspolicies,whereresourcesareassignedandunassignedinanautomated
fashiontomeetservice-levelobjectives.
ITXC~InternetTelephonyExchangeCarrier~aUSbasedwholesaleproviderofVoiP,
Internet-basedphonecalls.acquiredbyTeleglobeBermudaLtd.in2004
IVANS~InternationalValueAddedNetworkServices~IVANSisanexternalpublic
telecommunicationservicewhichprovidescustomerswithenhancedservicessuchas
electronicmailboxmessaging,datainterchangeordatabaseaccessandretrievaletc.
IVDT~IntegratedVoiceandDataTerminal~Adualfunctiondeviceincorporatingbotha
terminalkeyboard/displayandvoicetelephone.
IVIS~in-vehicleinformationsystem~Asystemthatenablesintelligentvehiclesto
providethefunctionalitytoincreasetheproductivityandsafetyofthedriver.
IVR~interactivevoiceresponse~Thisfunctionenablescallerstopushbuttonsin
responsetovoicepromptstolistentorecordedinformation,orhavetheircalls
automaticallyroutedtoanappropriatequeueorparty.
IXC~InterexchangeCarrier~Anyindividual,partnership,association,joint-stock
company,trust,governmentalentityorcorporationengagedforhireininterstateorforeign
communicationbywireorradiobetweentwoormoreexchanges.
IXS~IntegratedxSeriesServer~AnIntelserverthatfitsinsideSystemiproductsto
supportlargerWindowsapplicationdemands.
~J~
J2EE~Java2Platform,EnterpriseEdition~ASunMicrosystemsplatformspecification
andbrandinginitiativethatprovidesaunifyingumbrellaforenterprise-orientedJava
technologies.J2EEfocusesonserver-side,multitierservices.J2EEincludestheJava
ServerPages,JavaServletsandEnterpriseJavaBeansprogrammingmodels,anumberof
protocolsandapplicationprogramminginterfaces,areferenceimplementation,atestsuite,
andanapplicationmodel.
J2ME~Java2platform,MicroEdition~refertoJ2EE
J2SE~Java2platform,StandardEdition~refertoJ2EE
JAAS~JavaAuthenticationandAuthorizationService~apackagethatenablesservices
toauthenticateandenforceaccesscontrolsuponusers.ItimplementsaJavaversionofthe
standardPluggableAuthenticationModule(PAM)framework,andsupportsuser-based
authorization
JACK~JACKAudioConnectionKit~soundserverordaemonthatprovideslowlatency
connectionsbetweenso-calledjackifiedapplications.ItiscreatedbyPaulDavisand
othersandlicensedundertheÂGPL.JACKisfreeaudiosoftware.
JAD~jointapplicationdevelopment~aRAD(RapidApplicationDevelopment)concept,
whichinvolvescooperationbetweenthedesignerofacomputersystemandtheenduser
todevelopasystemthatexactlymeetstheuser’sneeds.
JAMES~JavaApacheMailEnterpriseServer~a100%pureJavaserver,designedtobe
acompleteandportableenterprisemailenginesolutionbasedoncurrentlyavailableopen
protocols
JAR~JavaArchive~afilecontainingacollectionofJavaclassfilesthatcanbe
downloadedmoreefficientlythanwouldbepossibleifeachfileweredownloaded
separately.
JBIG~JointBi-levelImageexpertsGroup~Thiswas(andis)agroupofexperts
nominatedbynationalstandardsbodiesandmajorcompaniestoworktoproduce
standardsforbi-levelimagecoding.Seealsohttp://www.jbig.org/
JBL~JameB.Lansing~(JameB.Lansing)Speakers
JBOD~JustaBunchofDisks~referstodrivesthatresideintheirownenclosure
externaltotheserver,butcontainnoRAIDintelligence.JBODdrivesaredependenton
theserverforRAIDfunctionality.
JCA~JavaÂConnectorArchitecture~Javainteroperabilitytechniques
JCAHO~JointCommissiononAccreditationofHealthcareOrganizations~AnU.S.
independent,not-for-profitorganizationdevotedtohealthcarestandardssettingand
accreditation.
JCB~jobcontrolblock~Agroupofdatacontainingtheexecution-controldataandthe
jobidentificationwhen.
JCL~JobControlLanguage~JCLisasetofcontrolstatementspunchedontocomputer
cardsusedtodirecttheexecutionofcomputerprogramsanddescribetheinput/output
devicesusedonIBMcomputersrunningtheOS/360andlateroperatingsystems.JCL
servesasameansofcommunicationbetweentheuser’sprogramandthesystem.
J-code~Japancode~aslangnicknameforthesoftwarewritteninJapanesecompanies,
whichhasareputationforbeingoverlycomplex.J-codeisalsoslangforrulesthatare
enforcedonlytopreserveahierarchyofmanagement.Thisreferstothemultiplelayersof
managementinJapanesebusinessculture.
JCP~JavaCommunityProcess~AprogramcreatedbySunMicrosystemstoprovidean
openforumforJavadevelopers,licenseesandothermembers.JCP’scharteristodevelop
Javatechnologyspecifications,referenceimplementationsandtechnologycompatibility
kits.
JDBC~JavaDataBaseConnectivity~Anapplicationprograminterfacespecificationfor
connectingprogramswritteninJavatothedatainadatabase.ItisaJavaÂAPIÂthat
enablesJavaprogramstoexecuteSQLstatementsandinteractwithanyÂSQL-compliant
database.
JDK~JavaDevelopmentKit~AsoftwaredevelopmentpackagefromSunMicrosystems
thatimplementsthebasicsetoftoolsneededtowrite,testanddebugJavaÂapplications
andÂapplets
JEDEC~JointElectronicDevicesEngineeringCouncil~Aninternationalbodyof
semiconductormanufacturersthatsetICstandards.
JES~JobEntrySubsystem~AnIBMlicensedprogramthatreceivesjobsintothesystem
andprocessesalloutputdatathatisproducedbyjobs.
JFK~JustFastKeying~asimpleprotocolforestablishingVPNsessions
JFS~JournalingFileSystem~ThenativefilesystemintheAIXoperatingsystem.
JFS~JournalingFileSystem~Atechnologydesignedforhigh-throughputserver
environments,whichareimportantforrunningintranetandotherhigh-performanceebusinessfileservers.
JIA~JointInnovationAssessment~anengagementwherebyafullauditofaclient’s
andasupplier’sinnovationcapabilitiescanbeassessedinordertopreparefuturejoint
innovationworkorajointinnovationprogram.
JIT~Just-in-time~ThisisatypeofJavacompilerthatinterpretsaclassfile,then
compilestheinformationintonativecode.Â
JITA~JustInTimeActivation~AllowsanobjectstotellCOM+thatitsworkisdone
andthatitcanbedestroyed
JITT~just-in-timetraining~Atrainingmethodologyinwhichusersaretrainedina
technologyjustwhentheybeginusingit.
JJ~JosephsonJunction~Athininsulatinglayersurroundedbysuperconductingmaterial
inasuperconductingcircuit.
JMS~JavaÂMessagingService~partoftheJavaEEspecifications
JNI~JavaNativeInterface~AtechnologyforbridgingC-basedcodewithJava.
JOA~JointOpportunityAssessment~anengagementwherebyaserviceproviderhelps
hisclientelicittherequirementandthepotentialimpactofalargeprojectoran
outsourcingproject.JOA’stypicallyincludebutarenotlimitedto:strategicguidelinesto
improveworkefficiency,businessprocesses,TCO,etc
JOLAP~JavaInterfaceforOLAP~AJavaapplicationprogramminginterfaceforthe
J2EEenvironment.JOLAPsupportsthecreationandmaintenanceofÂOLAPÂdataand
metadata,independentofvendor.
JPDL~jBossprocessdefinitionlanguage~basedonamodelofnodes,transactionsand
actions.jPDLspecifiesanxmlschemaandmechanismtopackageallprocessdefinition
relatedfiles.
JPEG/JPG~JointPhotographicExpertsGroup~JPEG(pronouncedJAY-peg)ismost
commonlymentionedasaformatforimagefiles.JPEGformatispreferredto
theÂGIFÂformatforphotographicimagesasopposedtolineartorsimplelogoart.
JRE~JavaRuntimeEnvironment~TheJREisdevelopedbySunMicrosystems(the
creatorofJava)andincludestheJavaVirtualMachine(JVM),codelibraries,and
components,whicharenecessarytorunprogramswritteninJava.TheJREisavailablefor
multiplecomputerplatforms,includingMac,Windows,andUnix.
JS~JavaScript~alanguagethatallowsawebpagetoincludecommandstobeexecuted
bythewebbrowser.Forexample,youmaywishyourwebpagetohavedialogboxesthat
appearwhentheuserclicksoncertainplaces.
JSON~JavaScriptObjectNotation~Aformatforexchangingdatathatarestructuredas
acollectionofname-valuepairsoranorderedlistofvalues.ÂJSON.org
JSP~JavaServerPage~ThisstandardwasdevelopedbySunMicrosystemsasan
alternativetoMicrosoft’sactiveserverpage(ASP)technology.JSPpagesaresimilarto
ASPpagesinthattheyarecompiledontheserver,ratherthaninauser’sWebbrowser.
However,JSPisJava-based,whereasASPisVisualBasic-based.
JTAG~JointTestActionGroup~thecommonnameusedfortheIEEE1149.1standard
entitledStandardTestAccessPortandBoundary-ScanArchitecturefortestaccessports
usedfortestingprintedcircuitboardsusingboundaryscan.
JTC~JoinTransitiveClosure~AllowstheDBMSoptimizertoconsiderajoinorder
otherthanthosemadeavailableexplicitlybythequery’sWHEREclause
JTC1~JointTechnicalCommittee~createdbyISOandIEC.Itiscomprisedofstandards
organizationsfromover75countries,andisinvolvedwithsettingstandardsfor
informationprocessing.
JTRS~JointTacticalRadioSystem~asoftwareradiothatwillworkwithmanyexisting
militaryandcivilianradios.
JVM~Javavirtualmachine~JVMsasetofcomputersoftwareprogramsanddata
structuresthatuseavirtualmachinemodelfortheexecutionofothercomputer
JVT~jobvolumetable~Atablethatcontainsvolumeinformationobtainedfromdata
definition(DD)statements.
~K~
k~kilo~Thisis2tothe10thpoweror1024incomputerterminology.
kaid~Kaiconsoledaemon~aservicethatprovidestunnelingforconsolegamesthatdo
nothaveaninherentconnectiontotheInternet.AlthoughthelabelreferstoXBOX,the
daemonworkswellwithPS2,andGamecubeconsolesaswell
Kb~Kilobit~Onethousandbits(103)or1024bits(210).Aunitofmeasurementofthe
capacityofmemoryintegratedcircuits.
kB~Kilobyte~Onethousandbytes(103)or1024(210)bytes.Aunitofmeasurement
usedforcomputerfilesizes.
KBE~knowledge-basedengineering~Asystemthatencapsulatesdesignknowledgethat
canberecalled,reusedandextendedtocreateproductdesigns.
KBMS~KeyBoard/MouSe~Connector.It’ssimplyaduplicateofthePS/2portsandit’s
usedtoconnectotherdevicesthatusethePS/2withouthavingtogiveupthekeyboard
andmouse,andalsoisconvenientforthingsthatyouneedtomountinternally
kbps~Kilobitpersecond~Physicallayer-Kilobit_per_second
Kbps~KilobitsPerSecond~Don’tconfusethiswithKilobytespersecond(whichis8
timesmoredatapersecond).Thistermiscommonlyusedindescribingdatatransferrates.
Forexample,twocommonmodemspeedsare33.6Kbpsand56Kbps.
KBS~Knowledge-BasedSystem~Acomputersystemthatisprogrammedtoimitate
humanproblem-solvingbymeansofartificialintelligenceandreferencetoadatabaseof
knowledgeonaparticularsubject.
KBW~keyboardwedge~KBWcanbeeitherasoftwareprogramoraninserted
hardwaredevicethattranslatesdigitalsignalsfromabarcodereaderormagneticstrip
reader(MSR)intokeyboardstrokesforacomputer.Thesoftwareformofakeyboard
wedgeinterceptsthedignalsignalsfromthereaderwhentheyarriveatthecomputerand
instantlytranslatesthemintokeyboardstrokes.
KCC~KnowledgeConsistencyChecker~Adomainservicethatcreatesandmodifiesthe
replicationtopologyofAD
KDC~KeyDistributionCenter~Anetworkservicethatprovidesticketsandtemporary
sessionkeys.TheKDCmaintainsadatabaseofprincipals(usersandservices)andtheir
associatedsecretkeys.
KDD~KnowledgeDiscoveryinDatabases~AbranchofArtificialIntelligence
Artificial-Intelligence.
KDE~KDesktopEnvironment~KDEisanopensourcegraphicaldesktopenvironment
forUnixworkstations.InitiallycalledtheKoolDesktopEnvironment,KDEisanongoing
projectwithdevelopmenttakingplaceontheInternetanddiscussionsheldthroughthe
officialKDEmailinglist,numerousnewsgroups,andÂIRCÂchannels.
KDSI~thousand(K)DeliveredSourceInstructions~Itisameasureofaprogrammer’s
productivityoraprojectproductivity.
keychan~Keychanger~asmallprogram/software,thatcanchangeasoftwarelicense
keytoanotherkey.Akeychangerisnotillegal,sinceitonlychangesakey
keygen~KeyGenerator~Referstoaprogramthatwillautomaticallygeneratea
registrationorserialnumber.Itsusualpurposeistoeliminatesoftwarepiracy.
keylogging~keystrokelogging~theactofrecordingthekeysthatapersonpressesashe
orsheusesacomputer.Keystrokeloggingisoftendonesurreptitiouslybymalicious
SPYWAREinanattempttocapturepasswords.
KGD~KnownGoodDie~aprocesswherecustomerscangetfullytested,bare-dieflash
devices.Noadditionalpackaging,likeaTSOP,isprovided.
KiB~kibibyte~1024bytes.
KIPS~Thousandsofinstructionspersecond~aunitusedtomeasurethespeedatwhich
aprocessorexecutesinstructions.SeealsoMIPS.
KIS~KnowbotInformationService~AdirectoryretrievalserviceforInternetaddresses,
thatusesintelligentagentstoprocessrequests.Alsocallednetaddress.
KISS~KeepItSimple,Stupid~TheNewHacker’sDictionary,editedbyEricRaymond,
saysthattheKISSPrincipleissometimescitedonadevelopmentprojecttofendoff
featurecreep.ThesomewhatrelatedideaofOckham’srazorisaboutalwayslookingfor
thesimplestexplanation.
KLOC~thousandsoflinesofcode~atraditionalmeasureofhowlargeacomputer
programisorhowlongorhowmanypeopleitwilltaketowriteit.Thecodemeasuredis
usuallysourcecode.Sinceahigher-levelsourcelanguagecompilesintomorelinesof
machinecodethanalower-levellanguage,aKLOCofC++statementswouldgeneratea
largerprogramthanaKLOCofassemblerlanguagestatements.
KM~knowledgemanagement~Abusinessprocessthatformalizesthemanagementand
useofanenterprise’sintellectualassets.KMpromotesacollaborativeandintegrative
approachtothecreation,capture,organization,accessanduseofinformationassets.
k-map~knowledgemap~Arepresentationofconceptsandtheirrelationships(e.g.,
hierarchy,taxonomyandnetwork).AK-mapisanavigationalaidthatenablesauserto
honeinrapidlyonthedesiredconcept,andthenfollowlinkstorelevantknowledge
sources(informationorpeople).
KML~KeyholeMarkupLanguage~KMLisanXML-basedmarkuplanguagedesigned
toannotateandoverlayvisualizationsonvarioustwo-dimensional,Web-basedonline
mapsorthree-dimensionalEarthbrowsers(suchasGoogleEarth).Infact,KMLwas
initiallydevelopedforusewithGoogleEarth.WhenGoogleacquiredKeyholein2004,
thatprojectcamewithitandeventuallybecameGoogleEarth.
KMS~KeyManagementServer~MostlyusedinMicrosoftExchangetoissuesecurity
certificates
KMS~KnowledgeManagementSystem~adistributedhypermediasystemformanaging
knowledgeinorganisations
KNI~KatmaiNewInstructions~Thisistheoriginalcode-nameforIntel’sSSE
instructionset,namedafterthefirstPentiumIIIprocessorcore,code-named“Katmai.â
€?
knowbot~Knowledgerobots~designedtosearchfilesontheInternet‘arobotic
librarian.’ItisaregisteredtrademarkoftheCorporationfornationalResearchInitiatives.
KOLs~Keyopinionleaders~morediscerninginwhotheyacceptinformation
fromÂandwithwhomtheywillwork.
KPCMS~KodakPrecisionColorManagementSystem~KodakPrecisionColor
ManagementSystem
KPI~keyperformanceindicator~KPIsareappliedinBItogaugebusinesstrendsand
advisetacticalcoursesofaction.
KPN~(formerly)KoninklijkePTTNederland~aDutchlandlineandmobile
telecommunicationscompanyÂhttp://www.kpn.com
KPO~KnowledgeProcessingOutsourcing~hecombinationofBPO,ResearchProcess
Outsourcing(RPO)andAnalysisProvesOutsourcing(APO).KPObusinessentities
providetypicaldomain-basedprocesses,advancedanalyticalskillsandbusinessexpertise,
ratherthanjustprocessexpertise.
KSAM~KeyedSequentialAccessMethod~Accessingaflatfileusingasimpleor
compoundkey
ksh~Kornshell~AcommandinterpreterforUNIX.
ksh~Kornshell~Aninteractivecommandinterpreterandacommandprogramming
language.
KSR~KeyboardSend/Receive~Ateletypewritertransmitterandreceiveroperatedby
meansofakeyboard,withnomonitor.
KSU~KeyServiceUnit~atelephonyterm.Acentralcontrolcabinetservingmany
multi-buttonkeytelephones.Containsequipmentwhichenablestheusertopickupand
holdÂPABXÂorCentralOffice(CO)linesandprovideflashingline,steady,busyand
winkholdsignals.Dialintercomserviceisalsoanoption.Mayallbecontainedina
computer-likedevicecabinetorchassis.
KTM~kerneltransactionmanager~Atransactionmanagementservicethatenablesyou
tocreateatransactionprocessingsystem(TPS)inusermodeorkernelmode(orboth).
KTS~KeyTelephoneSystem~TheKTSprovidescommunicationsservicestosmall
businessesthatrequiretypicallybetween2and100telephonesandhavealargenumberof
internalintercomcallsinrelationtothenumberofinboundoroutboundcalls.Unlikea
PBX,akeytelephonesystemisnotaswitch.Â
KUIP~KernelUserInterfacePackage~thehumaninterfacetoPAWPAW.
KVA~KiloVoltAmp~Atermdescribingpowerinarelationshipofboththousandsof
volts
KVM~KVirtualMachine~Avirtualmachinedesignedfromthegroundupwiththe
constraintsofinexpensivemobiledevicesinmind
KVM~Keyboard,Video,andMouse~aKVMswitchallowsyoutousedmultiple
computerswiththesamekeyboard,videodisplay,andmouse.
kW~kilowatt~Aunitofelectricalpower,equalto1,000watts.
KWH~KiloWattHour~Ameasureoftheamountofwattsofenergyused.Electricityis
measuredinunitsofpowercalledwatts.
KYC~KnowYourCustomer~abroadvarietyofproductsdesignedtohelpcompanies
avoidinitiatingormaintainingcommercialrelationshipswithpartiesthatareregulatoryinappropriateorotherwiseundesirable.
~L~
L1/L2cache~level-1/2cache~L1:thememorycachethatisclosesttotheÂCPUÂor
includedwithinit.L2:amemorycacheoutsidetheCPU
l10n~localization~Therearetenlettersbetweenthe‘l’andthe‘n’
L2CAP~LogicalLinkandControlAdaptationProtocol~aBluetoothSpecificProtocol
L2F~Layer2Forwarding~atunnelingprotocolfromÂCiscoSystems.ÂL2FÂhasbeen
submittedtotheIETFforapprovalasastandard.
L2S~Layer2Switch~Layer2Switch
L2TP~Layer2TunnelingProtocol~Aprotocolthatcombinesthefeaturesof
Microsoft’sÂPPTPÂandCiscoSystems’ÂL2FtosupportmultiprotocolorprivateaddressIPtrafficacrossapublicIPnetwork.L2TPisamatureInternetEngineeringTask
Forcestandardthathasbeenwidelyimplemented.
L3F~Layer3Forwarding~atunnelingprotocolfromÂCiscoSystems.L3Fhasbeen
submittedtotheÂIETFÂforapprovalasastandard.
L3S~Layer3Switch~Layer3Switch
L3TP~LayerThreeTunnelingProtocol~anextensiontothePPPprotocolthatenables
ISPstooperateVPNs.L3TPmergesthebestfeaturesofthreeothertunnelingprotocols
LA~LoadAddress~LAisanIBMterm
LAC~L2tpAccessConcentrator~Deviceattachedtotheswitchednetworkorlocatedon
anendsystemsupportingL2TPtopassÂPPPÂtraffic
LACNIC~LatinAmericanandCaribbeanInternetAddressesRegistry~oneoffour
regionalInternetregistriesthatsupplyandadministerIPaddresses.
LACP~LinkAggregationControlProtocol~Datalinklayer-
LACP~LinkAggregationControlProtocol~PartofanÂIEEEÂspecification(802.3ad)
thatallowstobundleseveralphysicalportstogethertoformasinglelogicalchannel
LADDR~LayeredDeviceDriver~sSCSIdevicedriverarchitectureusedinearly
versionsofOS/2.
LAI~LocationAreaIdentity~theinformationcarriedin
theÂSIMÂofÂGSMÂhandsetsthatidentifythesubscriber’shomearea.Thisisusedfor
billingandsub-netoperationpurposes.
LAIPE~LinkAndInParallelExecute~ahigh-performancepackageforscientificand
engineeringcomputing,programmedinMTASK.
LAMP~Linux,Apache,MySQLandPHP~AlsodefinedasLinux,Apache,MySQLand
PythororPerl.ThetermLAMPisusedtodescribeawebbasedsolutionproducedusing
PHP(scripting),MySQL(database),Apache(web-server)underLinux(operatingsystem),
eachofwhicharefreetodownload.Itthereforedescribesawebsiteusingfreeoff-theshelfcomponents.
LAN~Localareanetwork~Linkandotherlayers-TelecomGlossary
LAN~LocalAreaNetwork~Anetworkofinterconnectedworkstationssharingthe
resourcesofasingleprocessororserverwithinarelativelysmallgeographicarea.
Typically,thismightbewithintheareaofasmallofficebuilding.
LANE~LocalAreaNetworkEmulation~Asetofservicesandprotocolsthatprovidefor
theemulationofLANs,usingÂATMasabackbonetoallowconnectivityamongLANand
ATMattachedendstations
LAPB~LinkAccessProcedure,Balanced(x.25)~Telecom-ITU-TRecommendation
X.222
LAPD~LinkAccessProceduresontheDchannel~specifiedinITU-TQ.920andITU-T
Q.921,isthesecondlayerprotocolontheISDNprotocolstackintheDchannel.
LAPF~Link-accessprocedureforframerelay~Telecom-RFC1490
LAS~logicalapplicationstructure~Astructureoftheapplicationtobedeployedthatis
madeupofsoftwaredefinitions.
laser~lightamplificationbystimulatedemissionofradiation~Analogtransmission
deviceinwhichasuitableactivematerialisexcitedbyanexternalstimulustoproducea
narrowbeamofcoherentlightthatcanbemodulatedintopulsestocarrydata.Networks
basedonlasertechnologyaresometimesrunoverÂSONET.
LASINT~laserintelligence~Technicalandgeolocationintelligencederivedfromlaser
systems;asubcategoryofelectro-opticalintelligence.
LAT~LocalAddressTable~AtablecontainingtheIPaddressrangethatisinsidea
firewallednetwork
LATA~LocalAccessandTransportArea~Denotesageographicalareaestablishedfor
theprovisionandadministrationofcommunicationsservice.Itencompassesoneormore
designatedexchanges,whicharegroupedtoservecommonsocial,economic,andother
purposes.
LBA~LogicalBlockAddressing~amethodofaccessingharddiskdrives.ItallowsIDE
diskslargerthan504megabytes(1024cylinders)insizetobefullypartitionedusingthe
MS-DOSfdiskcommand.
LBAC~label-basedaccesscontrol~Asecuritymechanismthatusessecuritylabelsto
restrictuseraccesstoindividualtablerowsandcolumns.
LBG~loadbalancinggroup~AgroupingofFastPathinputmessagesthatarereadyfor
balancedprocessingbyoneormorecopiesofaFastPathprogram.
LBO~linebuildout~Abbreviationforlinebuildout.Synonymbuildingout.
LBS~Location-basedservice~Servicesorapplicationsthatcenteraroundauser’s
locationinamobileenvironment.Servicesincludefinderapplicationsthatletmobile
phoneuserslocatefriendsorfamily,businessesorlandmarks.
LCC~Limitedcombustiblecable~alsocalledCMP-50cable,isfire-resistantcablewith
insulationmadeofasyntheticmaterialcalledfluorinatedethylenepropylene(FEP).
LCC/LLCC~LeadedChipCarrier/LeadlessChipCarrier~Asquarechippackage
withpinconnectorsoneachside.
LCC/LLCC~LeadedChipCarrier/LeadlessChipCarrier~atypeofpackagingfor
integratedcircuitswhichhasno‘leads’,butinsteadroundedpinsthroughtheedgesofthe
ceramicpackage.
LCD~liquidcrystaldisplay~Alow-powered,flat-paneldisplaytechnology.LCD
displayscreateimagesusingliquidcrystalmoleculescontrolledbyanelectricalfield.
LCI~localcomponentinstaller~InIBMTivoliKernelServices,thecomponentthat
pullsandrunsnativecode,sharedlibraries,andinstallationscriptsthatareneededfor
deployingcomponents.
LCM~LifeCycleManagement~themanagementoftheentirelifeofaprogram
includingthethreetypicalphases:transition,transformation&end-state
LCN~localcommunicationnetwork~AcommunicationnetworkwithinaTMN
(telecommunicationsmanagementnetwork)thatsupportsdatacommunicationfunctions
(DCFs)normallyatreferencepointsq1andq2.
LCO~languagecontextobject~Acontextserverobjectthatmediatestheroutingof
inboundcustomerinteractionsaswellasthesupplyofoutboundresponsesinalanguageappropriatemanner.
LCOS~LiquidCrystalOnSilicon~TVtechnologyforflatscreendisplays;atechnology
thatmostmajortechnologyandequipmentmanufacturershaveshunnedafter
experimentation.
LCP~LinkControlProtocol~PartoftheÂPPPÂtoestablish,configure,andtestdata
linkconnections
LCR~leastcostrouting~Methodforautomaticselectionoftheleastcostlyfacilityfor
transmissionofacall.Synonyms:MostEconomicalRouteSelection(MERS);Route
Optimization;AutomaticRouteSelection;FlexibleRouteSelection.Â
LCR~LifetimeClinicalRecord~Acomputer-basedpatientrecordsystemfromSiemens
MedicalSolutionsHealthServices.LCRprovidesalongitudinalviewofpatients’lifetime
clinicalhistories.
LCR~LineConcentrationRatio~ACO(CentralOffice)designandengineeringtermfor
theoptimizationofsystemcapacitythroughtheclassicactofbalancingcostand
performance.
LCR~LocalContinuousReplication~MicrosoftExchange’sabilitytoreplicatelocally
betweentwodiskvolumes
LCS~LiquidCoolingSystem~atypeofcoolingsysteminacomputer,whichconsistsof
oneormorewaterblocks,apump,aradiator,oneormorefans,tubing,coolingliquid,and
mayalsoincludeareservoirandfittings.
LCS~LiveÂ~Microsoftcollaborationinfrastructure
LCS~CommunicationsServer~Microsoftcollaborationinfrastructure
LD~LaserDisc~Anopticaldiscwhichstoresinformationthatcanbereadbyalaser
beam.Laserdiscscanbeusedtostoredata,butareusuallyusedforvideoandaudio
together.Laserdiscscomein8’and12’diameters.
LDA~Localdeliveryagent~Amailserviceagentthattransfersmailmessagesfrom
incomingmailstoragetotheemailrecipient’sinbox.
LDAP~LightweightDirectoryAccessProtocol~Ifyouwanttomakedirectory
informationavailableovertheInternet,thisisthewaytodoit.LDAPisastreamlined
versionofanearlierdirectorystandardcalledX.500.WhatmakesLDAPsousefulisthat
itworksgreatoverÂTCP/IPÂnetworks,soinformationcanbeaccessedthroughLDAP
byanyonewithanInternetconnection.
LDCM~LANDeskClientManager~developedbyIntel,isamanagementtoolthat
constantlymonitorsnetworkedpersonalcomputersandworkstationsforhardware
problems.
LDIF~LDAPDataInterchangeFormat~afileformatthatiswidelyusedforbuildinga
databaseofdirectoriesthatarestoredonmultipleservers,foraddinglargenumbersof
directoriestoadirectorydatabase,andforsynchronizingthecontentsofthosedirectories.
TheserversonwhichthedirectoriesarestoredmustsupporttheLDAPprotocol.
LDM~limiteddistancemodem~limiteddistancemodem
LDP~LabelDistributionProtocol~AfundamentalconceptinÂMPLSÂisthattwo
LabelSwitchingRoutersmustagreeonthemeaningofthelabelsusedtoforwardtraffic
betweenandthroughthem
LDPC~low-densityparity-checkcode~anerror-correctingcodeandamethodof
transmittingamessageoveranoisytransmissionchannel.
LDR~LightDependentResistor~Thisisaspecialtypeofresistorandissometimes
calledaphotoconductor.LDRsaremadesothattheirresistancedecreasesasthelevelof
lightfallingonthemincreases.
LDS~logicaldatastream~Inbidirectionaltextrepresentation,astreamofdatathatis
organizedinareadablesequence.
LDT~LightningDataTransfer(Bus)~AninterconnectionstandardintroducedbyAMD
thatallowsforfastdatatransfersamongtheNorthbridgepartofachipset,
theÂPCIÂbus(es),andtheSouthbridgepart.
LEAP~LightweightExtensibleAuthenticationProtocol~alsoknownasÂCiscoWirelessEAP,isaCiscosecuritytechnologythatbuildsonWi-Fi’sWEPencryption.
LED~light-emittingdiode~Asemiconductorthatproduceslightwhenactivated.
LEED~LeadershipinEnergyandEnvironmentalDesign~LEED)consistsofasuiteof
ratingsystemsforthedesign,constructionandoperationofhighperformance.
LEL~Link,EmbedandLaunch-to-edit~Lotusterm
LEO~LowEarthOrbit~theorbitbetween700and2,000kilometersabovetheEarthfor
Mobilecommunicationssatellite.
LER~LabelEdgeRouter~ConvertsIPpacketsintoÂMPLSÂpackets,andMPLS
packetsintoIPpackets.Ontheingressside,theLERexaminestheincomingpacketto
determinewhetherthepacketshouldbelabeled.
LF~LineFeed~Feedingthepaperthroughtheprinterjustfarenoughtoprintthenext
line.Also,abuttonorcomputerinstructionthatactivatesalinefeed
LFB~look-ahead-for-busy~Informationconcerningnetworkresourcesavailableto
supporthigherprecedencecalls.
LFS~LinuxFromScratch~Projectthatprovidesyouwiththestepsnecessarytobuild
yourowncustomLinuxsystem
LGA~LandGridAray~alsoknownassocketT,meansthatthepinsareonthe
Motherboard,nottheProcessor.ThePrescottisusingtheLGA775socket.
LGPL~LesserGeneralPublicLicense(GNU)~AnevolutionoftheLibraryGNU
LID~localidentifier~Indistributedrelationaldatabase,anidentifierorshortlabelthatis
mappedbytheenvironmentaldescriptorstoanamedresource.
LID~localidentifier~A1-byteidentifierassignedtopartsofthedatastreamtofacilitate
PSFprocessing.
LIDE~LightemittingdiodeIn-DirectExposure~ScannertechnologybyÂCanon
LIFO~lastin,firstout~Atypeofmessagequeuingthatputsthelastmessagereceived
firstinline.
LINAC~LinearAccelerator~aparticleacceleratorcommonlyusedforexternalbeam
radiationtreatmentsofcancerpatients.LINAcusesmicrowavetechnologytoaccelerate
chargedparticles.
LION~LowerIndianOceanNetwork~LIONcablesystem
Lion/Li-ion~Lithium-ion~atypeofrechargeablebatterywidelyusedinportable
computers.
LIP~LoopInitializationProcess~TheprocessbywhichaFibreChannelarbitratedloop
networkinitializeswhenstartedup,orrecoversafterafailureoccursoranewdevice
appearsonthenetwork.
LIPS~LogicalInferencesPerSecond~Inartificialintelligence,thespeedatwhichan
applicationcanprocessinstructions.Thehumanbrainworksatabout2LIPS.
LIS~Laboratoryinformationsystem~aclassofsoftwarewhichhandlesstoring
informationgeneratedbylaboratoryprocesses.Thesesystemsoftenmustinterfacewith
instrumentsandotherinformationsystemssuchasHIS.
Lisp~ListProcessororListProcessing~AprogramminglanguagedevelopedatMITin
the1950sbyJohnMcCarthy.
LKM~LoadableKernelModules~allowfortheaddingofadditionalfunctionality
directlyintothekernelwhilethesystemisrunning.
LL~localloop~Agenerictermfortheconnectionbetweenthecustomer’spremises
(home,office,etc.)andtheprovider’sservingcentraloffice
LLC~Logicallinkcontrol~Linklayer-TelecomGlossary
LLC~LogicalLinkControl~IEEEÂ802.2LANprotocolthatspecifiesan
implementationoftheLLCsublayerofthedatalinklayer.
LLDP~LinkLayerDiscoveryProtocol~LLDPÂisavendor-neutralLayer2protocol
thatallowsanetworkdevicetoadvertiseitsidentityandcapabilitiesonthelocalnetwork.
LLDP-MED~LinkLayerDiscoveryProtocol-MediaEndpointDiscovery~LLDP-MED
isanenhancementtotheLLDPthatisdesignedtoallowauto-discoveryofLANpolicies
LLI~LowLatencyInterrupts~allowslatency-sensitivepacketstobeprocessedwiththe
lowestlatency.
LLI~LowerLayerInterface~Partoflayer7withPROFIBUS,inwhichlayer7services
aremappedontolayer2services
LLTD~LinkLayerTopologyDiscovery~Afeaturethathelpsuserstotroubleshoottheir
networks.LLTDautomaticallydetectsmultiplenetworkdevicesandgivesagraphical
presentationoftheconnectedhardwaretoidentifyconfigurationerrors.
LLU~localloopunbundling~LLUistheprocessofallowingcompetitive
telecommunicationsoperatorstousethetwisted-pairtelephoneconnectionsfromthe
incumbenttelephoneexchange’scentralofficetothecustomerpremises.Thislocalloopis
ownedbytheILEC.
LMA~LightspeedMemoryArchitecture~nVidiaÂterm
LMDS~LocalMultipointDistributionServices~Thisisafixedpoint(non-mobile)
wirelesstechnologythatoperatesinthe28GHzbandandofferslineofsightcoverage
overdistancesupto5kilometers.Itcandeliverdataandtelephonyservicesto80,000
customersfromasinglenode.
LMP~LinkManagerProtocol~adatalinklayerprotocolintheBluetoothprotocol
stack.LMPcarriesoutlinksetup,authentication,linkconfigurationandotherprotocols.
LMPP~Lighttpd/MySQL/PHP/Python~Awebapplicationstackbaseduponlighttpd,
MySQL,,and/or(comparetoLAMP).
LMS~LearningManagementSystem~asoftwarepackage,thatenablesthemanagement
anddeliveryoflearningcontentandresourcestostudents.MostLMSsystemsarewebbasedtofacilitate‘anytime,anywhere’accesstolearningcontentandadministration.
LNA~launchnumericalaperture~Thenumericalapertureofanopticalsystemusedto
couple(launch)powerintoanopticalfiber.
LNA~LowNoiseAmplifier~areceivingpreamplifierhavingverylowinternalnoise
characteristicsplacedveryneartheantennaofareceivertocapturetheC/Nbeforeitcan
befurtherdegradedbynoiseinthereceivingsystem.
LNIB~likenew,inbox~slightlyusedbutsuppliedwithoriginalpackaging
LNO~LoopNestOptimization~aspecialcaseoflooptransformationwhichdealswith
nestedloopsthatmakespossiblelargereductionsinthecachebandwidthnecessaryfor
somepervasivealgorithms.
LNP~LocalNumberPortability~Subscribers’abilitytoswitchlocalorwirelesscarriers
andstillretainthesamephonenumber,asispossiblenowwithlong-distancecarriers.
LNS~L2tpNetworkServer~MaintainsL2TPsessionswithwhateverisconnectedtothe
LAC
LOB~largeobject~Asequenceofbyteswithasizerangingfrom0bytesto2gigabytes
less1byte.
LOB~largeobject~Adatatypeusedbydatabasesforlargeobjects.
LOB~Line-of-Business~Usedtorefertoabusinesscriticalapplication,i.e.an
applicationthatisessentialtothetradingorsurvivalofabusiness.Normallywrittenas
‘LOBapp’or‘LOBapplication’.
LOC~LinesofCode~Ameasureofthesizeofaprogram.
LOCK~localobjectcreatorandkiller~InIBMTivoliKernelServices,thecomponent
thatstarts,monitors,stops,andrestartsanORB.
LODA~LombardiOn-DemandAssistance~IBMWebsphereOn-DemandDelivery
LOFS~LOopbackFileSystem~Afilesystemtypethatletstheusercreateanewvirtual
filesystem.Theusercanaccessfilesusinganalternativepathname
LOM~LANOnMotherboard~Thisisanetworkdevicethatisbuiltontothe
motherboard(orbaseboard)ofthemachine
Loran~long-rangeradionavigation~Along-rangeradionavigationposition-fixing
systemconsistingofanarrayoffixedstationsthattransmitpreciselysynchronizedsignals
tomobilereceivers.
LOS~LineofSight~describesanunobstructedradiopathorlinkbetweenthe
transmittingandreceivingantennasofacommunicationssystem.
LOS~Lossofsignal~aconditionwherethereceivedsignaldropsbelowthresholddue
toaterrainobstructionorotherphenomenonincreasingthelinkbudgetlossbeyonddesign
parameters.
LPA~LinearPowerAmplifier~Thefinalamplificationstageinamulticarriertransmitter
thathasbeendesignedandoptimizedtoproducealinearresponse.
LPA~linkpackarea~Theportionofvirtualstoragebelow16MBthatcontains
frequentlyusedmodules.
LPAR/LP~logicalpartition~AsetofkeyorRIDpairsinanonpartitioningindexthat
isassociatedwithaparticularpartition.
LPAR/LP~logicalpartition~Oneormoresubsetsofasinglesystemthatcontains
hardwareresourcesandoperatesasanindependentsystem.
LPAR/LP~logicalpartition~Inapartitioneddatabaseenvironment,adatabase
partitionserveronaprocessorthathasmorethanonedatabasepartitionserverassignedto
it.
LPAR/LP~logicalpartition~Asubsetoftheprocessorhardwarethatisdefinedto
supportanoperatingsystem.
LPB~LowPingBastard~Networkmultiplayergamesattribute
LPC~LinearPredictiveCoding~aspeechencodingschemethatusesperiodicpulsesto
exciteafilter,similartothewayhumanvoiceisproduced.
LPC~LocalProcedureCall~Amechanismthatloopsremoteprocedurecallwithoutthe
presenceofanetworksothattheclientandserverportionofanapplicationcanresideon
thesamemachine.
LPD~lineprinterdaemon~Thereceivingportion,ortarget,ofafiletransferthat
receivesthespooledfilethatwassentandplacesthefileonalocaloutputqueue.
LPD~lineprinterdaemon~Theprinterserverthatallowsotherhoststoaccessits
printer.
LPDA~LinkProblemDeterminationAid~Aseriesofproceduresusedbyproductsto
testmodemorotherÂDCEÂoperations,andtoprovideinformationabouttheDCEand
thedatalink.
LPF~LeagueforProgrammingFreedom~Anonprofitorganizationdedicatedto
‘bringingbackthefreedomofprogrammerstowriteprograms,’inthefaceoftherecent
trendtowardcomplicatedcopyrightandpatentlawsuits.Âhttp://www.lpf.org/
LPF~Low-PassFilter~Asignalfilterwhichwouldbeinstalledinacustomerpremises
ADSLmodem(ATU-R),whichwouldnotmodifythelowfrequenciespresentinitsinput
signal
LPFM~low-powerFMradio~Abroadcastservicethatpermitsthelicensingof50-to
100-wattFMradiostationswithinaserviceradiusofupto3.5milesand1-to10-wattFM
radiostationswithinaserviceradiusof1to2miles.
LPI~linesperinch~ameasureoftheresolutionofahalftonescreen
LPI~LinuxProfessionalInsitute~ServesthecommunityofLinuxandopensource
softwareusersvendorsanddevelopers,intheinterestofincreasingandsupporting
professionaluseofsuchsoftwarethroughoutworld.SeealsoÂhttp://www.lpi.org/
LPP~LandPre-Pits~AddressingaidinwritingÂDVD-R
LPPL~LatexProjectPublicLicense~http://www.latex-project.org
LPR~lineprinterrequester~Thesendingportion,orclientportion,ofaspooledfile
transfer.
LPR~lineprinterrequester~Aclientthatletsthelocalhostsubmitafileforprintingon
aremoteprinterserver.
LPT~lineprintterminal~Thedesignationforaparallelconnectiontoaprinterorother
paralleldevice.
LPTV~low-powertelevision~Abroadcastservicethatpermitsprogrambroadcasting
viatelevisiontranslatorsoperatingwithlowpower.LPTVserviceincludestheexisting
translatorserviceandoperatesonasecondarybasistoregulartelevisionstations.
LPWA~LucentPersonalizedWebAssistant~Anonymouswebbrowsingservice
LPX~LowProfileeXtension/Extended~amotherboardformfactorusedforlowprofilecomputercases.LPXboardsusearisercardarrangementforexpansioncards,
whichmeansthatinstalledexpansioncardsareparalleltothemotherboardinsteadof
perpendiculartoit.
LQA~linkqualityanalysis~Inadaptivehigh-frequency(HF)radio,theoverallprocess
bywhichmeasurementsofsignalqualityaremade,assessed,andanalyzed.
LQSR~LinkQualitySourceRouting~aroutingprotocolforwirelessmeshnetworks.
TheprotocolwasdevelopedbyMicrosoftforusewiththeirÂMCLÂtechnology,which
facilitatestheinterconnectionofcomputersintoameshnetwork
LR~Lightroom~AdobePhotoshopLightroomisaphotographysoftwareprogram
developedbyAdobeSystemsforMacOSXandMicrosoftWindows,designedtoassist
professionalphotographersmanagingthousandsofdigitalimages,anddopostproduction
work.Âwww.adobe.com/products/photoshoplightroom/
LRC~longitudinalredundancycheck~Asystemoferrorcontrolbasedontheformation
ofablockcheckfollowingpresetrules.
LRC~LoopResiliencyCircuit~Hubcircuitrythatallowsdevicestobeinsertedintoor
removedfromanactiveFC-ALloop.
LRF~LittleRubberFeet~Supportdevicesforcomputercasesandotherequipments
LRN~LocationRoutingNumber~Theten-digit(NPA-NXX-XXXX)numberassigned
toaswitch/POIusedforroutinginapermanentlocalnumberportabilityenvironment.
LRU~leastrecentlyused~PertainingtoanÂalgorithmÂusedtoidentifyandmake
availablethecachespacethatcontainsthedatathatwasleastrecentlyused.
LS~Loop-StartSignaling~Atypeofswitchedaccesslinesignalinginwhichthe
networkprovidesabatterysource.Toinitiateacall,customerpremiseequipmentwill
providealoopclosurethatcausesDCloopcurrenttoflow,whichisdetectedbythe
network.
LSA~LocalSecurityAuthority~TheLocalSecurityAuthorityistheserviceprovidedto
managelocalsecurity,domainauthentication,andActiveDirectoryprocesses.The
SecurityAccountsManager,NetLogonandProtectedStorageservicesrunwithinthe
contextoflsass.exe
LSAP~LinkServiceAccessPoint~includingbothDSAPandSSAP,istheidentifier
fieldtoindicatedatatypes.
LSAS~LocalSecurityAuthenticationServer~Verifiesvalidityofuserlogonsto
PC/Server.
LSASS~LocalSecurityAuthoritySubsystemService~Providesaninterfacefor
managinglocalsecurity,domainauthentication,andActiveDirectoryprocesses.The
SecurityAccountsManager,NetLogonandProtectedStorageservicesarecomponentsof
LSA
LSB~LeastSignificantBit~Thebitofabinarynumberwhichisfarthesttotheright,
indicatingthenumberofones;alsodesignatedasbitzero.
LSH~Locality-SensitiveHashing~anÂalgorithmÂforsolvingthe(approximate/exact)
NearNeighborSearchinhighdimensionalspaces.
LSI~LargeScaleofIntegration~ICmanufacturingintegrationlevel:it’stheprocessof
placingfrom3,000to100,000transistorsononechip
LSM~LinuxSoftwareMap~astandardtextformatfordescribingLinuxsoftware.LSM
foraprogramisasingletextdocument,namedsoftware_package_name.lsm.
LSM~LocalServiceManager~InIBMTivoliKernelServices,acomponentthatruns
oneachsystemthatispartofthedistributedsystem.
LSP~LicenseServiceProvider~AnNetwareLoadableModule(NLM)thatrespondsto
requestsfromÂNLSÂclientsandlicensingservicemanagersforlicensinginformationor
licenseunits
LSR~labelswitchrouter~TheroleofanLSRistoforwardpacketsinanMPLS
networkbylookingonlyatthefixed-lengthlabel.
LSR~LeafSetupRequest~AnÂATMÂterm.Asetupmessagetypeusedwhenaleaf
noderequestsconnectiontoexistingpoint-to-multipointconnectionorrequestscreationof
anewmultipointconnection.
LSR~LineServiceRequest~DocumentintheLECworldwhichisusedforporting
requests,directorylistingchanges,trunkorderingetc.
LSR~LocalServiceRequest~AtermthatwasspawnedbytheTelecommunicationsAct
of1996,whichformalizedcompetitioninlocaltelecommunications.ALSRisaform,or
seriesofforms,usedbyaCLECtorequestlocalservicefromtheILEC.
LSR~localsharedresource~Afilethatsharesacommonpoolofbuffersandacommon
poolofstrings;thatis,controlblockssupportingI/Ooperations,withotherfiles.
LSSGR~LATASwitchingSystemGenericRequirements~Multi-volumesetofBellcore
technicalreferencesdealingwithbasicswitchingrequirementsusedbyswitch
manufacturers,procurementstaffs,planners,andswitchtechnicians.
LTC~linetrafficcoordinator~InaÂDDNÂswitchingcenter,theprocessorthatcontrols
trafficonaline.
LTE~LiteTerminatingEquipment~ATMÂequipmentterminatingcommunications
facilityusingSONETLiteTransmissionConvergence(TC)layer.Usuallyreservedfor
enduserorÂLANequipment.
LTE~Long-TermEvolution~next-generationnetworkstandarddevelopedby
theÂ3GPPÂasanevolutionoftoday’sÂ3GÂmobilenetworks.Thestandard,which
reliesonInternetProtocolend-to-end,aimstodeliverhighercapacityandgreater
throughputinagivencell,withmaximumtargetspeedsof100Mbpsdownstreamand50
Mbpsupstream.
LTF~LeapToFrogans~http://www.frogans.com/
LTM~LocalTrafficManagers~F5producttoprovideoffloadingofSSL,connections,
compression;intelligenttrafficmanagement
LTPA~LightweightThirdPartyAuthentication~Anauthenticationframeworkthat
allowssinglesign-onacrossasetofWebserversthatfallwithinanInternetdomain.
LTPA~LightweightThirdPartyAuthentication~Aprotocolthatusescryptographyto
supportsecurityinadistributedenvironment.
LTRAN~localtransaction~Arecoverableunitofworkmanagedbyaresourcemanager
andnotcoordinatedbyanexternaltransactionmanager.
LTRAN~localtransaction~Inamultisystemenvironment,atransactionthatis
processedtotallybythesysteminwhichitisdefined.
LTRS~LettersShift~AcodecharacterusedtocommandaTeletype-likedeviceto
performaphysicalshiftforalphabeticcharacters
LTS~LeaningToothpickSyndrome~ExpressesreadabilityinPERLregularexpressions
LU~LogicalUnit~IBM’stermforalogicalnodethatistheuser’s‘port’into
aÂSNAÂnetwork.LU1isahigh-performanceprintand3270datastream.LU6enables
host-to-hostdataexchange,andprovidesapeer-to-peerdatastream.
LUF~lowestusablehighfrequency~ThelowestfrequencyintheHFbandatwhichthe
receivedfieldintensityissufficienttoprovidetherequiredsignal-to-noiseratiofora
specifiedtimeperiod,e.g.,0100to0200UTC,on90%oftheundisturbeddaysofthe
month.
LU-LU~betweentwologicalunits~asessionbetweentwologicalunits(LUs)inan
SNAnetwork.Itprovidescommunicationbetweentwoendusers,orbetweenanenduser
andanLUservicescomponent.
LUN~logicalunitnumber~AnumberusedinaÂSCSIÂbustoidentifyaperipheral
device(suchasanattachedstoragesystem)
LUNT~lineunitnetworktermination~ThecustomersideofanyÂDSLÂthatdoesnot
terminateonthecustomerinstallation(CI).
LUS~LookUpService~Providesthefunctionalitytodiscoverandregisterservices
LUW~logicalunitofwork~Theprocessingthataprogramperformsbetween
synchronizationpoints.
LUW~logicalunitofwork~Theworkthatoccursbetweenthestartofatransactionand
commitorrollbackandbetweensubsequentcommitandrollbackactions.
LVD~LowVoltageDifferential~theLowVoltageDifferentialinterfaceusedinUltra2
andUltra3SCSI.
LVDS~LowVoltageDifferentialSignaling~alownoise,lowpower,lowamplitude
methodforhigh-speed(gigabitspersecond)datatransmissionovercopperwire.
LVM~LogicalVolumeManager~Providesahigher-levelviewofthediskstorageona
computersystemthanthetraditionalviewofdisksandpartitions.Thisgivesthesystem
administratormuchmoreflexibilityinallocatingstoragetoapplicationsandusers
LVM~LowVoltageDifferentialSignaling~IBMterm
LVOL/LV~logicalvolume~Acollectionofphysicalpartitionsorganizedintological
partitions,allcontainedinasinglevolumegroup.
LVOL/LV~logicalvolume~Thecombinedspaceonallvolumesforeitherthedatabase
ortherecoverylog.
LVOL/LV~logicalvolume~Thestoragemediumassociatedwithasinglelogicalunit
(LU).
LWL~longwavelength~Atypeoffiber-opticcablingthatisbasedon1300-mmlasers
andsupportslinkspeedsof1.0625Gbps.
LWP~light-weightprocess~meansofachievingmultitasking.Incontrasttoauser
thread,whichishandledattheapplicationlevel,alight-weightprocessisscheduledbythe
kernel.
LZH~Lempel-Ziv-Haruyasu~Compressionalgorithmwithaslidingwindowand
additionalcompressionappliedtotheoutputoftheLZSScompressorbydynamic
Huffmancoding
LZW~LempelZivWelch~astandardalgorithmwidelyusedforcompressionofdata.
~M~
M/L~Mobile-to-LandTraffic~TrafficthatoriginatesonaCMRSprovider’ssystem
andisterminatedtoalandlineuser.
M2M~Manufacturer-to-Manufacturer~akindofÂB2BÂinwhichelectronicexchanges
connectmanufacturerstoeachotherandstreamlinebusinessprocesses.
M2M~model-to-model~languagecommunicationviametadataoperators
MAA~Mailaccessagent~Amailservicethatcommunicateswithauser’semail
programtodownloadmailmessageheaderstotheuser’slocalcomputer.
MAC~Mediaaccesscontrol~Linklayer-IEEEStd802.3and802.11,forexample
Mac~Macintosh~ComputersystemthathasMacOSforitsOS.Thereareafew
differentcompaniesthathaveproducedMacs,butbyfarthelargestisApple.
MAC~MediaAccessControl~AMACaddressisahardwareidentificationnumberthat
uniquelyidentifieseachdeviceonanetwork.TheMACaddressismanufacturedinto
everynetworkcard,suchasanEthernetcardorWi-Ficard,andthereforecannotbe
changed.
MAC~Mid-AtlanticCrossing~MACcablesysteminUSA,St.Croix
MAC~messageauthenticationcode~InCryptographicSupport,thefirst4bytesfrom
thelast8-byteblockofciphertextproducedwhenencryptingamessageusingcipherblock
chaining
MAC~messageauthenticationcode~Incomputersecurity,avaluethatisapartofa
messageoraccompaniesamessageandisusedtodeterminethatthecontents,origin,
author,orotherattributes
MADM~MultipleAppearanceDirectoryNumber~allowsthesamedirectorynumberto
appearonmorethanonetelephone.
MAE~MetropolitanAreaExchangeand/orEthernet~ANAPSwhereÂISPsÂcan
connecttoeachother.ÂMetropolitanAreaEthernet
MAGs~Multichannelaccessgateways~onsistofclient-andserver-sidemiddleware,
accompaniedbytoolsorpackagedasplug-ins,thatenablemobileapplicationstowork
wellacrossadiversesetofdevicesandnetworks
mAH~milliampere-hourormilliamp-hour~ameasurementoftheamountofchargea
batterycanhold.
MAID~massivearrayofidledisks~MAIDisastoragetechnologythatemploysalarge
groupofdiskdrivesinwhichonlythosedrivesinactiveusearespinningatanygiven
time.
Malware~MaliciousSoftware~Programswiththeintenttocauseproblems.
MAN~Metropolitanareanetwork~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
MAN~MetropolitanAreaNetwork~Adatanetworkintendedtoserveanareathesizeof
acity.Suchnetworksarebeingimplementedbyinnovativetechniques,suchasrunning
opticalfibresthroughsubwaytunnels.
MANET~MobileAdHocNetwork~AMANETisatypeofadhocnetworkthatcan
changelocationsandconfigureitselfonthefly.BecauseMANETSaremobile,theyuse
wirelessconnectionstoconnecttovariousnetworks.
MAP~ManufacturingAutomationProtocol~MAPisanIEEEspecificationforcable
andnetworkoperations,IEEE802.4.
MAP~MobileApplicationPart~MAPisSS7protocolwhichprovidesanapplication
layerforthevariousnodesinGSMandUMTSmobilecorenetworksandGPRScore
networkstocommunicatewitheachother
MAP~MajorSyncPoint~MAPisITU-Tterm
MAPI~MessagingApplicationProgrammingInterface~TheMicrosoft-developed
programminginterfacespecificationthatenablesanapplicationtosendandreceivemail
overane-mailmessagingsystem,suchasMicrosoftExchange.Itwasdesignedtoseparate
themailenginefromthemailclient.
MAPP~MicrosoftActiveProtectionsProgram~Toimprovesecurityprotectionsfor
customers,Microsoftprovidesvulnerabilityinformationtomajorsecuritysoftware
providersinadvanceofeachmonthlysecurityupdaterelease
MAPS~MailAbuseProtectionSystem~MailAbuseProtectionSystemÂ-an
organizationthatprovidesinformationtonetworksaboutothernetworksthataretolerating
emailabuse.Theyprovideseverallistswhichnetworkscanusetoblockmailcomingfrom
abusivesites.
MARS~Monitoring,AnalysisandResponseSystem~Cisco’ssecuritymonitoringfor
threatidentification,mitigationandcompliancesecuresnetworkdevicesandhost
applicationssupporting
MARS~MulticastAddressResolutionServer~Tracksthemulticast-capablehostsand
anyexistinggroupsforaddingandremovingmulticastroutersfromaconference.
MARS~MultivariateAdaptiveRegressionSplines~ageneralizationofaÂdata
miningÂdecisiontree.
MAS~Modula-2AlgebraSystem~anexperimentalcomputeralgebrasystemwhich
combinesimperativeprogrammingfacilitieswithalgebraicspecificationcapabilitiesfor
thedesignandstudyofalgebraicalgorithms.
MASER~MicrowaveAmplificationbySimulatedEmissionofRadiation~Adevice
designedtogenerateamicrowavesignalwithlow-noiseproperties.
MathML~MathematicsMarkupLanguage~anextensionofHTMLdesignedto
facilitatethedisplayofmathematicalexpressions
MAU~MediumAttachmentUnit~providesthephysicalandelectricalinterfacebetween
anEthernetdeviceandthemediumsystemtowhichitisconnected.
MAU~MultistationAccessUnit~ATokenRingwiringhub.
MAX~MasterAuxiliaryCorrection~AmethodofRTKNetwork(RTKN)correction
proprietarytoÂLeicaÂGeosystemsâ„¢inwhichmultiplebasestationsareusedto
determineanRTKcorrection.M
Mb~megabyte~anamountofcomputermemoryequalto1,048,576bytes=1,024
kilobytes.Onemegabytecanstoremorethanonemillioncharacters
Mbps~Megabitspersecond~Physicallayer-Megabit_per_second
Mbps~MegaBitsPerSecond~Indatacommunications,acommonmeasureofdata
speedforcomputermodemsandtransmissioncarriers.OneMbpsisequalto1,000,000
bpsor1,000kbps.Â
MBR~MasterBootRecord~RecordlocatedatthebeginningofabootablediskonIntel
basedsystems,containingthebootloader.
MBS~MaximumBurstSize~ATMnetworkperformanceparameterthatdefinesthe
durationoftransmissionatapeakratethatwouldbeacceptedonagivenATMvirtual
circuit.
MBSA~MicrosoftBaselineSecurityAnalyzer~Scansformissinghotfixesand
vulnerabilitiesinsomeMicrosoftproducts
MBT~MBTechnology~MBTechnologies’BindowsistheleadingSDKusedfor
developingzero-footprintSOAclient-sideapplications.Âmb.bindows.net/
m-business~mobilebusiness~Gartnerusesthistermtodescribethenewbusiness
modelsandopportunitiesenabledbytheextensivedeploymentofmobileandwireless
technologiesanddevices-suchasBluetooth,ÂWAP,UMTS,ÂGPRS,smartphonesand
e-purses
MC~Multiplechoice~ITProfessionalCertification-Aboutcertificationexams
MCA~messagechannelagent~Aprogramthattransmitspreparedmessagesfroma
transmissionqueuetoacommunicationlink,orfromacommunicationlinktoa
destinationqueue.
MCA~MicroChannelArchitecture~A32-bitstandarddevelopedbyIBMforexpansion
cards.Thestandardofferedimprovementsover16-bitISA,butnevercaughtonoutsideof
IBMcomputers.
MCCM~multichannelcampaignmanagement~processesenablecompaniesto
communicateofferstocustomersegmentsacrossamultichannelenvironment,suchas
directmail,callcenters,websites,e-mailandcommunities.
MCI~MicrowaveCommunications,Inc.~MicrowaveCommunications,Inc.,acquired
byVerizon.
MCIF~(IBM)MeasuredCapabilityImprovementFramework~asetofguidelinesand
processesdevelopedtohelpcompaniesmoreeffectivelymanage,measureandimprove
theirsoftwaredeliveryprocess.
MCL~MeshConnectivityLayer~atechnologythatallowsacomputerusertoconnect
toawirelessmeshnetworkthatusesWi-FiorWiMAX.
MCM~Multi-ChipModule~anintegratedcircuitcomprisingofseveralchipsall
packagedwithinthesamepackage
MCMP~Multi-channelMulti-point~acircuitcardthatenablesthesupportofuptosix
independentapplicationsoverasinglemultipointdigitalfacility.
m-commerce~mobilecommerce;~Acategoryofcommercethatincludesanypurchase
transactioncompletedusingawirelessdevice,suchasacellularphone,PCorpersonal
digitalassistant.
MCP~MicrosoftCertifiedProfessional~referstobothanindividualMicrosoft
certificationandabroaderprofessionalcertificationprogram.TobeanMCP,candidates
mustcompleteanyoneexamwithintheprogram.TheMCPprogramoffersmultiple
certifications,basedondifferentareasoftechnicalexpertise.
MCP~Multi-chippackage~Acombinationofsemiconductordevicesinonepackage,
usuallySRAMandFlash.
MCR~MaximumCellRate~AnAvailableBitRate(ABR)trafficparameter(incellsper
second)thatgivestheslowestrateatwhichthenetworkcontrolstheflowofthesourceon
anABRVirtualChannel(VC)connection.
MCSE~MicrosoftCertifiedSystemsEngineer~AcertificationfromMicrosoftintended
todemonstrateproficiencyinmanagingandadministeringWindowsbasednetworks
together.www.microsoft.com/learning/mcp/mcse/Default.asp
MCU~multipointcontrolunit~Adevicethatsupportsvideomeetingsbetweenthreeor
moreparticipants.
MD2/4/5~MessageDigestalgorithm2/4/5~Messagedigestsarealgorithmicoperations,
generallyperformedontext,whichproduceauniquesignatureforthattext.
MDA~model-drivenÂ~enablebusiness-levelfunctionalitytobemodeledbystandards
MDA~approaches~asoftwaredesignapproachforthedevelopmentofsoftware
systems.Itprovidesasetofguidelinesforthestructuringofspecifications,whichare
expressedasmodels.
MDA~Model-drivenarchitecture~
MDB~Message-DrivenBeans~partoftheJavaEEspecifications
MDF~Maindistributionframe~Physicallayer-GlossarySeealsoStructuredcabling
MDF~MainDistributionFrame~Theprimarypointatwhichoutsideplantfacilities
terminatewithinawirecenterforinterconnectiontoothertelecommunicationsfacilities
withinthewirecenter.
MDF~MediumDensityFiberboard~Atypeofparticleboardthatisoftenusedinthe
constructionofsubwooferenclosures.Itisusedduetoitsabilitytoabsorbvibrationand
itssturdiness.
MDI~MediumDependentInterface~usedtomakeaphysicalandelectricalconnection
betweenatransceiverandamediasegment.
mdisk~manageddisk~ASCSIlogicalunit(LU)thataRAIDcontrollerprovidesanda
clustermanages.
MDIX~mediumdependentinterfacecrossover~anEthernetportconnectionthatallows
networkedendstations(i.e.,PCsorworkstations)toconnecttoeachotherusinganullmodem,orcrossover,cable.
MDM~masterdatamanagement~thesetofprocessestocreateandmaintainasingle
viewofreferenceÂdataÂthatissharedacrosssystems.
MDM~MeterDataManagement~akeycomponentintheSmartGridinfrastructurethat
isintheprocessofbeingevolvedandadoptedbyutility
MDP~MobileDataProtection~MobileDataProtection
MDS~MasterDataService~IBMMDMproduct
MDX~MultidimensionalExpressions~ThequeryinglanguageforOLAPcubes.
ME~MilleniumEdition~Microsoft’sreplacementforWindows98inSeptember14,
2000release.
MEMS~micro-electromechanicalsystems~anemergingtechnologyformaking
microscopicmachines.Usingmicrofabricationtechnology,MEMSintegratesactuators,
mechanicalelements,sensorsandelectronicsonacommonsiliconsubstrate.
MEO~Medium/MiddleEarthOrbit~Atelecommunicationsatellitesystemthatis
mainlyusedforgeographical/globalpositioningsystems.
MERVA~MessageEntryandRoutingwithInterfacestoVariousApplications~IBM
connectivitytoSWIFTnetwork
MES~ManufacturingExecutionSystems~systemsmanagemanufacturingoperationsin
factories.
MES~MobileEntertainmentService~Nokia’splatformthatallowsdeveloperstocreate
interactivegamesforWAP
MESA~ManufacturingEnterpriseSolutionsAssociation~aglobalcommunityof
manufacturers,producers,industryleadersandsolutionwww.mesa.org
MFA~Multifactorauthentication~MFAisasecuritysysteminwhichmorethanone
formofauthenticationisimplementedtoverifythelegitimacyofatransaction.
MFC~MicrosoftFoundationClass~AlibraryofC++functionsprovidedbyMicrosoft
thatallowsdeveloperstomoreeasilyworkwithWindowsoperatingsystems.
MFD~MultiFunctionDevice~Acombinedprinter,scanner,photocopierandfax
machine.
MFM~modifiedfrequencymodulation~Variationintheamplitudeandfrequencyofthe
writesignal.
MFM~modifiedfrequencymodulation~Pertainstothenumberofbytesofstoragethat
canbestoredontherecordingmedia.
MFP~multifunctionproduct~Anetwork-attacheddocumentproductiondevicethat
combinestwoormoreofthecopy,print,scanandfaxfunctions.
MFS~Multi-FunctionSecurity~IBM’sall-in-onefirewall
MFT~Managedfiletransfer~MFTisatypeofsoftwareusedtoprovidesecureinternal,
externalandad-hocdatatransfersthroughanetwork.MFTproductsarebuiltusingthe
FTPnetworkprotocol.
MFT~MasterFileTable~TablecontainingNT’sfilesystemstructure
MGAS~mostlyglobaladdressspace~Aflexiblevirtualaddressspacemodel,usedin
systemssuchasHP-UX,thatpreservesmostoftheaddressspaceforsharedapplications.
MGC~MediaGatewayController~Providesasinglemanagementplatformforfault,
configuration,performanceandsecuritymanagement.ItmanagestheCiscoPGW2200
PSTNGatewayandtheCiscoSC2200SignalingController.
MIA~MediaInterfaceAdapter~Convertselectricalsignalsintoopticalsignalsandvice
versa.
MIB~Managementinformationbase(SNMP)~Applicationlayer-RFC3418
MiB~mebibyte~1024kibibytes.
MIB~ManagementInformationBase~Acollectionofdataobjectsthatcanbeaccessed
viaanetworkmanagementprotocolsuchasSimpleNetworkManagementProtocol
(SNMP)
MIB~ManagementInformationBase~Adefinitionformanagementinformationthat
specifiestheinformationavailablefromahostorgatewayandtheoperationsallowed.
MIC~MessageIntegrityCheck~Aprotocolthatpreventsanattackerfromdetermining
theencryptionkeyusedtoencryptpacketsonawirelessnetwork.
MICR~MagneticInkCharacterRecognition~acharacterrecognitionsystemthatuses
specialinkandcharacters.Whenadocumentthatcontainsthisinkneedstoberead,it
passesthroughamachine,whichmagnetizestheinkandthentranslatesthemagnetic
informationintocharacters.Themostcommonuseofthetechnologyisinthefinancial
world.MICRtechnologyisusedbybanks.
MIDI~MusicalInstrumentDigitalInterface~Ahigh-qualityaudiofileformat.
MID-II~ManagementInformationDataBaseII~Acollectionofobjectsthatcanbe
accessedviaanetworkmanagementprotocolsuchasSNMP.
MIH~MasterInformationHub~MDMfacilitysupportsthecreationofcustomdata
domains
MII~MediumIndependentInterface~providesa40-pinconnectiontooutboard
transceivers(alsocalledPHYdevices).Usedtoattach802.3interfaces.
MII~Microsoft/Intel/IBM~Microsoft/Intel/IBM
MILNET~MilitaryNetwork~MilitaryNetwork
MIME~MultipurposeInternetMailExtensions~Originallyastandardfordefiningthe
typesoffilesattachedtostandardInternetmailmessages.TheMIMEstandardhascome
tobeusedinmanysituationswhereonecmputerprogramsneedstocommunicatewith
anotherprogramaboutwhatkindoffileisbeingsent.
MIMO~MultipleInput,MultipleOutput~Atechniqueforfasterwireless
communication.MIMOallowsfortheuseofmultipletransmitterandreceiverantennasto
increasethroughput.
MIP~MultuminParvum(Latin)means‘manyinone’~Amethodofincreasingthe
qualityofatexturemapbyapplyingdifferent-resolutiontexturemapsfordifferentobjects
inthesameimage,dependingontheirsizeanddepth
MIPS~MillionsofInstructionsPerSecond~Thenumberofcomputerinstructions
processedpersecond.Ameasureofcomputerpower.
MIS~managementinformationsystems~Thiswasoncethepredominantnameforthe
centraldata-processingorganizationinanenterprise.Today,informationsystems(IS)is
themorecommonlyusedterm.
MISRA~MotorIndustrySoftwareReliabilityAssociation~MISRACcanbeconsidered
asubsetofISOC;thediscardedlanguageconstructsarethosedeemedmostproneto
errorÂhttp://www.misra.org.uk.
MIT~MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology~AuniversityinCambridge,
Massachusetts.MITisaprivatelyendowedresearchinstitutionwiththemissionof
advancingknowledgeandeducatingstudentsinscienceandtechnology.Itisverywellrespectedandhasproducedmanywell-knowncomputerandtechnologyprofessionals
withintheindustry.
MITM~ManInTheMiddle~atypeofnetworkattackwheretheintruderintercepts
trafficbetweentwohostsandanswerseachone,foolingthehostsintothinkingtheyare
talkingdirectlytoeachother.
ML~ModularLine~AnHPbrandnamefortheProLiantModularLine,whichisan
expandabletower.
MLHG~Multi-LineHunting~Theabilityofaswitchingsystemtoconnectcallsto
anotherphoneinagroupwhenothernumbersinthegrouparebusy.Typesincludeserial
orcircular.
MLT~MechanizedLoopTest~Atestsystemthatteststheenduser’sloop,whichis
comprisedofthewiresandequipmentusedtoprovidedialtone/callingservicetothatend
user.
MMC~MicrosoftManagementConsole~Astandardizedinterfaceintowhichyoucan
plugsnap-instoperformdifferentadministrativetasks.
MMC~MutiMediaCard~massstoragedevicesintheformofanewtypeofmemory
mediawithacompactdesign,imagestoragecapacityofupto1GB,compatibilitywith
differentdigitalcamerabrandsandMP3devices
MMDS~multi-megabitdataservice~aline-of-sitepoint-to-pointtechnologyoperating
at2.44GHzto2.5GHzthatservesareaswithheavyfoliage,relativelyfewenvironmental
obstructionsandmoderaterainfall.
MMDS~MultipointMicrowaveDistributionSystem~wirelessbroadbandtechnology
forInternetAccess.MMDSchannelscomein6MHzchunksandrunsonlicensedand
unlicensedchannels.Eachchannelcanreachtransferratesashighas27Mbpsor1Gbps
MMF~MultimodeFiberopticCable~Fiberopticcableinwhichsignalorlight
propagatesinmultiplemodesorpaths.Sincethesepathsmayhavevaryinglengths,
transmittedpulseoflightmaybereceivedatdifferenttimesandsmearedsopulsesmay
interferewithsurroundingpulses.
MMO/MMOG~massivelymultiplayeronlinegame~amultiplayervideogamewhich
iscapableofsupportinghundredsorthousandsofplayerssimultaneously.Bynecessity,
theyareplayedontheInternet,andusuallyfeatureatleastonepersistentworld.
MMORPG~MassiveMultiplayerOnlineRolePlayingGame~MassiveMultiplayer
OnlineRolePlayingGame
MMR~ModifiedModifiedRead~datacompressionmethodusedinGroup3facsimile
machines.
MMS~MicrosoftMediaServer~StreamingprotocolusedbytheMicrosoftMedia
Server.UsedtoaccessunicastcontentfromaWindowsMediaServertoaWindows
MediaPlayer
MMS~MultimediaMessagingService~Amobile-messagingstandardjointlydefinedby
the3GPartnershipProjectandtheÂWAPForum.MMSprovidesabroadsetoffeatures
thatcannotbedeliveredthroughtraditionalwireless-messagingstandards,andtosend
messagestobothmobilephonenumbersande-mailaddresses.
MMU~MemoryManagementUnit~ahardwaredeviceresponsibleforhandling
memoryaccessesrequestedbythemainprocessor.
MMX~multimediaextensions~setofadditionalinstructionsaddedtothelatermodels
ofthePentiummicroprocessoranditssuccessorstosupporthigh-speedprocessingof
animationandsound.
MNP~MicrocomNetworkingProtocol~acommunicationsprotocoldevelopedby
Microcom,Incorporated(nowownedbyCompaq,thenHP),thatisusedbymanyhigh
speedmodems.
MNS~managednetworkservices~Thevendordeliveryofprimarilyoperationalsupport
foranetworkenvironmentinwhichthehardwareassets,financialobligationsand
personnelremainonthebooksofthecustomer.
MNS~MasterofNetworkScience~3COM’shighlyacclaimedrecognitionfor
demonstratedknowledgeofnetworkingfunctions.ItistheequivalentofNovell’sCNS
andMicrosoft’sMCSEcertification.
MO~Magneto-Optical~Atypeofdiskdrivethatcombinesmagneticdisktechnologies
withCD-ROMtechnologies.
MOB~movableobject~agraphicalobjectthatismanipulatedseparatelyfromthe
background.Theseareseenallthetimeincomputergames.
MoBo~motherboard~Thecomputer’smaincircuitboard.Allinternalcomponentsare
attachedorconnectedinsomewaytothemotherboard.Themotherboardholdsthe
processor,thebus,memorysockets,expansionslots,andmore.Itactsasaconduitfor
power,andmakessurethevariouscomponentscancommunicate.
MoCA~MultimediaoverCoaxAlliance~Organization-MultimediaoverCoaxAlliance
MODEM~modulator-demodulator~Amodemisaconversiondevicethatallowsa
computertotransmitinformationoveranalogcommunicationlines(forexample,
traditionalphonelines)byconvertinginformationthatisdigitallystoredonthecomputer
intotransmissionsignals.Â
MOE~MeasuresofEffectiveness~aprobabilitymodelbasedonengineeringconcepts
thatallowsonetoapproximatetheimpactagiveactionwillhaveonanenvironment.In
InformationwarfareitistheabilitytoattackordefendwithinanInternetenvironment.
MOF~MicrosoftOperationsFramework~Providestechnicalguidancethatenables
organizationstoachievemission-criticalsystemreliability,availability,supportability,and
manageabilityofMicrosoftproductsandtechnologies
MOH~MusicOnHold~Atelephonyterm.Oftenthisisaportonthethecontroldevice;
itmayhowever,beanadd-onattachmentallowingaudiotoberoutedtoanincomingor
outgoingsystemcallthatisplacedonhold.
MOM~MicrosoftOperationsManager~Providesmanageabilityaspartofthedesign
andimplementationofWindowsServerSystemtechnologies
MOO~Mud,ObjectOriented~Oneofseveralkindsofmulti-userrole-playing
environments.
Moodle~ModularObject-OrientedDynamicLearningEnvironment~Moodleisanopen
sourcecoursemanagementsystem,orginallydevelopedbyMartinDougiamas.Itisused
bythousandsofeducationalinstitutionsaroundtheworldtoprovideanorganized
interfacefore-learning,orlearningovertheInternet.
MoReq~ModelRequirementsfortheManagementofElectronicRecords~amodel
specificationofERMS
MORPH~(from)metamorphosis~Tochangeoneimageintoanotherbymeansof
digitaltechnology
MOS~MeanOpinionScore~anumericalindicationoftheperceivedqualityofreceived
mediaaftercompressionand/ortransmission.
MOSFET~Metal-Oxide-SemiconductorField-EffectTransistor~Atransistorwitha
sourceanddrainregion.Itisconsideredakeyelementinintegratedcircuittechnology.
MOSS~MicrosoftOfficeSharePointServer~thefullversionofaportal-basedplatform
forcollaborativelycreating,managingandsharingdocumentsandWebservices.MOSS
enablesuserstocreate‘SharepointPortals’thatincludesharedworkspaces,applications,
blogs,wikisandotherdocumentsaccessiblethroughaWebbrowser.
MoST~mobilesolutionsterminal~Themobileterminalusedbyservicepersonnel.
MOTD~messageÂofÂtheday~Manycomputers(particularlymorecapableones)are
configuredtodisplayaMOTDwhenaccessedremotely.
MOV~MerchantofVenice~incomputerprogramming,isastockmarkettradingand
technicanalysisprogramtomanagegraphsandportfolios.Ithasaninternallanguage
whichsupportsallthemostimportanteconometricfunctions(RSI,BollingerBands,
Momentum,MovingAverages,ecc.).
MP3~MPEGLayer3~AnopenMPEGstandardfordigitalaudiocompression.Itoffers
significantcompressionwhileretaininggoodtoexcellentaudioquality.
MPAS~mostlyprivateaddressspace~Aflexiblevirtualaddressspacemodel,usedin
systemssuchasHP-UX,thatcanallocatelargeraddressspaceblockstoprocesses.
MPEG~MovingPictureExpertsGroup~Adigitalvideostandardforcompressionof
full-motionimages.ThecompressionratiosachievedwithMPEGencodingmakeitan
idealstandardfordeliveryofdigitalvideodata.
MPI~MasterPatientIndex~Alistofallknownpatientsinanarea,activity,or
organization.
MPIF~Multi-ProcessorInterconnectFacility~IBMfaciltytosupportmultipleTPF
complexescommunicatingwitheachother
MPL~MozillaPublicLicense~afreeandopensourcesoftware
license.Âwww.mozilla.org/MPL/
MPL~Multi-schedulePrivateLine~AnAT&Ttariffforaleasedvoice-gradeline.
MPLS~MultiprotocolLabelSwitching~networktechnology-
MPLS~MultiprotocolLabelSwitching~aschemetypicallyusedtoenhanceanIP
network.RoutersontheincomingedgeoftheMPLSnetworkaddan‘MPLSlabel’tothe
topofeachpacket.Thislabelisbasedonsomecriteriaandisthenusedtosteeritthrough
thesubsequentrouters.
MPN~MicrosoftPartnerNetwork~MicrosoftPartnerNetwork
MPOE~minimumpointofentry~theclosestpracticalpointtowherethecablesofa
telecommunicationsservicecarriercrossapropertylineorwhereitswiringentersamultiunitbuilding.
MPP~massivelyparallelprocessing~Thecoordinatedexecutionofasinglerequestby
multiplesingle-processorcomputersinashared-nothingenvironment
MPPE~MicrosoftPointtoPointEncryption~EncryptsdataforPPPorPPTP
connections
Mpps~millionsofpacketspersecond~ameasurementofinformationsentpersecond
MPS~managedprintservices~strategydesignedtohelpmanagethevolumeof
documentsflowingthroughtheorganizationandminimizethecosts
MQ~messagequeue(formerly)~anIBMstandardforprogram-to-programmessaging
acrossmultipleplatforms.WebSphereMQruntimeenvironmentincludingthesetupof
thequeuemanagernetwork.WebsphereMQissometimesreferredtoasmessage-oriented
middleware(MOM).
MQT~materializedquerytable~Atablewhosedefinitionisbasedontheresultofa
queryandwhosedataisintheformofprecomputedresultsthataretakenfromthetableor
tablesonwhichtheMQTdefinitionisbased.
MRAM~magnetoresistiverandomaccessmemory~amethodofstoringdatabitsusing
magneticchargesinsteadoftheelectricalchargesusedbyÂDRAM.Bycombiningthe
highspeedofstaticRAMandthehighdensityofDRAM,proponentssayMRAMcould
beusedtosignificantlyimproveelectronicproductsbystoringgreateramountsofdata,
enablingittobeaccessedfasterwhileconsuminglessbatterypower.
MRI~MagneticResonanceImaging~Amedicalimagingtechniqueusedforimage
capture.Tissueareaissimultaneouslysubjectedtoelectromagneticradiationanda
magneticfield
MRO~maintenance,repairandoperations~Theactivitiesassociatedwiththeoperation
andrepairofanyfacility,equipmentorasset,andthematerialpurchasedtosupportthese
activities.
mrouter~multicast/router~multicast/router
MRTG~MultiRouterTrafficGrapher~anopensourcetoolusedtomonitorthetraffic
loadonnetworklinks.
MRU~mostrecentlyused~alistofmost-recently-usedfilesorwebaddresses.Many
wordprocessors,webbrowsers,andsoon,maintainMRUlistssotheusercanquickly
returntoadocumentthatwasusedrecently.
ms~millisecond~Aunitoftimeequaltooneone-thousandthofasecond.
MS~Microsoft~Anindustryabbreviationforthedominantgiantincomputer
technology
MS~MemoryStick~ThetechnologydevelopedbySonytoadvancemassstorage
devices,formallyknownasSonyMemoryStick.MStechnologywasintroducedin1999
andnowhassizesupto1GBinsize.ItalsohasvariationssuchasMSDuo,MSProand
MSProDuo.
MSA~metropolitanstatisticalarea~cellularserviceareasusedbytheFCCtolicense
cellulartelephoneservice.
MSA~MobileSalesAssistant~Oracle’sCRMproduct
MSA~ModularSmartArray~Usesexistinglinearmulti-channelbi-directionaltape
format.
MSAP~MicrosoftÂApplicationPlatform~Microsoftapplicationplatformsuite
MSB~MostSignificantBit~Highestorderbitinbinaryrepresentationofnumerical
value.
MSBD~MediaStreamBroadcastDistribution~Protocolusedtodistributestreams
betweenWindowsMediaEncoderandtheWindowsMediaservercomponents,andto
transferstreamsbetweenservers
MSC~MobileSwitchingCenter~Aswitchprovidingservicesandcoordinationbetween
mobileusersinanetworkandexternalnetworks.
MSCS~MicrosoftClusterServer~Atechnologythatprovideshighavailabilityby
groupingcomputersintoMSCSclusters.
MSDB~mainstoragedatabase~Aroot-segmentdatabasethatresidesinvirtualstorage.
ThedatainanMSDBisstoredinsegments.
MSDE~MicrosoftDataEngine~Adesktopdatabaseenginethatworksasanextension
ofÂSQLÂServer7.0tostoredataforofflineapplicationcomponents.
MSDN~MicrosoftDeveloperNetwork~Acommunityofpracticefordeveloperscreated
byMicrosoft.MSDNoffersWeb-basedandofflineservicestoprogrammerswhowrite
applicationsusingMicrosofttechnologies.
MSDP~MulticastSourceDirectoryProtocol~DevelopedforpeeringbetweenÂISPs,it
enablesRendezvousPoints(RPs)toshareinformationaboutactivesources
MSE~MicrosoftSecurityEssentials~providesreal-timeprotectionforyourhomeor
smallbusinessPCthatguardsagainstviruses,spyware,andother
malicious.Âwww.microsoft.com/security_essentials/
MSEE~MicrosoftEquationEditor~add-onsoftwarethatletsyoubuildcomplex
mathematicalequationsandinsertthemintosuchOfficeapplicationsasWord,
PowerPoint,Outlook,andExcelbypickingsymbolsfromatoolbar,thentypingnumbers
andvariables.
MSI~MediumScaleIntegration~Chipscontaininghundredsoftransistors,butnot
thousands.
MSI~MessageSignalInterrupts~setsasideaspecialmessagespaceinthePCIflat
memoryspaceforpassingacertaintypeofcontrolmessagecalledaninterrupt.
MSI~MicroSoftInstaller~aninstallersystembyMicrosoftforWindowsplatformsand
.MSIfileextension
MSI~MicroStarInternational~aninternationalcomputercomponentandnotebook
manufacturer
MSIL~MicrosoftIntermediateLanguage~Anintermediate,CPU-independentlanguage
(alsoknownasIL,orIntermediateLanguage)intowhichsourcecodeiscompiledin
Microsoft’sCommonLanguageInfrastructure(CLI),partofits.NETplatform.
MSL~MeanSeaLevel~Thisisacommonframeofreferenceforpositionswitha
verticalcomponent.Theaveragelocationatwhichtheoceanmeetsthebeachis
considered“meansealevel�.
MSM~MainframeServiceManagement~theconceptofserviceoptimization,
addressingITrequirementsformainframesystemmanagement,datamanagementand
enterpriseworkloadautomation.
MSMQ~MicrosoftMessageQueuing~Amessage-queuingmiddlewareproduct(or,
moreaccurately,anoperating-systemservice)thatprovidesstore-and-forward
connectivitybetweentwoapplicationprograms.
MSN~MicrosoftNetwork~Launchedin1995alongwithWindows95,itisanonline
serviceprovider(OSP)comprisedofvariousWebsitesandWebpagesthatareoperated
byMicrosoftoritsaffiliates.HTTP://WWW.MSN.COM.
MSNP~MicrosoftNotificationProtocol~aninstantmessagingprotocoldevelopedby
Microsoftforusebythe.NETMessengerServiceandtheinstantmessagingclientsthat
connecttoit
MSO~multiple-systemoperator~Acompanythatownscablesystemsinseveral
differentcities,suchasAT&T,Cablevision.
MSPP~MultiServiceProvisioningPlatform~Amarketingtermforanetworkofdevices
(e.g.switchesandmultiplexers)thatcansupportmultipleprotocolsandmultipleservices
suchasvoice,dataandvideoinavarietyofformats.
MSS~MaximumSegmentSize~thelargestamountofdata,specifiedinbytes,thata
computerorcommunicationsdevicecanhandleinasingle,unfragmentedpiece.
MSS~mobilesatelliteservice~Aradiocommunicationservicebetweenmobileearth
stationsandoneormorespacestations,orbetweenspacestationsusedbythisservice.
MSS/MSSP~managedsecurityservice(provider)~Acompanythatprovides
outsourcedmonitoringandmanagementofsecuritydevicesandsystems.Common
servicesincludemanagedfirewall,intrusiondetection,virtualprivatenetwork,
vulnerabilityscanningandantivirusservices.
MTA~MailTransferAgent~SoftwarethatimplementsSMTPandprovidesstoragefor
mailmessagestobeforwardedordeliveredtoalocaluser.MTAsimplementSMTP
(RFCÂ821).
MTA~messagetransferagent~OSIapplicationprocessusedtostoreandforward
messagesintheX.400MessageHandlingSystem.EquivalenttoInternetmailagent.
MTA~Multi-ThreadedApartment~Athreadingcontextinwhichcomponentsmust
handlesynchronizationthemselves.UnderCOM+thethreadsthatrunintheMTAcom
fromathreadpoolmanagedbythesystem
MTBF/MTTF~meantimebetweenfailures/meantimetofailure~Theestimatedor
actualaveragetimeperiodbetweenfailuresinacomputercomponentorsystem
MTP~messagetransferpart~PartoftheSS7protocolnormallyusedtoprovidea
connectionlessserviceroughlyequivalenttolevelsonetothreeoftheOSIreference
model.
MT-RJ~MechanicalTransferRegisteredJack~afiberopticsconnectorpopularfor
smallformfactordevicesduetoitssmallsize.
MTS~MicrosoftTransactionServer~AfacilitythathelpsWindowsusersrunbusiness
logicapplicationsinamiddletierserver.
MTSO~MobileTelephoneSwitchingOffice~Theswitchingofficethatallbasestation
cellsitesconnectto.
MTTR~meantimetorepair~Anestimatedoractualaveragetimerequiredtoperform
repairsonacomputercomponentorsystem.
MTU~MaximumTransmissionUnit~Multiplelayers-
MTU~maximumtransferunit~ThemaximumnumberofbytesthatanInternetProtocol
(IP)datagramcancontain.
MTU~MaximumTransmissionUnit~anetworkingtermthatdefinesthelargestpacket
sizethatcanbesentoveranetworkconnection.TheMTUistypicallylimitedbythetype
ofconnection,butmaysometimesbeadjustedinacomputer’snetworksettings.
MUA~MailUserAgent~theclientthatyoureadyouremailwith.Commononesare
Netscape,EudoraandOutlookExpress.
MUD~Multi-UserDungeonorDimension~A(usuallytext-based)multi-usersimulation
environment.Somearepurelyforfunandflirting,othersareusedforserioussoftware
development,oreducationpurposesandallthatliesinbetween.
multimedia~multipleformsofmedia~Thisincludestext,graphics,audio,video,etc.
MULTOS~Multi-ApplicationOperatingSystem~Anoperatingsystemoriginally
createdbyMondex,andnowoverseenbyaconsortiumof13smartcardcompanies.
MUSE~Multi-UserSimulatedEnvironment~OnekindofMUD-usuallywithlittleor
noviolence.
mutex~mutualexclusion~Aguaranteeofexclusiveaccesstoasharedresource.
mutex~mutualexclusion~Asynchronizationfunctionthatisusedtoallowmultiplejobs
orprocessestoserializetheiraccesstoshareddata.
mutex~mutualexclusion~Aflagusedbyasemaphoretoprotectsharedresources.The
mutexislockedandunlockedbythreadsinaprogram.
MUX~Multiplexor~Adevicethatcombinesseveralinputsignalsintoasingleoutgoing
signal.
MVNO~mobilevirtualnetworkoperator~Acompanythatprovidesmobilenetwork
servicesthroughacontractwithamobilenetworkoperator.
MVS~MultipleVirtualStorage~AnIBMmainframeoperatingsystem.ThetermMVS
isusedtodescribeanentirefamilyofmainframeoperatingsystems.
MW~middleware~Softwarethatprovidessomefunctionalitybetweenthedatabaseand
theenduser.
MWE~multiwordexpression~Asemanticallyorsyntacticallysignificantexpression
thatconsistsofmultiplewordsthatexpressesasingleconcept.Multiwordexpressionscan
bephrasalinnature,comprisingseveralsentenceelements.
MWI~MobileWebInitiative~Proposestoaddressissueslikeinteroperabilityand
usabilityformobilephonesthroughaconcertedeffortofplayersinthemobilefield,
includingauthoringtoolvendors,contentproviders,handsetmanufacturers,browser
vendorsandmobileoperators
MXrecord~mailexchangerecord~DNSÂresourcerecordtypeindicatingwhichhost
canhandlee-mailforaparticulardomain.
MXF~MaterialExchangeFormat~broadapplicationledtovariousvendor
interpretationsandimplementationsandthereforeinteroperabilityproblems.
~N~
NAB~NotABug~Usedasareasonwhenrejectingabugreport
NAC~Networkaccesscontrol~Linkandotherlayers-IEEE802.1x
NAC~networkaccesscontrol~NACprocessevaluatesthesecuritystateofasystemor
userasitconnectstothenetwork;monitorsthesecuritystateofsystemsthatarealready
connected.
NAC~networkattachedconnection~Aparticulartypeofconnectionthatallowsa
connectiondirectlytotheactivepartofanetwork.
NACHA~NationalAutomatedClearingHouseAssociation~Afinancialindustry
organizationthatdevelopselectronicsolutionstoimprovethepaymentssystem.Although
ithasretainedthe‘NACHA’acronym,theorganizationnowuses‘NACHA-The
ElectronicPaymentsAssociation’asitsfullname.
NAI~NetworkAssociatesInc.~AnetworksecurityvendorheadquarteredinSanta
Clara,California.nowÂMcAfee
NAK~Negativeacknowledgementornotacknowledged~TheoppositeoftheACK
signal.Itindicatesamessagewasnotreceivedcorrectly,orthattheterminalisnotready
tosend.
NAM~NumberAssignmentModule~Thecomponentofawirelessphonethatholdsits
telephonenumberandelectronicserialnumberinmemory.
NAMPS~NarrowbandAdvancedMobilePhoneService~animprovedversionofAMPS
systems.NAMPSisacellularcall-handlingsystemthatusesdigitalsignallingtechniques
tosplittheexisting30kHzwidebandvoicechannelsintothree10kHznarrowbandvoice
channels.
NaN~NotaNumber~avalueorsymbolthatisusuallyproducedastheresultofan
operationoninvalidinputoperands,especiallyinfloating-pointcalculations
NANAE~News.Admin.Net-Abuse.Email~Usenetnewsgroups
NANOG~NorthAmericanNetworkOperatorsGrou~providesaforumfortheexchange
oftechnicalinformation,andpromotesdiscussionofimplementationissuesthatrequire
communitycooperation.Âhttp://www.nanog.org/
NANP~Identifiestheelectricalconditionsonthecircuit.~Thenumberingplanusedin
theUnitedStates,Canada,Bermuda,PuertoRico,andcertainCaribbeanIslands.The
NANPformatisa10-digitnumberthatconsistsofa3-digitNPAcode(AreaCode),3digitNXXcode(Exchange),and4-digitcode(Line).
NAP~NetworkAccessProtection~AclientfeaturesupportedbyWindowsVistathat
providesformonitoringandisolationofcomputersonaLonghornserver-basednetwork
thatdonotmeetadministrator-definedhealthstatusrequirements.
NAP/NAPs~networkaccesspoints~apublicnetworkexchangefacility
whereÂISPsÂcanconnectwithoneanotherinpeeringarrangements.TheNAPsarea
keycomponentoftheInternetbackbonebecausetheconnectionswithinthemdetermine
howtrafficisrouted.TheyarealsothepointsofmostInternetcongestion.
NAS~networkaccessserver~alsoknownasa‘mediagateway’ora‘remoteaccess
server’(RAS),isanaccesscontrolpointforremoteusersconnectingtoacompany’s
internalnetworkortoanÂISPÂviaanalogmodemsorISDN.
NAS~NetworkApplicationSupport~atermandactionoriginatedbyDEC.Itwasthe
waytheindustrycametosupportapplicationsintegrationacrossadistributedmultivendor
environment.
NAS~network-attachedstorage~NASisharddiskstoragethatissetupwithitsown
networkaddressratherthanbeingattachedtothedepartmentcomputerthatisserving
applicationstoanetwork’sworkstationusers.
NASDAQ~NationalAssociationofSecuritiesDealersAutomatedQuotations~the
largestelectronicscreen-basedequitysecuritiestradingmarketintheUnited
Stateshttp://www.nasdaq.com/
NASS~NetworkAttachmentSubsystem~acomponentintheIPMultimediaSusbsystem
(IMS)
NASTRAN~NASAStressAnalysis~Softwarethatisusedtosolvelargestressanalysis
problems.
NAT~NetworkAddressTranslation~InternetLayer-CiscoInternetProtocolJournal:A
lookInsideNetworkAddressTranslators
NAT~NetworkAddressTranslation~NATtranslatestheIPaddressesofcomputersina
localnetworktoasingleIPaddress.Thisaddressisoftenusedbytherouterthatconnects
thecomputerstotheInternet.
NAT~NetworkAddressTranslation~Inafirewall,theconversionofsecureIPaddresses
toexternalregisteredaddresses.
NAV~NortonAntiVirus~SymantecAVbrand
NAVSTAR~NAVigationSatelliteTimingandRanging~theofficialgovernmentname
forthesatellitesystemthatsupportsGPSdevices.
NBC~NationalBroadcastingCompany~NBCisanAmericancommercialbroadcasting
televisionnetworkandformerradionetworkheadquarteredintheGEBuildinginNew
YorkCity’sRockefellerCenterwithadditionalmajorofficesnearLosAngelesandin
Chicago.
NBMA~Non-BroadcastMultipleAccess(e.g.FrameRelayATM)~Telecom-SeeATM,
FrameRelayandX.25,forexamples.
NBSP~Non-BreakingSpace~AnHTMLcommandthatisusedtodisplayasingletext
spacewithoutavisiblecharacterinthatspace.
NC~NetworkComputer~AnInternetPCfromOracle,designedforInternetuseonly.
NCC~NortonControlCenter~NortonUtilities’programbySymantec
NCCM~NetworkConfigurationandChangeManagement~toolsfocusondiscovering
anddocumentingnetworkdeviceconfigurationfiles,auditingchanges,comparing
configurationstothepolicyor‘goldstandard’forthatdevice,anddeployingconfiguration
updatestomultivendornetworkdevices.
NCI~NetworkChannelInterface~Identifiestheelectricalconditionsonthecircuit.
NCp~NetwareCoreProtocol~ThesetofproceduresthatÂNovellÂNOSsusetohandle
allnetworkclientrequests.
NCP~NetworkControlProgram~Aprogramthatcontrolstheoperationofa
communicationcontroller.
NCP~NetworkControlProgram~Aprogramusedforrequestsandresponsesexchanged
betweenphysicalunitsinanetworkfordataflowcontrol.
NCP~NetworkControlProgram~AnIBMlicensedprogramthatprovides
communicationcontrollersupportforsingle-domain,multiple-domain,andinterconnected
networkcapability.
NCQ~NativeCommandQueuing~Atechnologydesignedtoincreaseperformanceof
SATAharddisksundercertainsituationsbyallowingtheindividualharddisktointernally
optimizetheorderinwhichreceivedreadandwritecommandsareexecuted.
NDC~networkeddatacenter~Aservicethatgoesbeyondmakingdatacenter
functionalityavailableonanetwork.AnNDCemploysnetworkingtechnologytotreat
multipledatacentersandthenetworkasasinglesystemtoefficientlyaccessandprocess
applications.
NDIS~NetworkDriverInterfaceSpecification~Windowsspecificationforhow
communicationprotocolprograms(suchasTCP/IP)andnetworkdevicedrivershould
communicatewitheachother.
NDM~NetworkDataMover~Filetransmissionprotocolsoftware.
NDMP~NetworkDataManagementProtocol~Astandardprotocol-proposedby
storagetechnologyvendorsNetworkApplianceandLegatoSystems-thatstorage
managementapplicationscanusetobackupdatainanetworkofheterogeneousservers.
NDMPdefinesastandardagentthatcanoperateonanyfileserver,regardlessofhardware
platformoroperatingsystem.
NDP~NeighborDiscoveryProtocol~aprotocolintheInternetProtocolSuiteusedwith
IPv6
NDr~Non-DeliveryReceipt~Whenane-mailmessageiscomposedandsenttoan
invalide-mailaddressthereceiving,orinsomecasesthesending,e-mailserverattempts
tosendanNDRtothesenderofthee-mailmessage,toinformthemthatthee-mail
addressusedisinvalid.
NDS~NetwareDirectoryServices~Novell’snameforthetreestructuredhierarchy
withinNovellNOSsthatincludesallnetworkresourcesandservices.
NEC~NationalElectricCode~Anationallyrecognizedsafetystandardforthe
construction,designandmaintenanceofelectricalcircuits.
NEC~NEC~Aleadingmanufacturerandsupplierinallcommercialelectronics
industriesworldwide.TheyhaveseveralInternationalmanufacturingandoperations
locations.SeethematHTTP://WWW.NEC.COM.
NEl~NetworkElementLayer~Anabstractionoffunctionsrelatedspecificallytothe
technology,vendor,andthenetworkresourcesornetworkelementsthatprovidebasic
communicationsservices.
NEMs~networkequipmentmanufacturers~networkequipmentmanufacturers
NES~NintendoEntertainmentSystem~NintendoisaJapanesecompanythatproduces
verypopulararcade-likevideogamesthatrequiretheirowndedicatedgameequipment.
NetApp~NetworkAppliance~NETAPPInc.isamajorvendorinthenetworkattached
storage(NAS)arena
netbeui~NetBiosEnhancedUserInterface~ItisanenhancedversionoftheNetBIOS
protocolusedbynetworkoperatingsystems.ÂNetbeuiwasoriginallydesignedbyIBM
fortheirLanManagerserverandlaterextendedbyMicrosoftandNovell.
NETBIOS~networkbasicinput/outputsystem~allowsapplicationsonseparate
computerstocommunicateoveraÂlocalareanetwork(LAN)
Netizen~citizenoftheInternet~someonewhousesnetworkedresources.Theterm
connotescivicresponsibilityandparticipation.
net-J~Internetdiscjockey~InadditiontothedevelopmentofVJ’s(videojockeysfor
musictelevision)thereisalsotheperformancepositionoftheInternetdiscjockey(or
‘net-J’).Manyenterprisingwebcastershavebeguntheirownradiostationsbroadcasting
strictlyovertheInternet.
newbie~Newbeginner~Internetslangforsomeonewhohasn’tbeenusingcomputersor
theinternetlong.
NEWS~NetworkExtensibleWindowSystem~AwindowsystembasedonPostScript
thatSundevelopedandlicenses
NEXT~Near-EndCrosstalk~anerrorconditionthatcanoccurwhenconnectorsare
attachedtotwistedpaircabling.NEXTisusuallycausedbycrossedorcrushedwirepairs.
NF/NFs~NormalForms~thestructuresandalgorithmstonormalizearelational
database.Onecanonlydescribeadatabaseashavinganormalformiftherelationships
betweenquantitieshavebeenrigorouslydefined.
NFC~Near-fieldcommunication~ashort-range,wireless,personal-areatechnology
designedtointeractwithconsumerelectronics,mobiledevicesandPCs.Âhttp://www.nfcforum.org
NFF~NoFaultFound.~NoFaultFound.
NFF~NotesFlatFile~AninterchangeformatfortheLotusNotes/Dominoplatform
basedonÂXML.
NFI~NearFieldImaging~Touchscreenwherethescreenitselfisthesensor.NFIusesa
sophisticatedsensingcircuitthatcandetectaconductiveobject-afingerorconductive
stylus-throughalayerofglass,aswellasthroughglovesorotherpotentialbarriers
NFS~NetworkFileSystem~Amethodofsharingfilesacrossacomputernetwork.
PioneeredbySunMicrosystems,itisnowadefactostandardintheUnixenvironment.
NFSisbuiltonÂTCP/IPÂandEthernet.
NGC~NextGenerationCommunications~NextGenerationCommunications
NGN~Next-GenerationNetwork~abroadtermtodescribesomekeyarchitectural
evolutionsintelecommunicationcoreandaccessnetworksthatwillbedeployedbefore
2020.Theideaisthatonenetworktransportsallinformationandservicesby
encapsulatingtheseintopackets,asontheInternet.
NGOSS~next-generationoperationalsupportsystemÂsolutions~NGOSSisthe
TeleManagementForum’sinitiativetodriveoperationalefficiencyandcostreduction
amongtelecomnetworks.NGOSSisacomprehensive,integratedframeworkfor
developing,procuringanddeployingoperationalandbusinesssupportsystemsand
sofware.
NHM~NextHumanNetwork~anInternetcontentserviceoperatorheadquarteredin
Seongnam,SouthKoreaandestablishedin1998.ItoperatestheÂNaverÂportal,whichis
themostpopularInternetportalandsearchenginesinSouthKorea,andÂHangame,the
country’snumberoneonlinegameportal.
NHRP~NextHopResolutionProtocol~Protocolusedbyrouterstodynamically
discovertheMACaddressofotherroutersandhostsconnectedtoanNBMAnetwork.
NIC~NetworkInterfaceCard~Physicallayer-TelecomGlossary
NIC~NetworkInformationCenter~Generally,anyofficethathandlesinformationfora
network.ThemostfamousoftheseontheInternetwastheInterNIC,whichwaswhere
mostnewdomainnameswereregistereduntilthatprocesswasdecentralizedtoanumber
ofprivatecompanies.
NIC~NetworkInterfaceCard~Pronounced‘nick,’thisisthecardthatphysicallymakes
theconnectionbetweenthecomputerandthenetworkcable.Thesecardstypicallyusean
Ethernetconnectionandareavailablein10,100,and1000Base-Tconfigurations.
nicad~nickel-cadmium~atypeofrechargeablebatteryformerlyusedinlaptop
computers.Nickel-cadmiumbatteriesaretoxicandshouldnotbediscardedinordinary
trash.
NICAM~NearInstantaneousCompandedAudioMultiplex~Atechniqueforincluding
digitalaudiowhenbroadcastinganalogueTV.NICAMisintendedtoprovideCDquality
stereoforTVbroadcasts.BasicallyitisadigitalsoundTVcarriersignalsaidtobevery
robust,evenwhenanaloguereceptionwaspoor.Inrealitythiswasnotthecaseandin
areaswheresignalstrengthwaspoor,switchingtomonogavefavourableresultslikeon
FMradiobroadcasts
NICE~Narrative,Immersive,CollaborativeEnvironment~Rechargeablebattery
technology
NID~NetworkInterfaceDevice~adevicethatterminatescopperpairfromtheserving
centralofficeattheuser’sdestinationandwhichistypicallylocatedoutsidethat
location.
NIH~notinventedhere(syndrome)~Aninformaltermusedtodescribeavendor’s
reluctanceorrefusaltosupporttechnologiesitdidnotdevelopitself.
NILO~NetworkInterfaceLOader~BootLinux,FreeBSD,Windows95/98/NT4and
supporttheIntelPXEstandard,andissuitableforburningintoROM.Itisanevolutionof
thepreviousEtherbootandNetbootprojects.SeeÂhttp://www.nilo.org/
NIM~NetworkInterfaceModule~theinterfaceprovided,uptotwopercarrier,forthe
PSTNusedbyV.32dialbackupmodules(DBMs)anddial/leasemodems,andforthe
switched56kbpsdigitalserviceusedbythe2-wireand4-wireswitched56DBMs.
NiMH~NickelMetalHydride~batteriesdonotsufferfromthememoryeffectasthe
NiCadcounterpart.ComparedtoaNiCadbatteryofequalsize,NiMHbatteriesrunfor
30%longeroneachchargecycle.
NIP~Non-ImpactPrinter~Aprinterthatprintswithoutstrikingthepaper;forexample,a
laserprinteroraninkjetprinter.Non-impactprintersarequieterthanimpactprinters,such
asdotmatrixordaisywheelprinters.
NIR~Near-Infrared~Aportionoftheelectromagneticspectrumrepresentinglightwaves
approachinginfrared.
NIS~NetworkInformationService~SunMicrosystems’client-serverprotocolfor
keepingtrackofuserandhostnamesonanetwork.
NIS~NortonInternetSecurity~Symantec-Software
NIST~NationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology~Foundedin1901,ÂNISTÂisa
non-regulatoryfederalagencywithinU.S.CommerceDepartment’sTechnology
Administration.
NJE~networkjobentry~Inobjectdistribution,anentryinthenetworkjobtablethat
specifiesthesystemactionrequiredforincomingnetworkjobssentbyaparticularuseror
groupofusers.
NJE~networkjobentry~Afacilityforlinkingsingle-processorsystemsormulti-access
spoolcomplexesintoaprocessingnetwork
NLA~NetworkLocationAwareness~EnablesWindowsSockets2applicationsto
identifythelogicalnetworktowhichaWindowscomputerisattachedandtowhich
physicalnetworkinterfaceagivenapplicationhassavedspecificinformation
NLB~NetworkLoadBalancing~AclusteringtechnologyfromMicrosoftallowing
networktraffictobeevenlydistributedacrossanumberofservers.Italsohelpstoprovide
highavailabilitybydetectinghostfailuresandreroutingtraffictooneoftheavailable
servers.
NLDF~nationallanguagedependentfunction~Anyfunctionofahardwareorsoftware
productthatmustbealteredtosuitacountry,region,orlanguage.
NLM~NetWareLoadableModule~Individualprogramthatcanbeloadedintomemory
onaNetWareserverandfunctionaspartoftheNetWarenetworkoperatingsystem.
NLM~NetworkLifecycleManagement~akeycomponentoftheHPBusinessService
Management(BSM)offering,whichreducesservicedisruptionsbyimprovingvisibility
intotheperformanceofnetworksandsystems.HPSoftwareNetworkManagementCenter
providesNLMforautomation.
NLO~net-liberatedorganization~AGartnerconceptdescribinganorganizational
philosophyenabledbytheadventoftheInternetandrelatedWebtechnologies.
NLOS~NearLineOFSight~Usedtodescriberadiotransmissionacrossapaththatis
partiallyobstructed,usuallybyaphysicalobject.Manytypesofradiotransmissions
dependonline-of-sightbetweenthetransmitterandreceiver.
NLP~Naturallanguageprocessing~referstothecomputerunderstanding,analysis,
manipulation,and/orgenerationofnaturallanguage.NLPisasubfieldofartificial
intelligenceandlinguistics.Itstudiestheproblemsofautomatedgenerationand
understandingofnaturalhumanlanguages.
NLQ~NearLetterQuality~Printqualityalmostasgoodasanelectrictypewriter;
qualitysimilartoacloth-ribbontypewriter.Thecharactersarelegiblebutnotsharp.Some
dotmatrixprintersprintNLQ.
NLS~NationalLanguageSupport~Thesetofsystemfunctionsin32-bitWindows
containinginformationthatisbasedonlanguageandculturalconventions.
NLSP~NovellLinkStateProtocol~TheequivalentofOpenShortestPathFirst(OSPF)
/oforIPX/iRIP/randSAPservices.Muchmoreefficientinitsuseofbandwidthand
improvedstability.
NLSR~Naturallanguagespeechrecognition~Thisisacomputer’sabilitytoconvert
spokeninputintotext,ortointerpretspokencommands.Specialsoftwareisusedto
digitizevocalsoundsandcomparesthemwithalibraryofsoundpatterns.
NMC~NetworkManagementCenter~anoperationscenterusedtomanagenetwork
resourcessuchastheMSC,locationregistersandbasestations.
NMI~nonmaskableinterrupt~Aninterruptthatcannotbedisabled.Knownasatrap(on
someIntelprocessors),asalevel7interrupt(Motorola),orbyothernames.
NMOS~Negative-channelMetalOxideSemiconductor~Asemiconductortechnology
thatusesnegativelychargedbasematerial.NMOScircuitsareusedwithlogicand
memorychips.
NMS~NetworkManagementStation~aserverthatrunsanetworkmanagement
application.NetworkelementscommunicatewiththeNMStorelaymanagementand
controlinformation.TheNMSalsoenablesnetworkdataanalysisandreporting.
NMS~NetworkMonitoringSystem~Anapplicationtonotifyfront-linesupport
personnelaboutproblemswithapplicationsrunningonremotemachines
NNI~network-to-networkinterface~Atermusedtodenotetheinterfacebetweentwo
publicframerelayorasynchronoustransfermode(ATM)networks.
NNTP~NetworkNewsTransferProtocol~Foramessagetobepostedtoanewsgroup,it
mustbesentthroughthisprotocolthatinteractsbetweennewsserversandnewsreader
programs.NNTPisbasicallythesoftwarefoundationofanewsgroupserver.Itiswhat
queries,distributes,posts,andretrievesnewsarticles.
NO/NC~NormallyOpen/NormallyClosed~Generallypertainstoasetofcontactsona
switchorrelayandthepositionthattheyarenormallyfoundin.NOisnormallyopenand
usuallymeansthecircuitisopen.NCisnormallyclosedandusuallymeansthecircuitis
engagedandcapable.
NOC~NetworkOperationsCenter~Itisthecentrallocationwhereacompany’sservers
andnetworkingequipmentarelocated.TheNOCmayresideeitherwithinacompany’s
campusoratanexternallocation.
no-op~nooperation~Amachineinstructionthatdoesnothinginitself,butholdsaplace
foraninstructiontobeenteredlater.Alsocalleddo-nothingoperation.
NOS~NetworkOperatingSystem~Anoperatingsystemwhichmakesitpossiblefor
computerstobeonanetwork,andmanagesthedifferentaspectsofthenetwork.
NPA~numberingplanarea~Ageographicalboundarywithinwhichnotwotelephones
willhavethesameseven-digitnumber.‘N’isanynumberbetweentwoandnine,‘P’is
alwaysoneorzero;and‘A’isanynumberexcludingzero.
NPC~NorthPacificCable~NPCiscablesystemthatconnectUSAandJapan
NPDA~NetworkProblemDeterminationApplication~AnIBMhost-basedprogram
designedtoaidintheisolationanddiagnosisofnetworkproblems.
NPI~NationalProviderIdentifier~Asystemforclassifyingallprovidersofhealthcare
services,supplies,andequipmentÂ
NPL~NetscapePublicLicense~anopen-sourcelicense,oneofthelicensesunderwhich
Mozillaisdistributed.Itsmostnotablefeatureisthatitgivestheoriginaldeveloperof
Mozilla
NPP~NetworkPaymentProtocol~Anon-proprietarystandardgoverninghowBIPSenabledclientsoftwareinterfaceswithbankpaymentprocessingsystems.NPPmessages
areinExtensibleMarkupLanguage(XML)andbeginwithaBankInternetPayment
System(BIPS)XMLheader.
NPSI~nonpartitionedsecondaryindex~Anindexonapartitionedtablespacethatisnot
thepartitioningindexandisnotpartitioned.
NPU~NetworkProcessor~similartoamicroprocessororCPU,isspeciallydeisgnedfor
useinapplicationsinvolvingnetworkroutingandpacketprocessing.Manynetwork
processorsfeaturemultipleRISCCPUsrunninginparallel.
NRM~normalresponsemode~Anoperationalmodeofanunbalanceddatalinkin
whichthesecondarystationstartstransmissiononlyastheresultofreceivingexplicit
permission,bypolling,fromtheprimarystation.
NRO~NumberResourceOrganization~coordinatingbodyforthefiveRIRsthat
managethedistributionofÂIPAddress
NRZ~Non-return-to-zero~Physicallayer-FederalStandard1037C
NRZ~NonReturntoZero~atypeofdatastreamwheresuccessivedatapulses‘ones’are
continuousoverseveralclockcycleswithoutreturningtothe‘zero’statebetween
successive‘ones’.
NRZI~Non-returntozeroinverted~Physicallayer-FederalStandard1037C
NRZI~Non-ReturntoZeroInverted~Alsoknownas‘invert-on-zero’coding,NRZIis
anSDLCencodingtechniquewhereachangeinstaterepresentsabinary0andnochange
instaterepresentsabinary1.
ns~Nanosecond~Onebillionthofasecond.Inthistime,electricalpulsestravel
approximately12inches
NSA~NetworkSecurityAppliance~SonicWALLSMBfirewallline
NSFNET~NationalScienceFoundationNetwork~ahighspeednetworkofnetworks
whichishierarchicalinnature.Atthehighestlevelisabackbonenetworkwhichspansthe
continentalUnitedStates.
NSI~NetworkSolutions,Inc~theorganizationthat,until1998,hadsoleresponsibility
formaintainingtheregistryofTLDsendingin.com,.net,and.org,underacontractwith
theUnitedStatesGovernment.ItswebaddressisÂwww.networksolutions.com.
NSLookup~NameServerLookup~autilityforconvertingIPaddressestothe
associatedhostnameandviceversa.
NSLU2~NetworkStorageLinkforUSB2.0~aNASdevicemadebyLinksys
introducedin2004anddiscontinuedin2008.ItmakesUSBFlashmemoryandharddisks
accessibleoveranetworkusingtheSMB
protocol.http://www.linksysbycisco.com/US/en/products/NSLU2
NSM~NetworkandÂSecurityManager~Juniperintegrated,policy-drivensecurityand
networkmanagementproducts.
NSP~NetworkServiceProvider~AcompanythatprovidesInternetaccesstoISPs.
NSPsofferdirectaccesstotheInternetbackboneandtotheNetworkAccessPoints
(NAPs).
NSR~nonsharedresources~Fileswiththeirownsetofbuffersandcontrolblocks.
NSR~Non-SourceRouted~FrameforwardingthroughamechanismotherthanSource
RouteBridging.
NSS~NetworkSwitchingSubsystem~aportionofaGSMnetworkthatmanagesthe
connectionsandcommunicationswithinthenetwork.TheBSSandOSScompletethe
majorcomponentsofthenetwork.
NT~NewTechnology~SpecificallyreferstoMicrosoft’sWindowsNT3.5andNT4
Windowsoperatingsystems.LaterversionsofWindowsarebuiltonNT,whichiswhy
referencestoNTremaininlaterversionsofWindows.
NTCIP~NationalTransportationCommunicationsforIntelligentTransportationSystem
Protocol~afamilyofstandardsdesignedtoachieveinteroperabilityand
interchangeabilitybetweencomputersandelectronictrafficcontrolequipmentfrom
differentmanufacturers.
NTE~NetworkTerminationEquipment~Locatedinthehomeoroffice.Examplesare
set-topboxes,LANcards.
NTF~NoTroubleFound~IBMcomputermaintenanceabbreviation.
NTFS~NewTechnologyFileSystem~TheNTFSfilesystemusedinWindowsNT,
Windows2000andWindowsServer2003.NTFSfilesystemallowspermissionstobe
assignedtoindividualfilesandfolders.
NTO~NetworkTerminalOption~AnIBMÂSNAÂenvironmentprogramthatallows
non-SNAasynchronousandBSCdevicesaccesstothenetworkviathecommunications
controlunit(3705/3725/3745).
NTP~networktimeprotocol~Protocolforsynchronizingtheclocksofcomputer
systemsoverpacketsswitched,variable-latencydatanetworks.
NTRU~NumberTheoryisReallyUseful~Technologyforhighspeed,lowfootprint
publickeycryptography,basedonthemathematicsoflatticereduction.(Marketedby
NTRUCryptosystems,Inc,http://www.ntru.com/)
NTSC~NationalTelevisionSystemCommittee~Aspecificationforvideotransmission.
NTT~networktopologytemplate~Atemplatethatdepictshowthelogicaldeployment
templatenodescommunicatewitheachother.
NTT~NipponTelegraphandTelephone~atelephonecompanythatdominatesthe
telecommunicationmarketinJapan.NTTisthelargesttelecommunicationscompanyin
Asia
NUI~NaturalUserInterfaces~describesawide-rangingcategoryoftechnologythatis
perhapsmosteasilyidentifiedbywhatitlacks–thetraditionalmethodsofinput
includingmice,keyboards,andcontrollers.
NUMA~Non-UniformMemoryAccess~Amultiprocessingarchitecturewhereeach
processororsmallgroupofprocessorshasitsowngroupofmemorychips.Accessing
memorylocaltotheprocessorisfasterthanaccessingremotememoryonotherprocessor
boards.
NVE~NetworkVisibleEntity~Anetworkaddressableservice(ie.protocolsocket)that
actsasanetworkserviceprocess(notanode.)
NVRAM~Non-volatileRAM~Hardware-Samplevendordatahere
NZ-DSF~NonZero-Dispersion-ShiftedFiber~adispersionshiftedSingleMode(SM)
fiberthathasthezerodispersionpointnearthe1550nmwindow.
~O~
O.K.I.~OpenKnowledgeInitiative~anorganizationresponsibleforthespecificationof
softwareinterfacescomprisingaSOAbasedonhighlevelservicedefinitions.
O2~Object-Oriented~Anobject-orienteddatabaselanguage.
O2O~OnlineToOffline~Directingonlineuserstophysicalstores.ThetermO2Owas
firstcoinedbyAlexRampell,CEOandfounderofTrialPay,ina2010TechCruncharticle.
Hewrote:“ThekeytoO2Oisthatitfindsconsumersonlineandbringsthemintorealworldstores.Itisacombinationofpaymentmodelandfoottrafficgeneratorfor
merchants(aswellasa‘discovery’mechanismforconsumers)thatcreatesoffline
purchases.�
OAAM~OracleAdaptiveAccessManager~OracleenteredtheWebfrauddetection
marketinJuly2007,withtheacquisitionofBharosa,andhasintegratedtherenamed
productthatconsistsoffrauddetectionanduserauthenticationsoftware
OADM~OpticalAdd/DropMultiplexer~Intelecomparlance,aSingleChannelOADM
isusedforutilisedforaddingordroppingsinglewavelengthinÂDWDMÂoptical
networks.
OAM~objectaccessmethod~Aprogramthatprovidesobjectstorage,objectretrieval,
object-storagehierarchymanagement,andstorageandretrievalmanagementfortape
volumescontainedinsystem-managedlibraries.
OAM/OA&M/OAM&P~Operations,Administation,andManagement(and
Provisioning)~AsetofnetworkmanagementfunctionsforATMsimilartothosein
OA&MandOAM&P.Specialcells,calledOAMcells,areusedtocarryOAMrelated
information
OASIS~OrganizationfortheAdvancementofStructuredInformationStandards~An
internationalnonprofitconsortiumthatpromotesopen,collaborativedevelopmentofebusinessspecificationsbasedonpublicstandardssuchasExtensibleMarkupLanguage
(XML).
OAT~OutsideAirTemperature~Thisisusedintheelectronicsindustrytomeanthe
ambientairtemperatureoftheairmasssurroundingtheunitindiscussion.
OATH~Object-orientedAbstractTypeHierarchy~aclasslibraryforC++fromTexas
Instruments.
OBDR~OneButtonDisasterRecovery~Disasterrecoveryfeatureprovidedbysome
tapedrives.Thisallowsthetapedrivetobeswitchedintodisasterrecoverymode-where
itsfirmwareemulatesabootableCD-ROMallowingthesystemtobootfromthetape
deviceandrestorethesystemfromthelastbackup.
OBEX~OBjectEXchange~SetofprotocolsallowingobjectssuchasvCardcontact
informationandvCalendarscheduleentriestobeexchangedusingeitherIrDAor
Bluetooth
OBI~OpenBuyingontheInternet~AstandardforInternet-basedprocurementcreated
byaU.S.consortiumofvendorsformedinOctober1996,whichreleasedv.1.0ofOBI
specificationthefollowingyear.In1998,theconsortiumplacedthemanagementofthe
specificationunderCommerceNet.
OBIEE~OracleBIEnterpriseEdition~OracleBIproduct
OBM~On-boardmodem~alsoknownasInternalmodem,isinstalledonanexpansion
boardinsideacomputerchase.Incontrast,anexternalmodemisaboxthatattachestoa
computer’sCOMportviacables.
OBOE~Off-By-OneError~Logicalerrorinvolvingthediscreteequivalentofa
boundarycondition.Itoftenoccursincomputerprogrammingwhenaniterativeloop
iteratesonetimetoomanyortoofew
OBU~OnBoardUnit~Inanelectronictollcollectionsystem,carddataofapayment
cardisstoredinanOBUmountedinavehicle.
OC~overclock~Torunamicroprocessorfasterthanthespeedforwhichithasbeen
testedandapproved.Overclockingisapopulartechniqueforekingoutalittlemore
performancefromasystem.
OC-12~OpticalCarrierLevelN~•OC-12:622Mbps
OC-192~OpticalCarrierLevelN~•OC-192:10Gbps
OC-3~OpticalCarrierLevelN~•OC-3:155Mbps
OC-48~OpticalCarrierLevelN~•OC-48:2.5Gbps
OC-768~OpticalCarrierLevelN~•OC-768:40Gbps
OCIA~OpticallyCoupledInterfaceAdapter~Interfaceinmanyotherrespectssimilarto
RS232.ItisusedextensivelyonPOSequipments
OCL~ObjectConstraintLanguage~adeclarativelanguagefordescribingrulesand
constraintsthatapplytoUMLmodels
OC-N~OpticalCarrierLevelN~TherangeofincrementalratesdefinedforSONET
fiber-optictransmission.Thenumberafter‘OC-‘representsthemultipleofthefoundation
OC-1rate,whichis51.84Mbps.AboveOC-3,thelevelnumbersandtheirassociateddata
ratesquadruplewitheachstepupinthehierarchy.
OCP~Open-ClosedPrinciple~Object-orientedprinciplethatstatesthatsoftwareentities
shouldbeopenforextensionsbutclosedformodifications
OCP~OracleCertifiedProfessional~DBAcertificationisdesignedtoreflectproficiency
inOracledatabasearchitecture,installation,administration,performancetuningand
troubleshooting.
OCR~OpticalCharacterRecognition~Thetechniqueofrecognisingprintedtextand
turningitintocomputerinput,soavoidingtheneedforkeyboardentry.Widelyusednow
foravoidingtheretypingofdocuments.
OCSP~OnlineCertificateStatusProtoco~anInternetprotocolusedforobtainingthe
revocationstatusofanX.509digitalcertificate
OCTAVE~OperationallyCriticalThreat,Asset,andVulnerabilityEvaluation~
Approachforself-directedriskevaluationsthatputsorganizationsincharge,balances
criticalinformationassets,businessneeds,threats,andvulnerabilitiesandmeasuresthe
organizationagainstknownoracceptedgoodsecuritypractices
OCX~OLEÂCustomControls~VisualBasicadd-oncomponentsbasedonMicrosoft’s
OLEsetofinterfaces.
ODA~OpenDocumentArchitecture~AnISOstandardfordocumentswhichallowsfor
thetransferoftext,graphics,andfacsimilesbetweenplatforms.
ODBC~OpenDatabaseConnectivity~Withallthedifferenttypesofdatabases
available,suchasMicrosoftAccess,Filemaker,andMySQL,itisimportanttohavea
standardwayoftransferringdatatoandfromeachkindofdatabase.
ODBO~OLEÂDBforÂOLAP~AMicrosoftspecificationforastandardinterfaceto
OLAPengines.Publishedin1997,OBDOparalleledMicrosoft’sODBCstrategyfor
accesstorelationaldatabases.
ODC~Offshoredevelopmentcenter~Anoperationsetupforaspecificorganizationby
aserviceprovider,whichdedicatesassetsandresourcesspecificallytothatsingleclient,in
exchangeforguaranteesofsteadywork.
ODD~opticaldiskdrive~Acomputerdevicethatreadsfrom,andstoresinformationon,
opticalstoragemedia.
ODF~OpenDocument~suiteofopen,XML-basedofficesuiteapplicationformats
definedbytheOASISconsortium.Itdefinesaplatform-neutral,non-proprietarywayof
storingdocuments.
ODI~OpenData-linkInterface~anAPIdevelopedbyAppleandNovellforwriting
networkdrivers.LikeNDIS,ODIprovidesrulesthatestablishavendor-neutralinterface
betweentheprotocolstackandtheadapterdriver.
ODM~OriginalDesignManufacturer~acompanythatproducesproductsforanother
firmthatwillsellthemunderitsbrandname
ODMR~On-DemandMailRelay~ane-mailservicethatallowsausertorequeste-mail
fromanyinternetconnectionbyusingadynamicIPaddressasopposedtoastaticIP
address.
ODOE~ondemandoperatingenvironment~Thetechnologyinfrastructureneededto
supportanondemandbusiness.
ODP~OpenDataPath~Provideawayformorethanoneprograminthesamejobto
sharethesamefilestatusinformation
ODPS~OnDemandPackagingService~IntranetSoftwaredistributionsolutionbyIBM
OEM~OracleEnterpriseManager~integratesmultipleproductsintoacomplete
APM/BTMsolution.
OEM~OriginalEquipmentManufacturer~Afirmwhichmakespartsthatotherfirms
incorporateintotheirowngearorcompleteequipmentthattheseotherfirmssellunder
theirownbrandname.
OEP~OutlookExchangeProtocol~aremoteprocedurecallinstantiationofthe
MicrosoftMessagingAPIprotocol
OFB~outputfeedback~Incryptography,OFBisamodeofoperationforablockcipher.
Ithassomesimilaritiestotheciphertextfeedbackmodeinthatitpermitsencryptionof
differingblocksizes,buthasthekeydifferencethattheoutputoftheencryptionblock
functionisthefeedback.
OFCom~OfficeofCommunications~theofficialregulatingbodyforTV,radioand
other‘communicationindustries’intheUK.www.ofcom.org.uk
OFDM/OFDMA~OrthogonalFrequency-Divisionmultiplexing(/MultipleAccess)~a
frequency-divisionmultiplexingschemeusedasadigitalmulti-carriermodulation
method.
OFM~OracleFusionMiddleware~OracleFusionMiddleware
OFX~OpenFinancialExchange~Anopenspecificationforonlinetransferoffinancial
data,combiningMicrosoft’sOpenFinancialConnectivity,Intuit’sOpenExchange,and
CheckFree’selectronicbankingandpaymentprotocols.
OGL~OpenGraphicsLanguage~Single,vendor-independentAPIforthedevelopment
of2Dand3Dgraphicsapplications
OGSA~OpenGridServicesArchitecture~Awell-definedsetofbasicinterfacesthatis
thebasisforconstructingvarioussystemsandisusedtodescribeextensibility,vendor
neutrality,andcommitmenttoacommunitystandardizationprocess.
OHG~OperatorsHarmonizationGroup~agroupofindustryoperatorsestablishedto
meetonharmonizationissues.Thegroupisworkingtowardsawayofharmonisation
betweenCDMA2000andW-CDMA.
OIC~OracleIncentiveCompensation~thestandardsalesICMofferingbeingactively
soldandmarketedtotheOracleinstalledbase,includingSiebelandPeopleSoftcustomers
OID~ObjectIdentifier~OIDsidentifyindividualentries,orobjects,withintheMIB.
OIDsarespecifiedusingan‘x,y’namingconvention,definedbyAbstractSyntaxNotation
One(ASN.1).
OLAP~onlineanalyticalprocessing~Acategoryofbusinessintelligencetoolsusedto
analyzedata.OLAPtoolsareclient-andserver-basedanalysistoolsthatoriginallywere
basedonmultidimensionaldatabasesbuttodaycanbebasedonrelationaldatabases,most
oftenoverlaidbyanindexingormappingschemethatemulatesanMDDB.
OLE~ObjectLinkingandEmbedding~AMicrosoftprotocolthatenablescreationof
compounddocumentswithembeddedlinkstoapplications,sothatauserdoesnothaveto
switchfromoneapplicationtoanothertomakerevisions.
OLE~ObjectLinkingandEmbedding~aWindowstechnologythatallowsnotonlythe
creationofcompounddocumentswithdataoriginatingfrommorethanoneprogram,but
alsotheeditingofcut-and-pastedatausingtheoriginatingapplicationprogramwithout
leavingthehostprogram.
OLED~organiclight-emittingdiode~LEDdisplaystechnology
OLIC~onlineimagecopy~Theprocessofcreatinganimagecopywhilethedatabaseis
online.
OLIC~onlineimagecopy~Theimagecopycreatedbytheonlineimagecopyprocess.
OLIVE~On-LineInteractiveVirtualEnvironment~InFebruary2010,SAICacquired
ForterraSystemsInc.‘sOLIVEproductline.
OLPC~OneLaptopPerChild~initiativeaimedatprovidinginexpensivelaptop
computerstochildreninthedevelopingworldasameansofbridgingthedigitaldivide.
OLPCwasfoundedbyNicholasNegroponte,alsofounderofMITMediaLab.The
initiativewasannouncedattheWorldEconomicForuminDavos,SwitzerlandinJanuary
2005.Âwww.laptop.org
OLTP~On-LineTransactionProcessing~Anynumberof(typicallymany)concurrent
usersaddingandmodifyingdata.Typicallyincludesorderprocessing,banking,stocks,
ande-commerceapplications.
OMA~OpenMashupAlliance~aconsortiumofindividualsandorganizationsdedicated
tothesuccessfuluseofEnterpriseMashuptechnologiesÂwww.openmashup.org
OMG~ObjectManagementGroup~aconsortiumofhundredsofcomputercompanies
thatdevelopstandardsforsoftwarecomponentstointeract
OMH~ordermanagementhub~productforeffcientandefectivedeliveryofsalesorders
OML~OntologyMarkupLanguage~AnevolutionofSimpleHTMLOntology
Extensions(SHOE)toExtensibleMarkupLanguage(XML).
OMR~OpticalMarkReader~Ascanningdevicethatcanreadmarkssuchaspencil
marksonapage;usedtoreadformsandmultiple-choicequestionnaires.
OMSA~OpenManageServerAdministrator~SuiteoftoolsprovidedbyDellfor
managinganindividualserver.SeetheofficialOpenManage
site,Âhttp://dell.com/openmanage/
OMT~ObjectModelingTechnique~Amodelinglanguageusedtodevelopobjectorientedmodels.
ONA~Organizationalnetworkanalysis~oneformofSNA,typicallyusedtostudythe
informalsocialnetworksofgroupsworkinginthesameenterprise.
ONE~OpenNetEnvironment~SunMicrosystems’implementationofan‘integratable’
stackofsoftware,hardwareandservicestodeliveronthecompany’stwomainvisions‘thenetworkisthecomputer’andservicesondemand.
OO~object-orientedorobjectorientation~Anumbrellaconceptusedtodescribeasuite
oftechnologiesthatenablesoftwaretobehighlymodularandreusable
OOA&D~Object-orientedanalysisanddesign~methodologiesusedbyITprofessionals
toconvertbusinessprocessesandrequirementsintosoftwaresolutionsintheformof
objects,componentsandservices.
OOB~OutOfBand~Pertainingtouser-specificdatathathasmeaningonlyfor
connection-oriented(stream)sockets.Theservergenerallyreceivesstreamdatainthe
sameorderthatitwassent.
OOB~OutOfBand~Pertainingtosignalsthatarecarriedwithinthetelephonysignaling
channel,asopposedtothevoicechannel.
OOB~OutOfBand~Communicationthatoccursthroughamodemorother
asynchronousconnection
OOB~OutOfBand~TheprocessofdiscoveringSANdata,includingtopologyand
devicedata,withoutusingtheFibreChanneldatapaths
OODB~Object-OrientedDataBase~Adatabaseinwhichdataisstoredasobjectsinan
object-orientedprogrammingenvironment,andwhichismanagedbyanobject-oriented
databasemanagementsystem.
OOF~OutOfFrame~StatethatoccurswhenseveralconsecutiveSynchronousDigital
Hierarchy(SDH)framesarereceivedwithinvalid(errored)framingpatterns
OOo~OpenOffice.org~Thisis-thewebsiteofÂOpenOffice,whichisanopensource
officesuiteofofficetools(wordprocessor,spreadsheetetc).Notethatthisisnormally
writtenas‘OOo’(notethelowercaseoasthethirdletter.)Âwww.openoffice.org
OOP~object-orientedprogramming~Atypeofprogrammingthatcombinesdata
structureswithfunctionstocreatereusableobjects.Itworkssomethinglikethis:
Programmerscancreatemodulesthatdonotneedtobechangedwhenanewtypeof
objectisadded.
OOSE~ObjectOrientedSoftwareEngineering~Providesanapproachtoobject-oriented
analysisanddesignthatfocusesonusecases.
OPA~OpenPatentAlliance~groupofcompaniesformedin2008topromote
developmentofWIMAXInternetuse.Webaddress:Âwww.openpatentalliance.com
OPA~OraclePolicyAutomation~Oracle’sSocialServicesofferings,providing
eligibilityandentitlementcalculations
Opamp~OperationalAmplifier~originallydesignedtocarryoutmathematical
operationsinanalogcomputers,suchascalculatingpositionsandco-ordinates.Ithowever
hasbeenfoundtohavenumerousotherapplications.
op-code~OperationCode~Partofacomputerinstructionwordthatdesignatesthe
functionperformedbyaspecificinstruction.
OpenCL~OpenComputingLanguage~Astandards-basedtechnologyforperforming
general-purposecomputationsonacomputer’sgraphicsprocessor.
OpenGL~OpenGraphicsLibrary~3DgraphicslanguagedevelopedbySilicon
Graphics.WithOpenGL,developerscancreategraphicsandspecialeffectsthatwill
appearnearlyidenticalonanyoperatingsystemandanyhardwarethatsupportsOpenGL.
OPML~OutlineProcessorMarkupLanguage~XML-basedformatthatallowsexchange
ofoutline-structuredinformationbetweenapplicationsrunningondifferentoperating
systemsandenvironments
OPN~OraclePartnerNetwork~OraclePartnerNetwork
OPOD~OracleProcurementOnDemand~deliverymethodsforanalyticsandEBS
application.
OPS~OffPremiseStation~APBXstationinalocationseparatedfromthelocationof
themainPBX
OPX~OffPremiseExtension~Atelephonelinefromthephonesystemterminatedina
differentbuildingthanthephonesystem.
ORB~ObjectRequestBroker~Aprogramthatcontrolsthecommunicationbetweena
clientandanobjectonaserver.ORBisastandardoftheObjectManagementGroup
(OMG).
ORBS~OpenRelayBehaviour-modificationSystem~alistofopenrelaysthatareused
byspammers-networkscanusethislisttoblockmailfromthose
sitesÂhttp://www.orbs.org/
ORDB~OpenRelayDataBase~Aservicetofightagainstspamorunsolicited
commercialemail(UCE).Seehttp://www.ordb.org/
ORF~Openreadingframe~thesequenceofDNAorRNAthatislocatedbetweenthe
initiationcodon(start-codesequence)andterminationcodon(stop-codesequence).
ORFS~OutputRadioFrequencySpectrum~ameasurementforGSMsignalsthattests
forinterferenceintheadjacentfrequencychannels(ARFCNs)
ORM~Object/RelationalMapping~Techniqueofmappingadatarepresentationfroman
objectmodeltoarelationaldatamodelwithaSQL-basedschema
ORM~operationalriskmanagement~processstandardizationandmonitoring,allocation
ofcapitalastheresultofrisk-basedperformanceandeconomicanalysis
OS~OperatingSystem~Theunderlyingsoftwarethatallowstheuserandthecomputer
tointeract.TheOSisthesoftwareplatformnecessaryforthecomputertorun.Itallows
thecomputer’shardwareandsoftwareapplicationstocommunicate.
OSA~OpenSystemArchitecture~partofthe3GUMTSmobiletelecommunications
network.OSAdescribeshowservicesarearchitectedinaUMTSnetwork.
OSAF~OpenSourceApplicationsFoundation~Organizationthataimstocreateand
gainwideadoptionofOpenSourceapplicationsoftwareofuncompromisingqualityand
tobuildaninnovative,sustainablealternativeapplicationdespitemarketinertia.See
alsoÂhttp://www.osafoundation.org/
OSD~OnScreenDisplay~atermdescribingthemenuthatpopsuponmanynewer
generationmonitorstogivedigitalcontrolfunctions,asopposedtoanalogcontrol
functions,toadjustandsetthecharacteristicsofthemonitor.
OSD~OpenSoftwareDescription~AnapplicationoftheXML,isavocabularyusedfor
describingsoftwarepackagesandtheirdependenciesforheterogeneousclients
OSDL~OpenSourceDevelopmentLab~Non-profit,globalconsortiumofleading
technologycompaniesdedicatedtoacceleratingtheadoptionofLinux.
SeeÂhttp://www.osdl.org/
OSF~OpenSoftwareFoundation~Afoundationcreatedbyninecomputervendors,
(Apollo,DEC,Hewlett-Packard,IBM,Bull,Nixdorf,Philips,SiemensandHitachi)to
promote‘OpenComputing’.
OSGi~OpenServicesGatewayInitiative~Independent,non-profitcorporationworking
todefineandpromoteopenspecificationsforthedeliveryofmanagedbroadbandservices
tonetworksinhomes,carsandotherenvironments.SeealsoÂhttp://www.osgi.org
OSI~OpenSystemInterconnect(jointISOandITUstandard)~Organization-ISO/IEC
9594-5:2005OpenSystemsInterconnectionProtocolSpecifications
OSI~OpenSystemsInterconnection~AmodeldevelopedbytheInternational
OrganizationforStandardization(ISO)forcommunications,OSIoffersastandard,
modularapproachtonetworkdesignthatdividestherequiredsetofcomplexfunctions
intomanageable,selfcontained,functionallayers.
OSLC~OpenServicesforLifecycleCollaboration~IBMdevelopedopenintegration
standard
OSMINE~OperationsSystemsModificationofIntelligentNetworkElements~
OSMINEisaprocedurebyTelcordiatoensurecompatibilitywiththelatter’svarious
operatingsystems.
OSN~outputsequencenumber~Anumberassignedbyasystemtoamessagesentby
thesystem.
OSPF~OpenShortestPathFirst(routingprotocol)~InternetLayer-RFC2238
OSPF~OpenShortestPathFirst~OSPFisamethodoffindingtheshortestpathfrom
oneroutertoanotherinalocalareanetwork(LAN).AslongasanetworkisIP-based,the
OSPFalgorithmwillcalculatethemostefficientwayfordatatobetransmitted.
OSPM~OperatingSystemPowerManagement~amajorsegmentintheeffortknownas
ACPI.OSPMisanindustryefforttoreturnmanagementandmonitoringofthecomputer
powerinterfacecontrolfromtheBIOStotheuseratanoperatingsystemlevel.
OSS~OnlineServiceSystem~Anonlinesystemthatoffersserviceinformation,error
notesanddownloadablepatchesforR/3andotherSAPproducts.
OSS~Opensourcesoftware~Softwarethatcanberun,distributedandmodifiedwithout
afee.Restrictionsareoftenapplied-intheformofan‘open-sourcelicense’-toprofits
orcommercialfeesforanyproductbuiltonabaseoffreesoftware
OSSIM~OpenSourceSecurityInformationManagement~Distributionofopensource
productsthatareintegratedtoprovideaninfrastructureforsecuritymonitoring.See
alsoÂhttp://www.ossim.net/
OST~OutsideSurfaceTemperature~Thisisusedintheelectronicsindustrytomeanthe
surfacetemperatureofacomponent.ItisgenerallyusedinconjunctionwithCPUs.
OTA~OverTheAir~standardforthetransmissionandreceptionofapplication-related
informationinawirelesscommunicationssystem.ThestandardissupportedbyNokia,
SmartTrust,andothers.
OTDR~OpticalTimeDomainReflectometer~aninstrumentthatanalyzesthelightloss
inanopticalfiber.AnOTDRtraceshowsfiberattenuationforthesystemandlocationand
magnitudeofanylossesfromsplices,connectors,andfiberanomaliesorfiber
discontinuities.
OTFE~On-the-flyencryption~alsoknownasReal-timeEncryption,isamethodused
bysomeencryptionprograms,forexample,diskencryptionsoftware
OTM~OracleTransportationManagement~OracleTransportationManagement
OTN~OpticalTransportNetwork~asetofOpticalNetworkElements(3R)connected
byopticalfibrelinks,abletoprovidefunctionalityoftransport,multiplexing,switching,
management,supervisionandsurvivabilityofopticalchannelscarryingclientsignals.
OTP~OneTimePassword~Apasswordwhichcanbeusedonceonly.Aonetime
passwordisasecuritymeasure.
OTP~one-timeprogrammable~Describesanyprogrammabledevice,likeaPROMora
PLD,thatcanbeprogrammedjustoncebytheenduser.
OTP~OpenTradingProtocol~TheInternetOTPprovidesaninteroperableframework
forInternetcommerce.Itispaymentsystemindependentandencapsulatespayment
systemssuchasSET,Mondex,CyberCash,DigiCash,GeldKarte,etc.
OTS~Over-the-Shoulder~AfeatureinVistawhereinauseristreatedasastandarduser
untilheneedstoperformataskthatrequireselevatedprivilege.Thentheuserispromoted
toenterthecredentialstotheaccountthathassuchprivilegetoperformthetask.
OU~organizationalunit~Aunitwithinanorganization,suchasacompany,that
identifiesaparticularsetofusers.
OU~organizationalunit~AnActiveDirectorycontainerobjectusedwithindomains.An
organizationalunitisalogicalcontainerintowhichusers,groups,computers,andother
organizationalunitsareplaced.
OU~organizationalunit~Abodywhosedataistobekeptseparatefromthatofother,
similarbodies.WebSphereBIforFNusesOUstocontrolaccesstoresources,andto
ensuredatasegregation.
OU~organizationalunit~Oneofthetypesofsubsidiaryentitiesthatcanbeaddedtoan
organization.
OUI~OrganizationUniqueIdentifier~Linkandotherlayers-IEEEOUIAssignments
OUI~OrganizationallyUniqueIdentifier~24-bitvalueassignedtoanorganizationby
theÂIEEE.ItisusedaspartofÂMACÂaddress.
OVF~OpenVirtualizationFormat~Standardformatforpackaginganddescribing
virtualmachinesandapplicationsfordeploymentacrossheterogeneousvirtualization
platforms
OVP~onlinevideoplatform~onlinevideoplatform
OWA~OutlookWebAccess~ProvidesaccesstoemailsstoredinaMicrosoftExchange
server(acrossanintranetorinternet)viaawebbrowser.OWArequiresthefollowingports
tobeopenedinanyfirewallprotectingtheExchangeserver:ports80(HTTP),135(OWA)
and443(SSL)
OWASP~OpenWebApplicationSecurityProject~Worldwidefreeandopencommunity
focusedonimprovingthesecurityofapplicationsoftware.See
alsoÂhttp://www.owasp.org/
OWI~OptimizedWarehouseInitiative~PANTASystemswasafoundationmemberof
theOracleInformationApplianceInitiative,sincerenamedtheOracleOWI.Asof2008,
OWImembersincludedDell/EMC,HP,IBM,SGI,andSun.
OWL~WebOntologyLanguage~WWWConsortium,Standardsforsemantic
reconciliation
OXE~OmniPCXEnterprise~Alcatel-Lucent’scommerciallyplatformforenterprise
telephony
~P~
P&S~PointAndShoot~Digitalcameratype
p2mp~point-to-multipoint~Communicationbetweenaseriesofreceiversand
transmitterstoacentrallocation.ÂCiscop2mptypicallyissetupinthreesegmentsto
enablefrequencyre-use.CiscooffersMMDS,U-NII,andLMDSsystemsinp2mp.
P2P~PeertoPeer~InaP2Pnetwork,the‘peers’arecomputersystemswhichare
connectedtoeachotherviatheInternet.Filescanbeshareddirectlybetweensystemson
thenetworkwithouttheneedofacentralserver.
P2SC~Power2SuperChip~IBM’sDeepBlueprocessor
P3P~PlatformforPrivacyPreferences~protocolthatspecifiesawaytodetermineifa
Website’ssecuritypoliciesmeetauser’sprivacyrequirements.P3PincludesamachinereadablevocabularyandsyntaxthatcanbeusedtodescribeWebsitesecuritypoliciesand
consumers’self-identifiedprivacypreferences.
P4M~Pentium4Processor-M~theprocessorwasspecificallydesignedforuseina
laptop.Itincludeslowpowertechnologiesthathelpextendbatterylife.
PaaS~platform-as-a-service~Anexternallyhostedserviceprovidingacomplete
platformtocreate,run,andoperateapplications,includingdevelopmenttools,
administrationandmanagementtools,runtimeengine,datamanagementengine,security
facilities,anduser-managementservices.
PABX/PBX~privateautomaticbranchexchange~atelephoneswitchonacustomer’s
premisesthatprimarilyestablishesvoice-gradecircuits-overaccesslinestoatelephone
companyCO-betweenindividualusersandthePSTN.Â
PAC~ProxyAuto-Configuration~APACfile(whichisa.jsfile)providesameansto
allowbrowserproxyconfigurationtobeconfiguredthroughtheuseofasingleJavaScript
functionFindProxyForURL()Conceptuallyeachtimethebrowserneedstodownloadan
item,itcallsFindProxyForURL()todeterminehowtheitemcanbedownloaded.
PACE~pressures,action,capabilitiesandenablers~indicatecorporatebehaviorin
specificbusinessprocesses
PAD~PacketAssemblerandDisassembler~Deviceperformingtheinterfacebetween
X.25datanetworkandasynchronousdevicesuchaspersonalcomputer.Assemblesuser
dataintopacketswithidentifyinginformationusedtocontrolrouting.
PAE~PhysicalAddressingExtension~ExtensionforWindows2000/2003Advanced
Servertoaddressmorethan4GBofmemory
PAL~PhaseAlternateLine~AcolortelevisionbroadcastingsystemdevelopedinWest
GermanyandtheUnitedKingdomthatuses650picturelinesanda50-hertzfield
frequency.
PAL~ProcessorAbstractionLayer~Containsthecodenecessarytoinitiallybootthe
processorandincludeserrorrecoveryandprocessorself-testroutines
PAL~PublicationAccessList~SQLServerreplicationsecuritymechanism
PAM~PerformanceAccelerationÂModule~formerlyÂNetApp’sFlashCache
PAM~PerformanceAccelerationÂModule~afeatureoftheCiscoÂIOSÂFirewallthat
allowsyoutocustomizeTCPorUDPportnumbersfornetworkservicesorapplications.
PAM~PorttoApplicationMapping~AUNIXprogramminginterfacethatenablesthirdpartysecuritymethodstobeused.
PAM~pluggableauthenticationmodule~Aformofsignalmodulationinwhichthedata
isencodedintheamplitudeofaseries,ortrain,ofregularlyrecurrentsignalpulses.
PAM~pulseamplitudemodulation~Aformofsignalmodulationinwhichthedatais
encodedintheamplitudeofaseries,ortrain,ofregularlyrecurrentsignalpulses.
PAN~PersonalAreaNetwork~ExperimentaltechnologyindevelopmentatIBM,it
allowsinformationdevicestodiscreetlycommunicateandsynchronizewithoneanother
whenincloseproximity(usingthehumanbodyasanantenna).
PAP~Passwordauthenticationprotocol~Security-RFC1334
PAP~PasswordAuthenticationProtocol~Asecurityprotocolthatusespassword
authenticationtoallowaccesstoanetworkorhost.InthePAPauthenticationprocedure,
anID/passwordpairisrepeatedlysentbytheclienttothehostuntilverificationis
received.
PAP~PrinterAccessProtocol~ThestandardprotocolbasedonAppleTalkthatisusedon
MacOSX,MacOSXServer,andotherplatformsfortransmittingprintjobdatatoa
printerorprintserver.
PA-QSA~PaymentApplicationQualifiedSecurityAssessor~companyapprovedbythe
PCISSCtoconductassessmentsonpaymentapplicationsagainstthePA-DSS.
PARC~PaloAltoResearchCenter~Xeroxresearchcenterfamedforhavingdeveloped
thefirstGUIinthe1970s.
PaRM~Patientrelationshipmanagement~centralrepositoryforpatientdata,therapy,
educationalcontent,andalertmechanismsforthepatient.
PASC~PortableApplicationsStandardsCommittee~agroupwithintheIEEE.PASCis
thegroupthathasandcontinuestodevelopthePOSIXfamilyofstandards.Seethem
atÂHTTP://WWW.PASC.ORG.
PASV~Passive(command)~aftpcommandthatrequeststhattheserver‘listen’ona
dataport(whichisnotitsdefaultdataport)andtowaitforaconnectionratherthaninitiate
oneuponreceiptofatransfercommand.
PAT~Portaddresstranslation~InternetLayer-RFC1918
PAT~PerformanceAccelerationTechnology~Speedsdataflowbetweentheprocessor
andsystemmemorytoincreaseperformance.IntroducedwiththeIntel875Pchipset
PAT~portaddresstranslation~TypeofNATthatalsotranslatestheportnumbers.
PAVCL~PandaAntivirusCommand-LineScanner~theanti-malwareandheuristic
enginefromÂPanda.
PB~PetaByte~2tothe50thpowerbytes.Isequalto1024terabytes
PBM~pharmacybenefitsmanagement~Acategoryofhealthcareservicesthatinvolves
themanagingthedeliveryofpharmacyanddrug-relatedbenefitsformembersofa
managedcareorpayerplans.
PBN~policy-basednetworking~Theapplicationofbusinessrulestogovernnetwork
performance.
PBX~privatebranchexchange~seePABX
PC~Personalcomputer(host)~Hardware-
PC~PersonalComputer~Acomputersystemusedprimarilybyoneperson.
PCB~PrintedCircuitBoard~Asubstrateonwhichapre-determinedinterconnect
patternhasbeenformed,usedtoassembleandconnecttogetherICsandotherelectronic
componentsintoasubassembly
PCCW~(formerly)PacificCenturyCyberWorks~theholdingcompanyofHKTGroup
HoldingsLimited,HongKong’spremiertelecommunicationsproviderin
theÂICTÂindustry.Âhttp://www.pccw.com/
PCD~PhotoCompactDisc~FileformatfordigitizedphotosbyKodak
PCI~PeripheralComponentInterconnect~Theindustrystandardsystembus
architecturethatisusedinmostdesktopandservermodels.PCIprovidesfaster
communicationsbetweentheprocessorandcomponents(suchasmemory,diskandvideo)
thantheoriginalIBMbus,IndustryStandardArchitecture(ISA)
PCIDSS~PaymentCardIndustryDataSecurityStandard~Acommonindustrysecurity
standarddevelopedfromacollaborationbetweenVisaandMasterCard.cfCISP.
PCI-E~PeripheralComponentInterconnect-Express~NewinterfacereplacingPCIand
AGP,maxbandwidthof500MB/sec
PCL~PrinterCommandLanguage~acommandlanguagethatwasdevelopedby
Hewlett-PackardforcontrollingHewlett-Packardprinters.EachPCLcommandconsistsof
anescapekeyfollowedbyaseriesofcodenumbers.
PCM~Pulse-codemodulation~Physicallayer-ITU-TG.711
PCM~PulseCodeModulation~themethodofachievingtheconnectionspeedof56K
modems.
PCMCIA~PersonalComputerMemoryCardInternationalAssociation~Anindustry
association.Thetermisalsousedasshorthandforthestandardithasdevisedforplug-in
devicestobeconnectedtonotebookPCs.Thesecanincludemodems,networkcardsand
harddisks.PCMCIAdevicesarenowknownasPC-Cards.www.pcmcia.org
PCR~PeakCellRate~ThePeakCellRate,incells/sec,isthecellratewhichthesource
mayneverexceed.
PCRE~Perl-compatibleregularexpressions~Aspecialpatternofcharactersfor
describingsearchesandmanipulatingtext.
PCS~PersonalCommunicationsService~Awirelessphoneservicesomewhatsimilarto
cellulartelephoneservice.It’ssometimesreferredtoasdigitalcellular.Likecellular,PCS
isformobileusersandrequiresanumberofantennastoblanketanareaofcoverage.Â
PCT~PrivateCommunicationTechnology~Microsoft’sproprietaryalternativetoÂSSL.
EnablesaclientbrowsertocommunicateprivatelywithaWebserveroveranencrypted
channel.
PDA~PersonalDigitalAssistant~PDAaresmallportablecomputerswhichcanbeheld
inthehandandarealsoreferredtoashandheldorPocketcomputers.
PDB~ProgramDataBase~Microsoft’sformatfordebugindormation,notembeddedin
theobjectfileorexecutable
PDC~Personaldigitalcellular~a2Gmobile-phonestandarddevelopedandused
exclusivelyinJapan.
PDC~PrimaryDomainController~Providesuser/computerdomainauthentication
PDE~possibleduplicateemission~Apaymentthathasbeenidentifiedasapossible
duplicateofanotherpayment,becausethecontentsofcertainfieldsorcombinationsof
fieldsinbothpaymentsareidenticalorsimilar.
PDF~PortableDocumentFormat~amulti-platformfileformatdevelopedbyAdobe
Systems.APDFfilecapturesdocumenttext,fonts,images,andevenformattingof
documentsfromavarietyofapplications.
PDH~PlesiochronousDigitalHierarchy~atechnologyusedintelecommunications
networkstotransportlargequantitiesofdataoverdigitaltransportequipmentsuchasfibre
opticandmicrowaveradiosystems.
PDL~PureDumbLuck~aprogrammer’sorsystemengineer’sbestfriendwhenitcomes
tofixingthings.
PDM~PureDigitalMonitor~Monitorhasnoanalogcapability.
PDN~PrimaryDirectoryNumber~Thetelephonenumberthatthephysicaltelephoneset
isassociatedwith.Generally,thefirsttelephonenumberlistedonamulti-lineset.
PDN~publicdatanetwork~Acommunicationscommoncarriernetworkthatprovides
datacommunicationsservicesoverswitchedornonswitchedlines.
PDN~publicdatanetwork~Anetworkoperatedbyagovernmentorprivateorganization
toprovidecomputercommunicationstothepublic,usuallyforafee.
PDP~PolicyDecisionPoint~Thepointwherepolicydecisionsaremade,responsiblefor
handlingpolicydecisionsonbehalfofPEPs
PDQ~ProductDataQuality~OracleMDMterm(developedasaresultofitsacquisition
in2009ofSilverCreekSystems,islicensedbasedonthenumberofprocessors)
PDS~partitioneddataset~Adatasetondirectaccessstoragethatisdividedinto
partitions,calledmembers,eachofwhichcancontainaprogram,partofaprogram,or
data.
PDU~Protocoldataunit(suchassegment,packet,frame,etc.)~Multiplelayers-Fed
Std1037C
PDU~ProtocolDataUnit~Messageofagivenprotocolcomprisingpayloadand
protocol-specificcontrolinformation,typicallycontainedinheader.Passesoverprotocol
interfacesthatexistbetweenlayersofprotocols(perOSImodel).
PEAP~ProtectedExtensibleAuthenticationProtocol~Aprotocolproposedby
Microsoft,CiscoandRSASecurityforsecurelytransportingauthenticationdata,including
passwords,over802.11wirelessnetworks
PEARL~ProcessandExperimentAutomationRealtimeLanguage~Processand
ExperimentAutomationRealtimeLanguage
PEF~PreferredExecutableFormat~AnexecutableformatunderstoodbytheCode
FragmentManager.
PEM~PrivacyEnhancedMail~PrivacyEnhancedMail
PEP~PolicyEnforcementPoint~Aportonanetworkdevicewherethepolicydecisions
areactuallyenforced
PEP~programentryprocedure~Aprocedureprovidedbythecompilerthatistheentry
pointforanILEprogramonadynamicprogramcall.
Perl~PracticalExtractionandReportLanguage~Perlisaprogramminglanguagethatis
widelyusedforbothverysimple,smalltasksandforverylargecomplexapplications.
PERT~ProgramEvaluationandReviewTechnique~amethodforprojectplanningby
analyzingthetimerequiredforeachstep.Itisalsocalled‘criticalpathmethod’.
PET~PersonalElectronicTransactor~anearly(circa1977-1980,aroundthesametime
astheApple][)homecomputerfeaturingaROM-basedBASICdevelopedbyMicrosoft
whichitusesasadefault‘OS’.
PFKey~ProgramFunctionKey~keyboardshortcutkeysforVM/CMS.
PFM~personalfinancialmanagement~Acategoryofdesktopapplicationsusedto
managepersonalfinances.ExamplesincludeIntuit’sÂQuickenandMicrosoftMoney.
PFS~Public-KeyForwardSecrecy~Forakeyagreementprotocolbasedonasymmetric
cryptography,thepropertythatensuresthatasessionkeyderivedfromasetoflong-term
publicandprivatekeyswillnotbecompromisedifoneoftheprivatekeysiscompromised
inthefuture.
PGI~PremiereGlobalServices,Inc.~globalproviderofconferencingandcollaboration
solutions.Âhttp://www.pgi.com/
PGP~PrettyGoodPrivacy~Anelectronictransferprotocolthatallowsfortheprivate
exchangeoffilesormailusingpublickeyencryption.
PGR~presentationgraphicsroutines~Agroupofroutineswithintheoperatingsystem
thatallowsbusinesschartstobedefinedanddisplayedprocedurallythroughfunction
routines.
pgSQL~PostgreSQL~Anopensourceobject-relationaldatabasemanagementsystem
developedinthelate1980’swhichsupportstheSQLstandard.
PHB~Per-Hop-Behavior~Theforwardingtreatmentgiventoaspecificclassoftraffic,
basedoncriteriadefinedintheDifferentiatedServicefield.Routersandswitchesuse
PHBstodetermineprioritiesforservicingvarioustrafficflows
PHI~ProtectedHealthInformation~PHIisatermusedinÂHIPAAÂmeaning
individuallyidentifiablehealthinformationthatistransmittedormaintainedbyelectronic
mediaoristransmittedormaintainedinanyotherformormedium.
PHP~PHPHypertextPreprocessor(originallyPersonalHomePage)~PHPisa
programminglanguageusedalmostexclusivelyforcreatingsoftwarethatispartof
aÂwebsite.ThePHPlanguageisdesignedtobeintermingledwiththeÂHTMLÂthatis
usedtocreateÂwebpages.SeealsoÂhttp://www.php.net/
PHS~PersonalHandyPhoneSystem~PersonalcommunicationssystemusedinJapan
asbothadigitalcordlessphoneinhomesandofficesandasacellularphoneoutdoors.
PHY~PhysicalLayer~Thephysicallayerprovidesfortransmissionofcellsovera
physicalmediumconnectingtwoATMdevices.
PHZIP~PhilKatz’sZIP~anarchivingtooloriginallywrittenbythelatePhilKatz,and
marketedbyhiscompanyPKWARE,Inc.ThefirstversionofPKZIPappearedin1989.
PiB~pebibyte~1,125,899,906,842,624bytes.1024tebibytes.
PIC~Position-IndependentCode~Afilecontainingobjectcodethatisalmostreadyfor
executiononthetarget.Thefinalremainingstepistousealocatororloadertofixthe
remainingrelocatableaddresseswithinthecode.
Picnic~ProblemInChair,NotInComputer~Anabbreviationindicatingthataproblem
wasnotcomputerrelatedbutlieswiththepersoninthechair,i.e.auserrelatedproblem.
PID~ProcessID~AnumberassignedtoaUNIXprocesswhenitstarts.ThePIDallows
youtorefertotheprocessatalatertime.
PID~ProportionalIntegralDerivative~Athree-parttechniquefordesigningcontrol
systemsthatusefeedback.
PIE~Presence,IdentityandEdge~Coreconstituentsofpeertopeer(P2P)applications
PII~personallyidentifiableinformation~PIIisanydataaboutanindividualthatcould,
potentiallyidentifythatperson,suchasaname,Â…
PIM~Personalinformationmanager~Softwarecategory-
PIM~PrivilegedIdentityManagement~Softwarecategory-
PIM~PersonalInformationManager~APIMisasoftwareapplicationthatservesasa
planner,notebook,andaddressbookallinone.
PIM~ProtocolIndependentMulticast~IProutingprotocol-independentandcan
leveragewhicheverunicastroutingprotocolsareusedtopopulatetheunicastrouting
table,includingEIGRP,OSPF,BGP,andstaticroutes
PIN~personalidentificationnumber~Anumericcode-typedonanautomatedteller
machineortelephonekeypad,oracomputerkeyboard-usedtogainaccesstopersonal
fundsorinformation.
PINE~ProgramforInternetNewsandE-Mail~acharacter-basedE-Mailclientfor
UNIXsystems.DevelopedattheUniversityofWashington,PINEreplacesanolderEMailprogramcalledelm.
ping~PacketInternetorInter-NetworkGroper~Tocheckifaserverisrunning.From
thesoundthatasonarsystemsmakesinmovies,youknow,whentheyaresearchingfora
submarine.
PIO~ProgrammedInput/Output~amethodoftransferringdatabetweentwodevices
thatusesthecomputer’smainprocessoraspartofthedatapath.
PIPE~PrivateInternetProtocolEncapsulation~ExtensionofRFC2003(IP
EncapsulationwithinIP)whichallowstoencapsulateanddecapsulateprivateIPaddresses
inthesamewayasdescribedinRFC2003,andtotransferthemacrossthepublicInternet
PIPs~processintegrationpacks~OracleSiebel’sfeatureintegratingbusinessprocesses
betweenSiebelCRMandotherOracleapplications.
PIX~PrivateInterneteXchange~PopularIPfirewallandNATappliance,thedesignof
whichwasacquiredbyCiscosystemsin1995.
pixel/pel~PictureElement~Apixelisthesmallestunitofinformationinadigital
image,resemblingatinysquare.
pixel/pel~PictureElement~Anelementofarasterpatternaboutwhichatonedareaon
aphotoconductorcanappear.
PKCS~Public-KeyCryptographyStandards~asetofstandardsdevelopedbyRSA
Laboratoriesandothers.
PKI~public-keyinfrastructure~Thetechniquesnecessarytomanagepublic-key
cryptography(seeseparateentry),aswellasthevarioussystemsforauthentication,
nonrepudiationandintegritythatcanbebuiltontopofapublic-keysystem.
PL/1~ProgrammingLanguage1~Oneofthewidelyusedhigh-levelprogramming
languagesorientedtowardbothbusinessandmathematicalprograms.
PL/SQL~ProceduralLanguage/StructuredQueryLanguage~Oracle’s(RDBMS)
ProceduralLanguageextensiontoSQL.
PLA~ProgrammableLogicArray~achip(IC)basedprogrammedlogicalprogram.
PLC~PowerLineCommunication~Technologythatusesthepowerlinestoconnectoto
theInternet
PLC~productlifecycle~amarketingtheorywhichdictatesthethesequenceofevents,
orlifespandivisionsofanymarketedproductorbrand,includingtechnologies,consumer
goods,andanyitemwhichismarketedtothepublicandsoldatretailoutletsonanational
basis.
PLCP~PhysicalLayerConvergenceProtocol~DefinedbytheIEEE802.6andusedfor
DS3transmissionofATM.ATMcellsareencapsulatedin125microsecondframedefined
byPLCP,whichisdefinedinsideDS3M-frame.
PLD~ProgrammableLogicDevice~AnICincorporatinganarrayofprogrammable
logicdevicesthatarenotpre-connectedbutwheretheconnectionsareprogrammedbythe
userviablowingfusedlinkedorviaothertechniques.
PLL~PhaseLockLoop~amechanismwherebytiminginformationistransferredwithin
adatastreamandthereceiverderivesthesignalelementtimingbylockingitslocalclock
sourcetothereceivedtiminginformation.
PLM~productlifecyclemanagement~Inthevirtualdomain,manufacturersdesignand
simulateproductperformance,productionplants,manufacturingprocesses,serviceand
maintenanceprocedures,thecustomerexperience,andeventheimpactofproduct
disposal.
PLMN~publiclandmobilenetwork~generictermforamobilewirelessnetworkthatis
centrallyoperatedandadministratedbyanorganizationandusesland-basedradio
frequencytransmittersorbasestationsasnetworkhubs.
PLOGI~portlogin~Theport-to-portloginprocessbywhichinitiatorsestablishsessions
withtargets.
PLPA~pageablelinkpackarea~Anareaofvirtualstoragecontainingsupervisorcall
(SVC)routines,accessmethods,andotherread-onlysystemanduserprogramsthatcanbe
sharedamongusersofthesystem.
PMD~PhysicalMediaDependent~Sublayerthatdefinesparametersatlowestlevel,
suchasspeedofbitsonmedia.
PMDB~performancemanagementdatabase~performancemanagementdatabase
PME~PowerManagementEvent~FeaturethatallowsmostLANdevicestowakeup
fromstandbystates(S1orS3)
PMI~PortableManagementInterface~PMIisaplatform-dependentinterfacedefined
bySunMicrosystemsusedinnetworkmanagement
PMI~ProjectManagementInstitute~PMIestablishesProjectManagementISO
validatedstandardsandpolicy
PMI~PrivilegeManagementInfrastructure~securityinfrastructuretoauthorizeusers
PMI~Productandmanufacturinginformation~annotationshownon3DCADmodelsof
componentsandproducts
PMM~PostMemoryManager~AmechanismusedbyoptionROMstoallocateRAM
memoryforuseduringsystemstartup
PMML~PredictiveModelMarkupLanguage~AstandarddevelopedbytheData
MiningGroup(DMG)torepresentpredictiveanalyticmodels.PMMLissupportedby
leadingBIandanalyticsvendorslikeIBM,SAS,MicroStrategy,OracleandSAP.
PMO~Projectmanagementoffice~Thegroupthathandlestheday-to-daymanagement
ofoffshoreprojectstoensurethatprocessesarerunningsmoothly.
PMR~PerpendicularMagneticRecording~Howaharddriverecordsdata:magnetic
elementsarealignedvertically,asopposedtolongitudinallyonolderdrives
PMR~PrivateMobileRadio~atraditionalmethodofcommunicationswithmobile
assets,whereacentralisedbasestationtransmitsinalldirectionstomobile(invehicle)
andportable(handheld)radios.
PMSM~permanentmagnetsynchronousmotors~permanentmagnetsynchronous
motors
pNFS~parallelNetworkFileSystem~aprotocolextensionofNFS4.1,thefirstmajor
performanceupgradetothewidelydeployedNFSinmorethanadecade.
PNG~PortableNetworkGraphics~PNGisagraphicsformatspecificallydesignedfor
useontheWorldWideWeb.PNGenablecompressionofimageswithoutanylossof
quality,includinghigh-resolutionimages.AnotherimportantfeatureofPNGisthat
anyonemaycreatesoftwarethatworkswithPNGimageswithoutpayinganyfees-the
PNGstandardisfreeofanylicensingcosts.
PnP~PlugandPlay~PnPisacatchyphraseusedtodescribedevicesthatworkwitha
computersystemassoonastheyareconnected.Theuserdoesnothavetomanuallyinstall
driversforthedeviceoreventellthecomputerthatanewdevicehasbeenadded.
PNP~PersonalNetworkPlatform~deliverscorenetworkfunctionstoindividuals.PNP
offersfullflexibility,transparency,scalability,andexpandability.
PNRP~PeerNameResolutionProtocol~Secure,scalable,anddynamicname
registrationandnameresolutionprotocolfirstdevelopedforWindowsXPandthen
upgradedinWindowsVista
POC~ProofofConcept~ProofofConcept
POC~Push-to-talkOverCellular~thepushtotalk(PTT)voiceserviceformobile
communications.Itprovidesdirectone-to-oneandone-to-manyvoicecommunication
serviceinthecellularnetwork.
POD~ProofofDeposit~Softwaresystemusedbyfinancialinstitutionstoverifyteller
transactions.Usuallyconsistsofreader/sortercontrolsoftware,reject-reentrysystem,and
reportingsystems
POD~Publishingondemand~Aprocessthatallowsfortheprintingofindividualcopies
asorderscomein
PoE~PowerOverEthernet~PoEisalsocalledPoweroverLANorin-linepower.It
allowsappliancessuchasIPtelephonesandWLANaccesspointstoreceivepowerover
suitableLANcabling.TheinternationalstandardisknownasIEEE802.3af.However,
somevendorshaveimplementedproprietarysolutions.
pog.com~PlayOnlineGames~specializeinfindingthebestminigamesoninternet
eitherinflashorshockwave.Youneedtohavetheminstalledinordertoplay.Allour
gamesare100%freeofchargeandcanbeplayedwithoutcreatingan
account.Âhttp://www.pog.com
POLP~principleofleastprivilege~POLPisthepracticeoflimitingaccesstothe
minimallevelthatwillallownormalfunctioning.Appliedtoemployees,theprincipleof
leastprivilegetranslatestogivingpeoplethelowestlevelofuserrightsthattheycanhave
andstilldotheirjobs.Theprincipleisalsoappliedtothingsotherthanpeople,including
programsandprocesses.
PON~passiveopticalnetworking~auniquepoint-to-multipointinfrastructurethat
allowsforthesharingofoneopticalfiberamongseveralbuildings
POP~Pointofpresence~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
POP~PointofPresence~usuallymeansacityorlocationwhereanetworkcanbe
connectedto,oftenwithdialupphonelines.
POP~PostOfficeProtocol~awaythate-mailÂclientÂsoftwaresuchasEudoragets
mailfromamailÂserver.WhenyouobtainanaccountfromanÂISPÂyoualmostalways
getaPOPaccountwithit,anditisthisPOPaccountthatyoutellyoure-mailsoftwareto
usetogetyourmail.
POP~protectedobjectpolicy~Atypeofsecuritypolicythatimposesadditional
conditionsontheoperationpermittedbytheACLpolicytoaccessaprotectedobject.
POP3~PostOfficeProtocol,version3~Applicationlayer-RFC1939
POP3~PostOfficeProtocolv3~POP3,sometimesreferredtoasjust‘POP,’isasimple,
standardizedmethodofdeliveringe-mailmessages.APOP3mailserverreceivese-mails
andfiltersthemintotheappropriateuserfolders.Whenauserconnectstothemailserver
toretrievehismail,themessagesaredownloadedfrommailservertotheuser’sharddisk.
POS~pointofsale~Acategoryofsystemsthatusepersonalcomputersorspecialized
terminalsincombinationwithcashregisters,opticalscannersormagnetic-stripereadersto
captureandrecorddataatthetimeoftransaction.POSsystemsareusuallyonlinetoa
centralcomputerforcreditcheckingandinventoryupdating.
POSIX~PortableOperatingSystemInterfaceforUNIX~Afamilyofopensystem
standardsbasedonUNIX,whichallowsapplicationstobewrittentoasingletarget
environmentinwhichtheycanrununchangedonavarietyofsystems.
POST~Power-onselftest~Hardware-CiscoCatalyst2800UserGuide,forexample
POST~power-onselftest~Setofhardwarediagnosticsthatrunsonahardwaredevice
whenthatdeviceispoweredup.
POTS~Plainoldtelephoneservice~Telecom-TelecomGlossary
POTS~PlainOldTelephoneService~POTSisthestandardtelephoneservicethatmost
homesuse.ItisalsoreferredtoasthePSTNorthePublicSwitchedTelephoneNetwork.
POWER~PerformanceOptimizationWithEnhancedRisc~PerformanceOptimization
WithEnhancedRiscbyIBM
POX~plainoldÂXML~plainoldÂXML
PPC~Pay-Per-Click~Whereacompany(oradvertiser)pays(asearchengineoraffiliate
site)foreachclick-throughonanadvertisement.
PPD~PostscriptPrinterDescription~Afilethatcontainsinformationaboutthe
capabilitiesofaparticularprintermodel.ThePPDfileprovidesthecontrolsyouneedto
takeadvantageofspecialfeaturessuchasmultiplepapertrays,specialpapersizes,or
duplexprinting.
PPE~PowerPCProcessorElement~IntheCellBroadbandEnginearchitecture,a
groupingofmultiplePowerPCProcessorUnits(PPUs).
PPM~PartsPerMillion~Inpositioningterms,ppmisarepresentationofpositionerror
asafunctionofÂdistancebetweentwocommunicatingdevices.
PPM~projectportfoliomanagement~Astrategyforoversightofaportfolioofrelatedor
interdependentprojects,withtheintentoflimitingduplicateworkeffortsandleveraging
decisionmakingandskillsacrossprojects.
PPN~PrimaryPortNetwork~ThemainswitchingmodulefortheDefinityG3RorG3I
switch.
PPP~Point-to-pointProtocol~Telecom-RFC1661
PPP~PointtoPointProtocol~theInternetstandardfordial-upmodemconnections.PPP
isasetofrulesthatdefineshowyourmodemexchangespacketsofdatawithother
systemsontheInternet.
PPP~Public–privatepartnership~describesagovernmentserviceorprivatebusiness
venturewhichisfundedandoperatedthroughapartnershipofgovernment
PPPoE~Point-to-PointProtocoloverEthernet~PPPoEisaspecificationforconnecting
multiplecomputerusersonlocalnetworktoaremotesiteusingamodem,gatewayor
routerthatsupportstheappropriateprotocollayersandauthenticationforthepoint-topointconnectiontobeestablished.
PPRC~PeertoPeerRemoteCopy~Aremote-copyservicethatprovidesasynchronous
copyofavolumeordiskfordisasterrecovery,devicemigration,andworkloadmigration.
PPTP~Point-to-PointTunnelingProtocol~Telecom-RFC2637
PPTP~Point-to-PointTunnelingProtocol~PPTPisanetworkingstandardfor
connectingtovirtualprivatenetworks,orVPNs.VPNsaresecurenetworksthatcanbe
accessedovertheInternet,allowinguserstoaccessanetworkfromaremotelocation.
Thisisusefulforpeoplewhoneedtoconnecttoanofficenetworkfromhomeoraccess
theirhomecomputerfromanotherlocation.
PPU~PowerPCProcessorUnit~A64-bitPowerPCcoreprocessorlocatedattheheartof
theCellBroadbandEnginemultiprocessor,withassociatedcache,andaVector
MultimediaExtensions(VMX)unit.
PQA~PalmQueryApplication~AsmallappletthatcanbedownloadedontoaPalmOSbasedPDAthatallowsfortheretrievalofinformationfromtheWeb.
PRADO~PHPRapidApplicationDevelopmentObject-oriented~anopensource,
PHP5-basedprogrammingframeworkdesignedforprofessionalwebapplications
development.PRADOisanMVC-basedframework,whichallowsevent-driven
programming.
PRC~PrimaryReferenceClock~ClockusedinsynchronousnetworkslikeSONETand
SDH
PRI~PrimaryRateInterface~AnIntegratedServicesDigitalNetwork(ISDN)interface
thatconnectsprivatebranchexchanges(PBXs)tothenetworkattheNorthAmerican
1.544megabitspersecond(Mbps)T1rate.ItiselectricallyidenticaltotheISDNBasic
RateInterface(BRI).
PRINCE~ProjectsinControlledEnvironments~ApublicdomainstandardforIT
developersfortheU.K.government.PRINCEprovidesaprocessmodeltodefinewhatis
involvedinsettingup,managingandclosingdowneachstageofaproject.
PROM~ProgrammableROM~AROMwhichisprogrammablebytheuser
PRPQ~programmingrequestforpricequotation~Acustomerrequestforaprice
quotationonalterationsoradditionstothefunctionalcapabilitiesofsystemcontrol
programmingorlicensedprograms.
PRPQ~programmingrequestforpricequotation~Acustomerrequestforaprice
quotationforalicensedprogramtobedesignedespeciallyforaparticulargroupof
customersoranapplication.
ps~Picosecond~1/1000ofananosecond,oronetrillionthofasecond.T
PS~PlayStation~GameconsolebySony
PS~PostScript~PostScript(filenameextension)
PS~Photoshop~PhotoshopofAdobeSystems,Inc.
PS~~PSisalsoPeopleSearch(Yahoo!),PacketStream(AT&T),ProtectionScheme
(Nortel),ProtectionSwitching(Alcatel),PeopleSoft,Inc.(softwarecompany)
PS/2~personalsystem/2~AtypeofconnectorforattachingaPS/2-compatiblekeyboard,
mouse,orkeypad.
PSA~professionalserviceautomation~professionalserviceautomation
PSD~PhotoShopDrawing~Filenameextension.UsedbyPhotoshopandotherAdobe
programs
PSIP~ProgramandSystemsInformationProtocol~theATSCstandardfordigital
televisionchannelnaming,numberingandnavigation.
PSK~phaseshiftkeying~Phasemodulationthatusesdiscretechangesofphase.
PSLC~ParallelSysplexLicenseCharge~Asoftwarelicensingarrangementavailableto
vendorsifthepiecesmakinguptheirParallelSysplexcomplexhavebeenqualifiedby
IBM.Chargesarebasedonthetotalmachinecapacity.
PSN~PacketSwitchNode~Adedicatedcomputerwhosepurposeistoaccept,routeand
forwardpacketsinapacketswitchednetwork.
PSN~PlaystationNetwork~PSNstandsforPlaystationNetworkofSony
PSN~ProcessorSerialNumber~AnembeddedserialnumberinIntelPentiumIII
microprocessors.Itallowssoftwaremanufacturersandwebsitestoidentifyindividuals
moreprecisely.
PSP~PersonalSoftwareProcess~Methodstoimprovethequalityofworkofindividual
softwareengineers
PSP~PlayStationPortable~GameconsolebySony
PSPs~printserviceproviders~printserviceproviders
PSS~PrintSubSystem~SoftwareforIBMmainframesthatprovidesanAFPandline
dataprintingsolutionusingPCLandPostScriptprinters
PSTN~publicswitchedtelephonenetwork~theworldwidenetworkofpublicvoice
communicationfacilities.
PSTN~publicswitchedtelephonenetwork~Anycommoncarriernetworkthatprovides
circuitswitchingamongpublicusers.
PTF~PrintToFax~FaxdriverforLotusDominoFaxServer
PTRrecord~Pointerrecord~ADNSrecordtypethattranslatesIP(IPv4)addressesto
domainnames.UsedinDNSreverselookups.
PTT~PublicTelephoneandTelegraph~Telecom-TelecomGlossaryorFreeDictionary
PTT~PushToTalk~Functionalityinthegroupcommunicationterminaldevice.You
havetopushPTT-buttontogetthepermissionfortransmission
PTT~Postal,Telephone,andTelegraph~Anagencythatregulatesandadministersthe
telephoneandpostalsystemsincertaincountries.
PTTs~Post,telegraph,andtelephoneauthorities~governmentagenciesresponsiblefor
postalmail,telegraph,andtelephoneservices.Suchmonopoliesexistedinmanycountries,
butsincethe1980smanyofthemhavebeenpartiallyorcompletelyprivatized.
PTZ~pan-tilt-zoom~videoconferencingcameracapability
PUMA~Privilegedusermonitoringandauditing~IBMTivoliSIEMcapability
PUMA~ProtectedUserModeAudio~TogetherwithUMA,isanengineintheWindows
VistaProtectedEnvironmentthatprovidesasaferenvironmentforaudioplayback,aswell
ascheckingthattheenabledoutputsareconsistentwithwhatthecontentallows
PUP~Potentiallyunwantedprogram~atermusedtodescribeunwantedprogramssuch
asTrojans,spywareandadware,alongwithothermalwarewhichmaycompromiseyour
privacy.SomeantivirusandPCsecuritysoftwarepackageswillscanforandprotectyour
systemagainstPUPs.
PUT~programupdatetape~AcodereleasetoTransactionProcessingFacilitycustomers
containingmaintenance(programfixes)andnewfunction.
PVC~permanentvirtualcircuit~Avirtualcircuitthatispre-definedinroutingtables
amongthevariousroutersandswitchesinapacket-switchednetwork,ratherthanbeing
establishedonacall-by-callbasis.
PVC~PolyvinylChloride~Thecommonvinylshieldingusedtocoverthepairsinthe
copperfour-pairwireusedfornumerousEthernetstandards.
PVR~personalvideorecorder~Adevicethatrecordstelevisionprogramsonaninternal
harddriveinanticipationofviewerpreferences.
PVST~Per-VLANSpanningTree~Linklayer-Cisco’sintroductiontoSpanningTree
Protocol
PVST~Per-VLANSpanningTree~InEthernetswitchedenvironmentswheremultiple
VirtualLANsexist,spanningtreecanbedeployedperVirtualLAN.
PVV~PINverificationvalue~Discretionaryvalueencodedinmagneticstripeof
paymentcard.
PWM~Pulsewidthmodulation~apowerfultechniqueforcontrollinganalogcircuits
withaprocessor’sdigitaloutputs.PWMisemployedinawidevarietyofapplications,
rangingfrommeasurementandcommunicationstopowercontrolandconversion.
PWR~PoWeR~PoWeR
PWS~PersonalWebServer(orPeerWebServices)~thebabybrotherofMicrosoftIIS.
BothproductsarehybridcompilationsandsubstitutesforanInternetcapablewebserver.
P-x~Pentium-(numbers)~ThebrandnameforaseriesofIntelmicroprocessorsusedin
IBM-compatiblePCs.e.g.PentiumPro(1995),PentiumII(1997),PentiumIII(1999)and
Pentium4(2002).
PXE~PrebooteXecutionEnvironment~Providesawayforasystemtoinitiatea
networkconnectiontovariousserverspriortoloadinganOS
~Q~
QA~QualityAssurance~Thepracticeofcheckinghardware,software,orsystemsfor
defects,identifyingsuchdefects,andthencheckingtomakesurethatsuchdefectsare
correctedwhenfuturerevisionsofsoftwareorhardwarearereadyfortesting.
QAM~quadratureamplitudemodulation~QAMisamethodofcombiningtwo
amplitude-modulated(AM)signalsintoasinglechannel,therebydoublingtheeffective
bandwidth.QAMisusedwithPAMindigitalsystems,especiallyinwirelessapplications.
QAT~QuantityAboveThresholdIndicator~Thesumofitemizedcallminutesthat
exceedstheminimumthresholdof1500MinutesofUsage(MOU)thatiseligiblefora
volumediscount.
QB~QuickBASIC~adescendantoftheBASICprogramminglanguagethatwas
developedbytheMicrosoftCorporationforusewiththeMS-DOSoperatingsystem.
QB~Quickbooks~AgeneralaccountingsystemfromIntuit,Inc.ÂQuickBooks
QBDG~QueryBasedDistributionGroup~Atypeofdistributiongroupintroducedin
Exchange2003.Itprovidessimilarfunctionalitytothatofastandarddistributiongroup,
whatisdifferentisthatitdoesnotcontainafixedlistofmembersbutisdefinedusinga
query.Thisallowsthegroupmembershiplisttobegenerateddynamicallyondemand
usingthequery.
QBDL~QueryBasedDistributionList~MorecommonlyknownasaQueryBased
DistributionGroup
QBL~QueryByExample~QBEisamethodofquerycreationthatallowstheuserto
searchfordocumentsbasedonanexampleintheformofaselectedtextstringorinthe
formofadocumentnameoralistofdocuments.BecausetheQBEsystemformulatesthe
actualquery,QBEiseasiertolearnthanformalquerylanguages,suchasthe
standardÂSQL,whilestillenablingpowerfulsearches.
QCIF~QuarterCommonIntermediateFormat~videoconferencingformatthatspecifies
dataratesof30fps,witheachframecontaining144linesand176pixelsperline.
QD~QueuingDelay~referstothedelayimposedonacellbyitshavingtobebuffered
becauseofunavailabilityofresourcestopassthecellontothenextnetworkfunctionor
element.
QDF~QuickenDataFile~FilenameextensionbyIntuit
QDOS~QuickAndDirtyOperatingSystem~Anearlypersonalcomputeroperating
systemrumoredtobetheforerunnerofPC-DOSandMS-DOS.
QDR~QuadDataRate~atypeofstaticRAMcomputermemorythatcantransferupto
fourwordsofdataineachclockcycle.
QEMM~QuarterdeckExpandedMemoryManager~DOSandWindowsmemory
managerfromQuarterdeckOfficeSystems,SantaMonica,California;usedforIBMPCs
withanIntel80386orhigherprocessor.
QFE~QuickFixEngineering~QFEisaMicrosofttermforthedeliveryofindividual
serviceupdatestoitsoperatingsystemsandapplicationprogramssuchasWord.Formerly
calledahotfix,‘QFE’canbeusedtodescribeboththemethodofdeliveringandapplying
apatchorfix,andalsotorefertoanyindividualfix.
QFP~QuotedForPermanence~anintegratedcircuitpackagewithleadsextendingfrom
eachofthefoursides.
QI~QueryInterface~databasesystemthatcanbeaccessedbyphoneclientprogramsto
retrieveandeditentriesintheserver.Thisisgenerallyusedforphonebookservices,but
canbeusedinanydatabaseapplication.
qic~Quarter-InchCartridge~astandardformagnetictapedrives.QICtapesareamong
themostpopulartapesusedforbackinguppersonalcomputers.QICtapesaredividedinto
twogeneralclasses:full-size(alsocalleddata-cartridge)andminicartridge.
QIF~QuickenInterchangeFormat~Fileformatforfinancialdata
QIP~qualityimprovementprocess~Ateam-based,structured,problem-solvingprocess
aimedatachievingexceptionalcustomersatisfaction.Â
QIX~NASDAQInformationExchangeprotocol~QIXisaproprietaryspecification
intendedtostreamlineautomatedtradinginthefinancialindustry.QIX,liketheopenstandardFinancialInformationExchange(FIX)protocolandthecomputer-to-computer
interface(CTCI),supportsmultiplecommunicationsformats.
QLLC~QualifiedLogicalLinkControlprotocol~transfersIBMÂSNAÂdataoveran
X.25network.
QMF~QueryManagementFacility~AnIBMmainframequeryandreport-writing
productforrelationaldatabasemanagementsystems.
QMS~QualityMicroSystems~AMobile,Alabamamanufactureroflaserprinters.QMS
madeoneofthefirstPostScriptprinters.
QName~qualifiedname~Thenameofthelibrarycontainingtheobjectandthenameof
theobject.
QName~qualifiedname~Adatanameexplicitlyaccompaniedbyaspecificationofthe
classtowhichitbelongsinaspecifiedclassificationsystem.
QName~qualifiedname~InC++,anamethatisusedtoqualifyanonclasstypename,
suchasamember,byitsclassname.
QName~qualifiedname~Adatasetnameconsistingofastringofnamesseparatedby
periods
QName~qualifiedname~AnamethatconformstotheNamespacesinXML
specification.
QoE~qualityofexperience~Themeasurementofoverallcustomersatisfactionbefore,
during,andafteratransaction.
QoS~qualityofservice~Anyoperationthatallowstrafficprioritiestobedesignated.
Differenttrafficthroughoutanetworkcanbeclassifiedandadministered.
QoS~qualityofservice~InOSI,avaluethatspecifiescertainperformance
characteristicsofaservice,session,orlink.
QoS~qualityofservice~Asetofcommunicationcharacteristicsrequiredbyan
application.QoSdefinesaspecifictransmissionpriority,levelofroutereliability,and
securitylevel.
QoS~qualityofservice~Ameasureofsystemperformanceandsystemavailability.
QoS~qualityofservice~ApolicythatcollectsperformancedataforHTTPtransactions
foroneormoreWebservers
QP~QuantumProgramming~Aprogrammingparadigmthatextendstraditionalobject-
orientedprogrammingwithtwoadditionalfundamentalconcepts:hierarchicalstate
machinesandcomputingbasedonactiveobjects.
QPM~QoSPolicyManager~ACiscoSystemsoffering.
QPS~Queries-per-second~QPSisameasureofhowmuchtrafficaparticularquery
serverishandlingatagiventime.OntheInternet,theactivityinthecollectionofservers
thatserveasthedomainnamesystemissometimesmeasuredinqueries-per-second.
QPSK~QuadraturePhase-ShiftKeying~Amethodofmodulatingdigitalsignalsusing
fourphasestatestocodetwodigitalbitsperphaseshift.
QRcode~QuickResponsecode~CreatedbyJapanesecorporationDenso-Wavein
1994,a‘QRcode’isamatrixcode(whichisatwo-dimensionalbarcode)thatisatwodimensionalwayofrepresentinginformation.Itissimilartoalinear(1-dimensional)bar
code,buthasmoredatarepresentationcapability.
QSA~QualifiedSecurityAssessor~companyapprovedbythePCISSCto
conductÂPCIDSSÂon-siteassessments.
QSIG~Qsignaling~QsignalingisaprotocolforÂISDNÂcommunicationsbasedon
theQ.931standard,isusedforsignalingbetweendigitalÂPBXs.QSIGisemployed
inÂVoIPÂnetworks,ÂVPNs,andhigh-speed,multi-applicationnetworksfor
corporations,educationalinstitutions,andgovernmentagencies.
QT~QuickTime~ThisisamultimediatechnologydevelopedbyourfriendsatApple
Computer.Itisapopularformatforcreatingandstoringsound,graphics,andmovie
(.mov)files.ThoughitisanAppletechnology,QuickTimesoftwareisavailableforboth
theMacandthePC.ÂcheckoutApple’sQuickTimesite
QTM~QuadraticTextureMapping~ThisisatechnologyusedwithNVidiabased3D
graphicsboardsthatdramaticallyspeedsuptexturemappingandscreenredrawing
(refreshing)byreducingtheamountofworkrequired.NVidiachipsusefewerpolygonsto
renderanacceptablelookingroundedobject.
QTSS~QuickTimeStreamingServer~Atechnologythatletsyoudelivermediaoverthe
Internetinrealtime.
QTVR~QuickTimeVirtualReality~QTVRisa3-D,virtualrealityversionofApple’s
Quicktimemultimediasoftware.QTVRusesmultiplestillshotstocompilea3-Dviewof
space.
QTW~QuickTimeforWindows~MultimediasoftwarefromAppleComputerthat
integratesfull-motionvideoandsoundintoapplicationprograms.
Quagi~quadandYagi~Anantennaconsistingofbothfullwavelengthloops(quad)and
Yagielements.
QVGA~QuarterVideoGraphicsArray~QVGAisasmall-screendisplaymodeinwhich
theresolutionis320pixelshorizontallyby240pixelsvertically(320x240).Thisis25
percentofthetotalnumberofpixelsaffordedbytheVGA(VideoGraphicsArray)display
modeoriginallyintroducedbyIBMin1987.
QXGA~Quad((orQuantum)eXtendedGraphicsArray~adisplaymodeinwhichthe
resolutionis2048pixelshorizontallyby1536pixelsvertically(2048x1536).Thisresults
in3,145,728pixelsintheimage(sometimesreferredtoas3.2millionpixels).This
resolutionistwicethe1024x768seenonmosthighpoweredunits.
~R~
R&D~researchanddevelopment~Adescriptivetermforthefunction,organizationor
budgetallocationdevotedtoresearchinganddevelopingnewproductsortechnologies.
R_A_TOV~resourceallocationtimeoutvalue~Infibre-channeltechnology,avalue
usedtotimeoutoperationsthatdependonthemaximumpossibletimethataframecanbe
delayedinafabricandstillbedelivered.
RAB~RaidAdvisoryBoard~Industryorganizationofmanufacturersandusersofdisk
systemsandrelatedproductswhosemissionistoeducateusersregardingallaspectsof
storagetechnology,andinparticular,RAIDtechnology.
RAB~Reverse-LinkActivityBit~determiningthedatarateofareverselink
communicationofamobilecommunicationsystem.
RAC~RealApplicationCluster~RACisacomponentoftheOracle9idatabaseproduct
thatallowsadatabasetobeinstalledacrossmultipleservers.
RACF~ResourceAccessControlFacility~Providesimprovedsecurityforan
installation’sdata.RACFprotectsyourvitalsystemresourcesandcontrolswhatuserscan
doontheoperatingsystem
RACH~RandomAccessChannel~thechannelusedbymobilesinÂGSMÂandWCDMAsystemstogainaccesstothesystemwhenfirstattachingtoit.
racon~radarbeacon~Atransmitter-receiverassociatedwithafixednavigationalmark
which,whentriggeredbyaradar,automaticallyreturnsadistinctivesignalwhichcan
appearonthedisplayofthetriggeringradar,providingrange,bearingandidentification
information.
RAD~radiationabsorbeddose~thebasicunitofmeasureforexpressingabsorbed
radiantenergyperunitmassofmaterial.
RAD~RapidApplicationDevelopment~Awayofdevelopingasystembycompletinga
workingpart,implementingit,andaddingmoreworkingpartseveryfewmonths,instead
ofwaitingtofinishtheentireprojectbeforeputtingthesystemintouse.
RADA~randomaccessdiscreteaddress~Acommunicationstechniqueinwhichradio
usersshareonewidefrequencybandinsteadofeachuser’sbeingassignedanarrowband.
RADCAB~RelevancyAppropriatenessDetailCurrencyAuthorityBias~Itwascreated
byKarenChristensson,alibrarymediaspecialist,forhelpingstudentsresearchtopicson
theWeb.
RADIUS~RemoteAuthenticationDial-InUserService~Security-RFC2865
RADIUS~RemoteAuthenticationDial-InUserService~Asecurityprotocolusedto
transportpasswordsbetweentheaccessdeviceandtheauthenticationserver.
RADSL~ReverseADSL~AtermforaDSLstreamthatisasymmetricalintheupstream
direction;thatis,areverseADSLlinkhasasmalldownstreamandlargeupstream
communicationspath.
RADVD~routeradvertisementdaemon~runbyLinuxorBSDsystemsactingasIPv6
routers.ItsendsRouterAdvertisementmessages,specifiedbyRFC2461,toalocal
ethernetLANperiodicallyandwhenrequestedbyanodesendingaRouterSolicitation
message.
RAI~remotealarmindication~Asignaltransmittedintheoutgoingdirectionwhena
terminaldeterminesthatithaslosttheincomingsignal.ÂRAIiscommonlycalledthe
yellowalarmsignal.
RAID~RedundantArrayofIndependentDisks~RAIDisamethodofstoringdataon
multipleharddisks.WhendisksarearrangedinaRAIDconfiguration,thecomputersees
themallasonelargedisk.However,theyoperatemuchmoreefficientlythanasinglehard
drive.
RAM~RandomAccessMemory~Physicallayer-TelecomGlossary
RAM~RandomAccessMemory~RAMisthestoragemediumusedwithinthecomputer
tostoreprogramsanddatawhilethecomputerisswitchedonandrunning.Oncethe
powertothecomputerisswitchedoff,anyprogramsordatanotsavedtotheHardDisk
Drivewillbelostpermanently.
RAMDAC~RandomAccessMemoryDigitaltoAnalogConverter~Chiponavideo
boardthatgeneratestheanalogvideosignals
RAN~RadioAccessNetwork~theground-basedinfrastructurerequiredfordeliveryof
third-generation(3G)wirelesscommunicationsservices,includinghigh-speedmobile
accesstotheInternet.
RAPI~RsvpApplicationProgrammingÂInterface~AnRSVP-specificAPIthatenables
applicationstointerfaceexplicitlywithanRSVPprocess
RARE~ReseauxAssociéspourlaRechercheÂ~TheEuropeanAssociationof
ResearchNetworks.NowcalledTERENA
RARE~Européenne~
RARP~ReverseARP~Linklayer-RFC903
RARP~ReverseAddressResolutionProtocol~Theprotocolwhichallowsauserto
broadcastaÂMACaddressÂonthelocalnetwork,resultinginthenetworkinterface
(NIC)returningit’sIPAddress
RAS~Registration,Admission,Status~amanagementprotocolbetweenterminalsand
GatekeepersintheH.323network.
RAS~remote-accessserver(services)~Aserverthatfacilitatesnetworkconnectionsto
anenterpriselocal-areaorwide-areanetworkfromusersremotelyaccessingthenetwork
overcableortelephonelinesusingamodem.Theserverusesvariousprotocolsto
authenticateandconnectremoteusers.
RAS~RowAddressSelect~AcontrolpinonaDRAMusedtolatchandactivatearow
address.TherowselectedonaDRAMisdeterminedbythedatapresentattheaddress
pinswhenRASbecomesactive.
RAS~RowAddressStrobe~asignalsentbytheprocessortoaDRAMcircuittotellit
thatanassociatedaddressisarowaddress.
RAS~RemoteAnnouncingSystem~aswitchfeaturethatallowsanoutsidecaller,with
properaccess,tomakeannouncementsoverthelocalpublicorofficeannouncingsystem.
RAT~RemoteAdministrationTool~referstoproductssuchasPCAnywhereand
CarbonCopybutismoreoftenusedtorefertotrojanRATssuchasBackOrificeand
NetBus.
RBA~RunBookAutomation~automateIToperationsprocessesacrossdifferentIT
managementdisciplines.RBAproductshaveanorchestrationinterfacetodesign,
administerandmonitorprocesses;aworkflowtosupporttheprocesses;andintegrationto
manyIToperationstoolsneededtosupporttheprocesses.
RBAC~role-basedaccesscontrol~RBACisastrategyforimplementingsecuritypolicy
management,specificallyintheareaofauthorization.TheideabehindRBACistodefine
rolesassetsofprivilegestodifferentsystemsthatrepresentcommonaccessrightsfor
users.
RBL~Real-timeBlack-holeListorReal-timeBlockList~RBLsholdinformationabout
blockedsites,typicallyusedtolistsitethatgeneratespam.
RBOC~RegionalBellOperatingCompany~Thelocaltelephonecompanyineachofthe
sevenU.S.regions.
RC~ReleaseCandidate~Aversion(ofsoftware)thatisreleasedbeforethefinalrelease.
Areleasecandidatemaycontainoutstandingissues(orbugs)orincompletefunctionality.
Alsoknowasa‘technicalpreview’or‘betarelease’.
RC2/4/5~RivestCipher2/4/5~afamilyofproprietaryciphersdevelopedbyRonald
RivestofRSASecurity.
RCA~RadioCorporationofAmerica(cables)~Thestandard,single-endedanalogcables
usedtoconnectaudioandvideodevicestoeachother.Typicallyaredinputisfortheleft
channelofsound,whiteisfortheright,andyellowisforcompsitevideo.
RCC~radiocommoncarrier~Atelecommunicationscommoncarrierthatprovidesradio
communicationsservicesbutisnotengagedinthebusinessofprovidinglandlinelocal
exchangetelephoneservice.
RCM~RevisionandConfigurationManagement~HPservice-RCMcollects
configuration,revision,andpatchdatafromyoursupportedsystems
rcp~Remotecopy~AUNIXutilitythatcopiesfilesoveranEthernet.
RCP~RichClientPlatform~Minimalsetofplug-insneededtobuildarichclient
application.
RCS~RevisionControlSystem~Managesmultiplerevisionsoffilesbyautomatingthe
storage,retrieval,logging,identification,andmergingofrevisions.It’sparticularlyuseful
fortextthatisrevisedfrequently,suchasprograms,documentation,graphics,papers,and
formletters
RCU~RapidCloningUtility~includedwiththeNetAppFlexClonelicense.RCUisan
integratedcloningandprovisioningutilityforvirtualmachinesthatinstantlyreplicates
datavolumesanddatasetsastransparentvirtualcopies
RDAC~RedundantDiskArrayController~Providesapplication-transparentprotection
forarraycontrolleranddatapathfailuresusingaspecial-purposedaemonprocessand
kernel-residentI/Odriver
RDBA~RemoteDatabaseAccess~astandardpermittingtheexchangeofinformation
betweendifferentDBMSsystems.
RDBMS~relationaldatabasemanagementsystem~RDBMSisaprogramthatletsyou
create,update,andadministerarelationaldatabase.
RDDL~ResourceDirectoryDescriptionÂLanguage~XML-basedlanguagefor
describingaresourcedirectory.Aresourcedirectoryprovidesatextdescriptionofsome
classofresourcesandofotherresourcesrelatedtothatclass.Italsocontainsadirectoryof
linkstotheserelatedresources
RDF~radiodirection-finding~Radiodeterminationusingthereceptionofradiowaves
forthepurposeofdeterminingthedirectionofastationorobject.
RDF~ResourceDescriptionFramework~aspecificationthatdefineshowmetadata,or
descriptiveinformation,shouldbeformatted.TheRDFmodelusesasubject-predicateobjectformat,whichisastandardizedwayofdescribingsomething.
RDI~remotedefectindication~Asignaltransmittedatthefirstopportunityinthe
outgoingdirectionwhenaterminaldetectsspecificdefectsintheincomingsignal.
RDL~ReportDefinitionLanguage~XML-basedindustrystandardusedtodefinereports
RDM~RemoteDeploymentManager~AnIBMtool(formerlycalledLANClient
ControlManager,or‘LCCM’)thatallowssystemsadministratorstoremotelyconfigure
anddeployoperatingsystemsandapplicationsonIBMsystems.
rDNS~ReverseDNS~amethodofresolvinganIPaddressintoadomainname,justas
theDNSresolvesdomainnamesintoassociatedIPaddresses.
RDP~RemoteDesktopProtocol~aprotocoldesignedforsecurecommunicationsin
networksusingMicrosoftTerminalServices.RDPisavailableformostversionsofthe
WindowsoperatingsystemaswellasMacOSX,LinuxandFreeBSD.
RDP~RouterDiscoveryProtocol~Astandardprotocol,toinformhostsofthepresence
ofrouterstowhichtheycansendpackets.YoucanalsouseRDPinsteadofhost
wiretappingroutingprotocols(forexample,RIP).
RDR~RateofDefectRecurrence~Howmanytimesadefectisreintroducedoverthe
lifeofanapplication
RDT~remotedigitalterminal~Anintelligentnetworkelementthatinterfacesbetween
customeraccesslinesanddigitalfacilities.
RDT~remotedigitalterminal~Thedigitalloopcarrier(DLC)multiplexerthatisatthe
endoftheDLCthatisclosesttothenetworkinterface(NI).
RED~RandomEarlyDetection~Acongestion-avoidancealgorithmdevelopedinthe
early1990sbuiltonthebase-levelTCPbehaviorofautomaticallyslowingtransmissions
whenpacketlossisdetected
RED~ReputationEnabledDefense~WatchGuardÂREDusesacloud-based
WatchGuardreputationserverthatassignsareputationscorebetween1and100toevery
URL.
REG~RangeExtenderwithGain~Aunitthatprovidesrangeextensioninaloopfor
bothtransmissionandsignaling.
ReGS~ReportingGridServices~AsetofcoreOpenGridServicesArchitecture
(OGSA)servicesforlogging,tracing,andmonitoringapplicationsinOGSA-basedgrid
environments.
REJ~Reject.Incommunications~acommandorresponsethatrequestsdatabe
retransmitted.
Rel~Recorderelement~Theminimumdistancebetweentworecordedpoints(spots)in
animagesetter.
REL~RightsExpressionLanguage~Alanguageforspecifyingrightstocontent,feesor
otherconsiderationrequiredtosecurethoserights,typesofusersqualifiedtoobtainthose
rights
RELAX~REgularLAnguagedescriptionforXml~UsesÂXMLÂsyntaxtoexpressthe
structurerelationshipsthatarepresentinaDTD,andaddstheXMLDatatypeSchema
mechanisms,aswell
REN~RingerEquivalencyNumber~1REN=theenergytoringonePlainOld
TelephonePOLorSingleLineTelephone(SLT).TheRENnumbercanbefoundonthe
FCClabelonthedevice.
RePDV~ReputationDigitalVaccine~HPTippingPointservicethatprotectsenterprises
fromthelatestsecurityrisksbyprovidinggreatervisibilityintomaliciousactivityon
corporatenetworks.
Res~resolution~Atermusedtodefineimageresolutioninsteadofppi.Res12indicates
12pixelspermillimeter.
RES~RobotsExclusionStandard~Standardthatallowswebsiteadministratorsto
indicatetovisitingrobotswhichpartsoftheirsiteshouldnotbevisitedbytherobot
REST~REpresentationalStateTransfer~AlooselydefinedspecificationforHTTPbasedserviceswherealloftheinformationrequiredtoprocessarequestispresentinthe
initialrequestandwhereeachrequestreceivesonlyasingleresponse,andwherethe
responseisinamachine-readableform.
RETAIN~RemoteTechnicalAssistanceandInformationNetwork~Databaseusedby
IBMSupportCenterstorecordallknownproblemswithIBMlicensedprograms.
REVS~RapidExchangeofVirusSampleslist.~Amailinglistforantiviruscompanies,
allowingtheirvirusanalysisstafftosecurelysendsamplesof‘emergency’virusestoother
antivirusdevelopersandforthelabstafftodiscussemerging‘virusemergencies’.
REXX~RestructuredEXtendedeXecutor~Ageneral-purpose,high-level,programming
language,particularlysuitableforEXECproceduresorprogramsforpersonalcomputing.
REXX~RestructuredEXtendedeXecutor~Thei5/OSimplementationoftheSystems
ApplicationArchitectureProceduresLanguage.
RF~Radiofrequency~Describestheportionofthespectrumusedtotransmitradio
signals.Oftenusedadjectivally.
RFB~RemoteFramebuffer~aprotocolforremoteaccessusedbytheremotecontrol
applicationVNC(VirtualNetworkComputing)
RFC~RequestforComments~Multiplelayers-IETF’sRFCIndex
RFC~radio-frequencychoke~aninductor(coil)designedtokeephigh-frequency
signalsfromflowingintopowersupplylinesandotherinterconnections.
RFC~RequestForComments~Thenameoftheresultandtheprocessforcreatinga
standardontheÂInternet.NewstandardsareproposedandpublishedontheInternet,asa
RequestForComments.
RFCOMM~RadioFrequencyCommunication~aBluetoothprotocolwhichisasimple
setoftransportprotocols,providingemulatedRS232serialports.
RFI~remotefailureindication~Asignaltransmittedintheoutgoingdirectionwhena
terminaldeterminesthatspecificdefectshavepersistedlongenoughtodeclareareceived
signalfailure.
RFID~radiofrequencyidentification~Ananalog-to-digitalconversiontechnologythat
usesradiofrequency(RF)wavestotransferdatabetweenamovableitemandareaderfor
identification,trackingorlocationpurposes.Itdoesnotrequirephysicalcontactoraline
ofsightbetweenthereaderorscannerandthetaggeditem.
RFMD~RFMicroDevices~globalleaderinthedesignandmanufactureofhighperformancesemiconductorcomponents.
RFP~RequestForProposal~Arequestforbidsthatindicatesthespecificationsfora
softwareprojectorothersystemneeds.
RFS/RFU~ReadyForService/Use~ReadyForService/Use
RFT~RequestForTechnology~ArequestfromtheOpenSoftwareFoundationfor
proposalsfornewstandards.
RFT~revisable-formtext~Adatastreamdefinedbydocumentcontentarchitecturethat
isusedtoexchangeunresolveddocuments(whichcannotbedirectlyprintedordisplayed)
betweensystems.
RGB~Red/Green/Blue~AnRGBsignalhasfourseparateelements;red/green/blueand
sync.ThisresultsinacleanerÂ
RGB~Red/Green/Blue~imagethanwithcompositesignalsduetothelowerlevelof
distortionandinterference.
RGMP~Router-portGroupManagementProtocol~IPmulticastconstraining
mechanismforrouter-onlynetworksegments.RGMPmustbeenabledontheroutersand
ontheLayer2switches
RHCE~RedHatCertifiedEngineer~MidtoadvancedlevelcertificationforIT
professionalswhoareabletoinstallandconfigureRedHatLinux,understandlimitations
ofhardwareandconfigurebasicnetworkingandfilesystems
RHCS~RedHatClusterSuite~RedHat’ssoftwaretocreateahighavailabilityandload
balancingcluster
RHEL~RedHatEnterpriseLinux~REDHATOS
RHR~radiohorizonrange~Thedistanceatwhichadirectradiowavecanreacha
receivingantennaofgivenheightfromatransmittingantennaofgivenheight.
RHSBL~Right-HandSideBlacklist~AtypeofDNSBLthatusesdomainnamesinstead
ofIPaddresses.
RIA~RichInternetApplication~Evolutionofthewebdevelopmentanddeployment
model
RIM~ReferenceInformationModel~Acomprehensive,object-orientedinformation
modelforclinicalhealthcare.RIMservesasasemanticpointofreferencefor
allÂHL7Âstandardsdevelopmentefforts.
RIM~ResearchInMotion~vendorofwirelesscommunicationproductsbasedin
Waterloo,Ontario.ItsproductsincludethepopularBlackBerryhandheld
deviceÂwww.rim.com.
RIMM~RambusIn-LineMemoryModule~RIMMisasynchronousdynamicRAM
modulethatisusedonnewermotherboards.RIMM’saremanufacturedbyÂRambus
Corporation.
RIP~RoutingInformationProtocol~InternetLayer-RFC2453,forRIPversion2
RIP~rasterimageprocessor~adevicethathandlescomputeroutputasagridofdots.
Dot-matrix,inkjet,andlaserprintersareallrasterimageprocessors.
RIP~RoutingInformationProtocol~Aninternalrouterprotocolusedforinforming
networkcomputersofchangesinconfiguration.
RIPE~RéseauxIPEuropéens~theInternetregistryorganizationfor
Europe.Âhttp://www.ripe.net/
RIR~regionalInternetregistry~anorganizationthatmanagestheallocationand
registrationofInternetnumberresourceswithinaparticularregion
RISC~ReducedInstructionSetComputer~Aprocessorsupportingsimpleinstructions
(typicallyonlyonememoryaccessperinstruction)andoftenreducedinstructionsetsize,
sacrificingcomplexityforgreaterspeed.
RJ11~RegisteredJack11~Thephysicalspecificationforthefour-wirejackcommonly
usedinU.S.telephonesystems.
RJ45~RegisteredJack45~Atypeofeight-wireconnectorcommonlyusedinlocal-area
networks.
RJE~RemoteJobEntry~Transmissionofabatchjobtoaremotecomputerwhich
processesthejob.
RLC~RadioLinkControl~alink-layerprotocolthatisresponsibleforerrorrecovery
andflowcontrolin3G(UMTS)cellularsystems.
RLE~run-lengthencoding~Atechniqueforcompressingdatathatavoidsrepeatedly
havingtocodedataelementsofthesamevalue
RLE~run-lengthencoding~Atypeofcompressionthatisbasedonstringsofrepeated,
adjacentcharactersorsymbols,whicharecalled‘runs.’
RLL~Run-LengthLimited~Physicallayer-RLLisusedinawiderangeofencodings.
RLL~RunLengthLimited~anencodingschemeusedtostoredataoncertainPChard
disks.
rlogin~remotelogin~theUNIXcommandthatallowsyoutouseyourcomputerasa
terminalonanothercomputer.
RLP~RadioLinkProtocol~alinklayerprotocolusedfor2G(GSMandcdmaOne)and
CDMA-2000(3G)network-basederrorcorrectionstoensurerobustdatatransmission.
RMA~ratemonotonicanalysis~Theprocessofanalyzingareal-timesystemtoassign
individualthreadprioritiesaccordingtotheratemonotonicalgorithm.
RMA~ReturnMaterialsAuthorization~Thisisanumberissuedtoreturnequipmentfor
service,validation,upgrades,orexchange.
RMC~RaptorManagementConsole~Symantecterm
RMC~ResourceMonitoringandControl~IBMterm.Scalable,reliablebackbone
subsystemofRSCT.Itrunsonasinglemachineoroneachnode(operatingsystemimage)
ofaclusterandprovidesacommonabstractionfortheresourcesoftheindividualsystem
ortheclusterofnodes
RME~RackMountEquipment~RMEisequipmentwhichisdesignedtomountina
standardsteelframeworkconsistingofparallelpairsofsteelchannelverticalsspaced19’
anddrilledformountingscrews.
RME~resourcemodelengine~Ananalysisenginethatisusedtoidentify,notify,and
cureperformanceandavailabilityproblems.
RMI~RemoteMethodInvocation~techniqueforcallingamethodinaJavaclass
locatedonamachine(suchasawebserver)differsentfromthemachine(suchasthe
browserclient)onwhichthecurrentapplicationisrunning.
RMON~RemoteMonitoring~AnetworkmonitoringprotocoldefinedinRFC2074
RMS~RecordManagementSystem~anÂAPIÂfordevice-dependentuseofaudioand
video.
RMS~RightManagementService~AfeatureinVistatoencryptconfidential
documentationwithpolicies.
RMS~RootMeanSquare~afancywayofdescribingtheaveragevoltagelevelofan
audiosignal.
RMU~RackMountUnit~AsingleRMUis1.75inchesofverticalspaceinarack
housing.Itistypicallyintheformofanumbersuchasthis;4U,meaning4unitsor
RMUs.
RNA~Ribonucleicacids~aclassofnucleicacidsthatactasacarrierforgenetic
informationaswellascatalyzingimportantbiochemicalreactions.RNAscontainsugar
riboseandtheorganicbaseuracil.
RNA~RingNoAnswer~Whatyougetwhenthemodemyoujustcalleddoesn’tanswer
RNC~RadioNetworkController~thegoverningelementintheUMTSradioaccess
network(UTRAN)responsibleforcontroloftheNodeBaseStations(BS),thatistosay,
thebasestationswhichareconnectedtothecontroller.
R-NE~remote-networkelement~Atypeofnetworkelement(NE)thatcontainsaDUA
(directoryuseragent),anoptionallocalcache,andpossiblyotherapplicationprocesses
suchastheregistrationagent.
RNI~RawNativeInterface~NativeinterfaceproposedbyMicrosoft
RNR~receivenotready~Incommunications,adatalinkcommandorresponsethat
indicatesatemporaryconditionofbeingunabletoacceptincomingframes.
ROA~recognizedoperatingagency~Anyoperatingagency,asdefinedintheITU
Convention(Geneva,1992),whichoperatesapubliccorrespondenceorbroadcasting
service
ROADM~reconfigurableopticaladd-dropmultiplexer~adevicethatisutilizedon
manydifferentfiberopticnetworks.Essentially,thistypeofmultiplexerhastheabilityto
controlthedirectionandfocusofbothinfraredandvisiblelightemissionswithinarange
ofdifferentwavelengths.
ROD~recordorienteddata~Thetypeofdocumentdefinitionusedtodescribe
proprietarydocumentformats.
RODM~ResourceObjectDataManager~InIBMTivoliNetViewforz/OS,a
componentthatprovidesanin-memorycacheformaintainingreal-timedatainanaddress
spacethatisaccessiblebymultipleapplications.
RoHS~RestrictionofHazardousSubstances~TheRoHSdirectivehasbeenadoptedby
theEuropeanUnion.RoHSrestrictstheuseofsixhazardoussubstances:lead(Pb),
mercury,cadmium,hexavalentchromium,polybrominatedbiphenyls(PBB)and
polybrominateddiphenylethers(PBDE)inallelectricalandelectronicproducts,andtheir
componentparts
ROI~ReturnonInvestment~ReturnonInvestment
ROKSO~RegisterofKnownSpamOperations~alistofover500professional
spammersthatismaintainedbytheSpamhausProject,anorganizationdedicatedto
identifyingandexposingspamoperators.Anyspammerknowntohavebeenterminated
bythreeconsecutiveÂISPsisaddedtothelist.
ROLR~receiveobjectiveloudnessrating~TheratioindBofthevoltageenteringaloop
andtelephonetothesoundpressureproducedbythetelephone’sreceiver.
ROM~Read-OnlyMemory~Hardware-TelecomGlossary
ROM~read-onlymemory~Datastoredincomputermemorythatcanbeaccessedand
readbytheuser,butnotmodified.ROMisoftenpermanent,andstoressystemcontrol
software.
ROM~ReportObjectModel~ObjectmodelatthebaseoftheBusinessIntelligenceand
ReportingTools(BIRT)
ROOM~Real-TimeObject-OrientedModeling~AnObject-OrientedObject-Oriented
analysisanddesignapproach
ROP~RasterOperation~Asetoflow-levelgraphicsoperationsinWindows,i.e.,
operationsthatdealwithrastergraphics.
RoR~RubyonRails~AwebapplicationstackbasedupontheRubyprogramming
language,awebserver(likeApacheorlighttpd),andadatabaseserver(likeMySQL).
ROR~remoteoutdoorrouter~adevicethatconnectsaremotelocationinaWLANto
eitheranotherremotelocationwithanRORforapoint-to-pointconnectionortothe
system’sCORforpoint-to-multipointconnections.
ROS~runofsite~inOnlineAdvertisingROSisatypeofonlineadbuyingcampaign
wherethebanner,image,ormediaadcanappearonanypagewithinthetargetedWebsite.
ROSE~RemoteOperationsServiceElement~OSIRPCmechanismusedbyvariousOSI
networkapplicationprotocols.
rot13~rotate13~atypeofENCRYPTIONcommonlyusedontheInternettoconceal
answerstopuzzlesandthelike.Toencodeamessage,thefirst13lettersofthealphabet
areswappedwiththelast13.
RPA~RecursivePyramidAlgorithm~areformulationoftheclassicalpyramidalgorithm
(PA)forcomputingthediscretewavelettransform(DWT).
RPC~RemoteProcedureCall~Mostcomputerprogramsrunprocedures,orsetsof
instructions,usingthecomputer’sCPU.Inotherwords,theinstructionsareprocessed
locallyonthesamecomputerthatthesoftwareisrunningfrom.
RPF~ReversePathForwarding~Enablesrouterstocorrectlyforwardmulticasttraffic
downthedistributiontree.Itmakesuseoftheexistingunicastroutingtabletodetermine
theupstreamanddownstreamneighbors
RPG~ReportProgramGenerator~Aprogramminglanguagethatwasdevelopedby
IBMinthe1960stosimplifyprogrammingforbusinessapplications.
RPG~role-playinggame~role-playinggame
RPI~RockwellProtocolInterface~Afeatureinsomemodemsthatallowsdata
compressionanderrorcorrectiontobeperformedbysoftwareinsteadof
hardware.ÂHTTP://WWW.ROCKWELL.COM.
RPL~RemoteProgramLoad~Bootablenetworkdeviceprotocol,developedandused
mostlybyIBM
RPL~RequestedPrivilegeLevel~alevelofprivilegewithinthearchitectureofa
computersystemwherethemostprivilegedlayerisusuallyzero.
RPL~RecognizedPriorLearning~anindustryacknowledgementofaperson’sskillsand
knowledgeobtainedthroughlearningprogramsoutsideofaformaleducationsystem.
RPM~RapidPredictiveModeler~BIproductthatautomaticallystepthroughabehind-
the-scenesworkfowofdatapreparation,variableselection,andtransformation
RPM~RedHatPackageManager~Apackagingsystembasedonfileswiththe.rpm
extensionthatcontaindependencyinformation,pre-andpost-installscripts,andtheactual
userruntimes(files/executables)thatarepartofthepackage.
RPM~RevolutionsPerMinute~Thespeedatwhichadiskdriverotatesismeasuredin
revolutionsperminute.
RPM~RouteProcessorModule~Ciscoterm
RPN~ReversePolishNotation~Awayofexpressingasequenceofcalculationswithout
usingparenthesestoshowwhichoperationmustbeperformedfirst.ReversePolish
notationgoesintheoppositedirectionfromPolishnotation.
RPO~recoverypointobjective~AtermusedinÂDRÂandÂBCP.TheRPOdefines
whatconstitutesanacceptablelossofdata-specifically,therequiredtimelinessofthe
datathatcanberecoveredusingbackups,journalsortransactionlogs.
RPP~receivingpartypays~Theconventionunderwhichthepartyreceivinga
communicationpaysallorsomeoftheend-to-endcostofthecommunication.
RPR~Resilientpacketring~TheIEEE802.17technologicalspecificationtodeliver
packet-basedservicesoverSONETrings.RPRisanOSI-Rm(OSIReferenceModel)
Layer2technologywithframingverysimilartothatofEthernet.
RP-SMA~ReversePolaritySubMiniatureversionA~atypeofantennaconnectorused
onbrandsofroutersincludingBuffaloandAsus.
RPT~radiopersonalterminal~Alight-weight,pocket-sizeportableradioterminal(or
‘personalterminal’)providingthecapabilityfortheusertobeeitherstationaryorin
motionwhileaccessingandusingtelecommunicationservices.
RP-TNC~ReversePolarityThreadedNeill-Concelman~atypeofantennaconnector
usedonLinksysaccesspoints.
RQN~Real-QuickNewsletter~FreeBSDnewsletter
RR~RegistertoRegister~TheclassofCPUinstructions(andassemblercodesthatgo
withthem)relatingtoonlyregisters,notmainmemory
RR~repeatableread~Anisolationlevelthatpreventsanyrowthatisreadfrombeing
changedbyotherapplicationsuntilthetransactioniscompleted.
RR/RRS~round-robinscheduling~aschedulingalgorithmthatiteratesthroughall
availablechoicesbeforebeginningagainwiththefirstchoice.
RR/RRS~round-robinscheduling~RoundrobinDNSisusuallyusedforbalancingthe
loadofgeographicallydistributedWebservers.
RR_TOV~resourcerecoverytimeoutvalue~Infibrechannelnetworks,theminimum
timeatargetdeviceinaloopwaitsafteraloopinitializationprimitive(LIP)before
loggingoutaSCSIinitiator.
RRI~ReverseRateIndicator~aparameterina3Gwirelessnetworkprovidedbythe
reverselink,whichaidstheAccessPointindeterminingtherateatwhichthereverselink
issendingdata.
RRPP~RapidRingProtectionProtocol~linklayerprotocol
RS~RecommendedStandard~forexample,RS-232C.Morerecentdesignationsuse
EIA,forexample,EIA-232C.
RS~Reed-Solomon~codesareblock-basederrorcorrectingcodeswithawiderangeof
applicationsindigitalÂ
RS~RemoteScripting~communicationsandstorage.
RS~RuneScape~AllowscodeinaclientpagetocallfunctionsinanASPpagerunning
ontheserver
RSA~RemoteSupervisorAdapter~PCIadapterwhichsimplifiesremotesystem
managementbyprovidingaround-the-clockremoteaccesstotheserver.TheRSA
monitorstheserverandsendsoutalertstodesignatedrecipientsviaÂLAN,pager,email
orÂSNMPÂifafailureisdetected
RSA~registersavearea~Theareaofmainstorageinwhichthecontentsofregistersare
saved.
RSA~Rivest,ShamirandAdleman~Anasymmetricencryptiontechnique,namedafter
itsinventorsRivest,ShamirandAdleman.Basedontheassumptionthatthefactoringof
theproductoftwolargeprimenumbersisverydifficult.Âwww.rsa.com
RSA~ruralservicearea~cellularserviceareasusedbytheFCCtolicensecellular
telephoneservice.
RSBAC~RuleSetBasedAccessControl~targetsactionsbasedonrulesforentities
operatingonobjects.
RSCT~ReliableScalableClusterTechnology~Setofsoftwarecomponents,usedfor
AIXandLinux,toprovideclusterswithimprovedsystemavailability,scalability,andease
ofuse
rsh~RemoteShellProtocol~aprotocolthatallowsausertoexecutecommandsona
remotesystemwithouthavingtologintothesystem.Forexample,rshcanbeusedto
remotelyexaminethestatusofanumberofaccessserverswithoutconnectingtoeach
communicationserver,executingthecommand,andthendisconnectingfromthe
communicationserver.
RSIP~RealmSpecificInternetProtocol~LikeNAT,RSIPtranslatesbetweenpublicand
privateIPaddresses.Butinsteadofrequiringaboundaryroutertotranslate,RSIPusesa
simpleprotocolbetweenauser’sdesktopPCandaboundaryroutertoperform
preparatorysignaling
RSL~receivedsignallevel~Thesignallevelatareceiverinputterminal.
RSM~RelationalStorageManager~IBMdatabaseterm
RSM~RemoteStorageManagement~MicrosoftOSterm
RSM~RouteSwitchModule~Basicallyarouteronacardintheswitchforrouting
betweenVirtualLocalAreaNetworks
RS-MMC~ReducedSizeMulti-MediaCard~Foundmostlyincameraphones.
RSN~RealSoonNow~atanindefinitetimeinthefuture,probablymuchlaterthan
promised.
RSPAN~RemoteSwitchedPortAnalyzer~extendsSPANbyenablingremote
monitoringofmultipleswitchesacrossyournetwork.
RSS~RDFSiteSummary/ReallySimpleSyndication~RSSismethodofproviding
websitecontentsuchasnewsstoriesorsoftwareupdatesinastandardXMLformat.RSS
contentcanbeaccessedwithanRSS-enabledWebbrowserorotherprogramsdesigned
forretrievingRSSfeeds.
RSS~ReceiveSideScaling~increasesperformanceonmulti-processorsystemsby
efficientlybalancingnetworkloadsacrossCPUÂcores.
RSS~RelaySpamStopper~QueryableDNS-baseddatabaseofspam-relayingmail
servers.SeeÂhttp://work-rss.mail-abuse.org/rss/
RSSI~RelativeSignalStrengthIndicator~ameasurementofradiasignalsatthepointin
whichtheyarereceivedandmeasured.
RSTP~RapidSpanningTreeProtocol~Linklayer-IEEE802.1w-Rapid
ReconfigurationofSpanningTree
RSU~RecommendedServiceUpgrade~IBM-recommendedPTFs(ProgramTemporary
Fix)suppliedaspartofmonthlyz/OSservicesupport
RSU~remoteswitchingunit~Thesubtendingremoteswitchingdevicethatdependsin
partonitshostswitchforcallcontrolbutiscapableofprovidingintra-unitswitching.
RSVP~ResourceReservationProtocol~Atransport-layerprotocolusedtoimprove
networkqualityofservice(QOS)byreservingtheresources(suchasbandwidthand
bufferspace)thatapplicationsrequire.DevelopedbytheInternetEngineeringTaskForce
(IETF),RSVPreliesonenddevicestorequesttheirprioritysothatresourcescanbe
reservedforflowstofacilitatetherequestedQOS.
RTC~RichThinClient~Allabouttechnologiesforthinclientwithrichfunctionality
andwidgetset,asopposedtoHtmlclients
RTD~Real-TimeDecisions~Oracle’sintelligentprocessautomation(IPA)for
operationaldecisions
RTE~real-timeenterprise~Anenterprisethatachievescompetitiveadvantagebyusing
up-to-dateinformationtoprogressivelyremovedelaysinthemanagementandexecution
ofitscriticalbusinessprocesses.
RTE~round-tripengineering~Themechanismusedtosynchronizecodeandmodel
information.Thistermincludesthecodegenerationandreverseengineeringfeatures.
RTF~RichTextFormat~Afileformatthatencodesdocumentssotheirmessages
includeboldface,italicsandotherlimitedtextstylingsacrossplatformsandapplications.
DifferencesexistbetweenimplementationsbyLotusandMicrosoft.
RTG~RadioisotopeThermoelectricGenerators~asimpleelectricalgeneratorwhich
obtainsitspowerfromradioactivedecay
RTG~Receive/transmitTransitionGap~aconceptinthemobilewirelessnetwork,isa
gapbetweenthelastsampleoftheuplinkburstandthefirstsampleofthesubsequent
downlinkburstattheantennaportoftheBSinatimedivisionduplex(TDD)transceiver.
RTGS~RadioisotopeThermoelectricGenerators~asimpleelectricalgeneratorwhich
obtainsitspowerfromradioactivedecay.
RTK~RealTimeKinematic~highly-accurate,highly-repeatablepositioning.WithRTK,
abasestationreceiverisplacedonastable(ideallyimmobile)mount,allowingmultiple
GPSroverreceiverstoutilizethistypeofcorrectionwithinalimitedrangeofthebase
station.
RTM~ReadTheManual~ReadTheManual
RTMP~routingtablemaintenanceprotocol~acommunicationprotocolusedby
AppleTalktoensurethatallroutersonthenetworkhaveconsistentroutinginformation
RTO~recoverytimeobjective~recoverytimeobjective
RTP~Real-timeTransportProtocol~Applicationlayer-RFC3550
RTP~Real-TimeTransportProtocol~Anend-to-endnetwork-transportprotocolsuitable
forapplicationstransmittingreal-timedata(suchasaudio,video,orsimulationdata)over
multicastorunicastnetworkservices.
rtPS~Real-TimePollingService~oneofthefiveQOSservicetypesdefinedintheIEEE
802.16WiMAX.
RTS~requesttosend~Acontrolpacketusedbyastationtoindicatethatithasdatato
send.AftersendinganRTS,thestationmustreceiveacleartosend(CTS)fromthe
destinationstationbeforetransmittingdatapackets.
RTSC~ReadtheSourceCode~asoftwaredeveloperasksaquestionabout
undocumentedcode.
RTSE~ReliableTransferServiceElement~AlightweightISO/OSIapplicationservice
usedaboveX.25networkstohandshakeapplicationPDUsacrossthesessionserviceand
TP0
RTSP~RealTimeStreamingProtocol~RTSPisanofficialInternetstandard
(RFCÂ2326)fordeliveringandreceivingstreamsofdatasuchasaudioandvideo.The
standardallowsforbothreal-time(‘live’)streamsofdataandstreamsfromstoreddata.
RTT~RadioTransmissionTechnology~the“voice�protocolforCDMA-enabled
cellulardevices,usuallyabbreviatedas“1X�.
RTT~Real-TimeTechnology~Referstoatechnologythatallowsausertoreceivedata
duringtheactualtimethataphysicalprocessoccurs,knownasrealtime.Realtimeis
measuredinmillisecondsormicroseconds
RTT~round-triptime~Timerequiredforanetworkcommunicationtotravelfromthe
sourcetothedestinationandback.RTTincludesthetimerequiredforthedestinationto
processthemessagefromthesourceandtogenerateareply.
RTTY~radioteletypewriter~Ateletypewriteremployedinacommunicationsystem
usingradiocircuits.
RTU~RemoteTerminalUnit~adevicelocatedataremotesitetocollectdataand
transmitthedatabacktoacentralstation(ormaster).AnRTUalsocollectsinformation
fromthemasterdeviceandimplementsprocessesthataredirectedbythemaster.
RTU~RightToUse~TheSunsoftwarelicensing,usuallyincludedinthepriceofthe
software
R-UIM~removableuseridentitymodule~Asmartcardthatisdesignedtobeusedin
mobilephonesbasedonÂCDMA.Itallowsroaming
acrossÂCDMAÂandÂGSMÂnetworks.
RUOW~remoteunitofwork~Aunitofworkthatallowsfortheremotepreparationand
executionofSQLstatements.
RUOW~remoteunitofwork~TheformofSQLdistributedprocessinginwhichthe
applicationisonasystemdifferentfromtherelationaldatabase
RUOW~remoteunitofwork~Aunitofworkthatletsauseroranapplicationprogram
readorupdatedataatonelocationperunitofwork.
RUP~RationalUnifiedProcess~RUPisasoftwaredevelopmentprocessfromRational,
adivisionofIBM.Itdividesthedevelopmentprocessintofourdistinctphases
RUS~RecipientUpdateService~MicrosoftExchangeMailServerServicethat
generatesandupdatesemailaddressesseenintheGlobalAddressList(GAL)
RVI~ReverseInterrupt~Acommunicationscontrolcharacterthatistransmittedbya
receivingterminalrequestingacancellationofthecurrenttransmission,sothatitmay
sendamessageofitsownthatisofhigherpriority.
RVLC~ReversibleVariableLengthCode~MPEG-4AudioErrorResilience(ER)
techniquethatreduceserrorpropagationwithinscalefactordata
RW~ReadWrite~Devicecapabilitytoreadandwriteitsmedia
RWI~radioandwireintegration~Thecombiningofwirecircuitswithradiofacilities.
RWM~Read-WriteMemory~MemorywithRWcapability
RWP~RemoteWriteProtocol~AnInternetprotocolforexchangingshortmessages
betweenterminals.
RWU~remotewake-up~agenerictermfortheactionofturningonacomputerovera
networkfromaremotelocation.
RX/RXD~Receive/ReceivingData~Amodemstatussignalindicatedbyalighton
themodem,whichmeansthelocalmodemisreceivingdata.
~S~
S/N~Signal-to-Noise~Theratioofthesignalpowertothenoisepoweratapointina
system(usuallyexpressedindecibels).
S/PDIF~Sony/PhilipsDigitalInterface~Anaudiotransferfileformatthatallowsthe
transferofaudiofromonefiletoanotherwithoutconvertingittoandfromananalog
format,whichcoulddegradethequalityofthefile.
S+~Security+~ACompTIAcertificationinvendor-neutralcomputersecuritytraining.
OneoftherequiredbasiccertificationsmandatedbyDoDInstruction8570.01-MforALL
peoplehavingaccess,eitherasamilitarymemberorasaciviliansupportperson.
S3~SimpleStorageSystem~anonlinestoragewebserviceofferedbyAmazonWeb
ServicesthatfirstbecameavailableintheUSinMarch2006andinEuropeinNovember
2007.
SA~SystemAdministrator~Thesystemadministratoraccountinstalledwith
MicrosoftÂSQLÂServer.Thissystemadministratoraccounthastheusername‘sa’.
SA~SystemAdministrator~Thepersonwhocontrolsandmanagesacomputersystem.
SA~Source-Active~SA(Source-Active)isCiscoterm.
SA~Source-Active~InÂOSI,apersonwhocontrolshowtheopensystemresourcesofa
systemorenterpriseareused.
SAA~SystemsApplicationArchitecture~IBM’sfamilyofstandardinterfaceswhich
enablesoftwaretobewrittenindependentlyofhardwareandoperatingsystems.
SaaS~softwareasaservice~SaaSisasoftwaredistributionmodelinwhichapplications
arehostedbyavendororserviceproviderandmadeavailabletocustomersovera
network,
SAD~SecurityAssociationDatabase~IneachIPsecimplementationthereisanominal
SecurityAssociationDatabase,inwhicheachentrydefinestheparametersassociatedwith
oneSecurityAssociation
SAIC~ScienceApplicationsInternationalCorporation~FoundedbyJ.RobertBeyster,
Ph.D.,andasmallgroupofscientistsin1969,aFORTUNE500®
companyÂhttp://www.saic.com
SALT~SpeechApplicationLanguageTags~Lightweightsetofextensionstoexisting
markuplanguages,inparticularHTMLandXHTMLthatenablemultimodaland
telephonyaccesstoinformation,applicationsandWebservicesfromPCs,telephones,
tabletPCsandwirelesspersonaldigitalassistants
SAM~securityaccountmanager~Anintegralsubsystemthatmaintainsadatabaseof
informationaboutuseraccounts,includingpasswords,anyaccountgroupsagivenuser
belongsto,theaccessrightseachuserisallowed,andanyspecialprivilegesagivenuser
has.
SAM~SerialAccessMemory~aserialregisterbuiltintoaVRAMtoenableitto
transferlargequantitiesofdatafromtheDRAMportionofthedevicetoagraphics
controllerorframebuffer.
SAM~softwareassetmanagement~Aprocessformakingsoftwareacquisitionand
disposaldecisions.Itincludesstrategiesthatidentifyandeliminateunusedorinfrequently
usedsoftware,consolidatingsoftwarelicensesormovingtowardnewlicensingmodels
SAML~SecurityAssertionMarkupLanguage~AnÂXML-basedmechanismthat
enablesdisparateentitiestoexchangeidentity-relatedsecurityinformation.This
informationispresentedasassertionsaboutauthentication,authorizationorvarious
attributesoftheidentityinquestion.
SAN/SANs~StorageAreaNetwork(s)~Astoragenetworkthatconsistsoftwotiers:
SAN/SANs~StorageAreaNetwork(s)~Thefirsttier-thestorageplumbingtierprovidesconnectivitybetweennodesinanetworkandtransportsdevice-oriented
commandsandstatus.
SAN/SANs~StorageAreaNetwork(s)~Thesecondtier-thesoftwaretier-uses
softwaretoprovidevalue-addedservicesthatoperateoverthefirsttier.
SANS~SysAdmin,Audit,Network,Security~themosttrustedandbyfarthelargest
sourceforinformationsecuritytrainingandcertificationintheworld
SANS~SystemAdministration,NetworkingandSecurityinstitute~Organizationthat
develops,maintains,andmakesavailableatnocost,thelargestcollectionofresearch
documentsaboutvariousaspectsofinformationsecurity,anditoperatestheInternet’s
earlywarningsystem-InternetStormCenter.
SAP~ServiceAccessPoint~Alogicaladdressthatallowsasystemtoroutedata
betweenaremotedeviceandtheappropriatecommunicationssupport.
SAP~ServiceAccessPoint~InOSIarchitecture,thepointatwhichtheservicesofa
layerareprovidedbyanentityofthatlayertoanentityofthenexthigherlayer.
SAP~ServiceAccessPoint~Theprotocolandcredentialsassociatedwithadatacenter
deviceforauthenticationofremoteoperations.
SAP~ServiceAdvertisingProtocol~Novell’sProtocolprovidesinformationaboutwhat
serversareavailableonthenetwork.
SAP~SecondaryAudioProgram~AnNTSCaudiochannelusedforauxiliary
transmission,suchasforeignlanguagebroadcastingorteletext.
SAP~Systeme,Anwendungen,Produkte~Agermancompanythatproducestheleading
suiteofclient-serverbusinesssoftware(‘Systems,ApplicationsandProductsindata
processing’).Âwww.sap.com
SAR~segmentationandreassembly~theprocessusedtofragmentandrebuildpackets
thatallowsthemtobetransportedacrossÂasynchronoustransfermode(ATM)
SAS~SecureAttentionSequence~Akeysequencethatbeginstheprocessofloggingon
oroff.ThedefaultsequenceisCTRL+ALT+DEL
SAS~SerialAttachedSCSI~AreplacementfortheParallelSCSIphysicalstorage
interface.SerialAttachedSCSIoffersmuchfastercommunicationandeasier
configuration.
SAS~singleattachmentstation~Deviceattachedonlytotheprimaryringof
aÂFDDIÂring.AlsoknownasaClassBstation.
SAS~StatisticalAnalysisSystem~SASInstitute,abusinessintelligencesoftware
vendor,foundedin1976andheadquarteredinCary,NorthCarolina.Âwww.sas.com
SAS70~StatementonAuditingStandardsNo.70~definesthestandardsanauditormust
employinordertoassessthecontractedinternalcontrolsÂwww.sas70.com
SASL~SimpleAuthenticationandSecurityLayer~Anextensibleauthenticationscheme
thatallowstheOpenDirectoryPasswordServertosupportavarietyofnetworkuser
authenticationmethodsrequired.
SAST~Staticapplicationsecuritytesting~asetoftechnologiesdesignedtoanalyze
applicationsourcecode,bytecodeandbinariesforcodinganddesignconditionsthatare
indicativeofsecurityvulnerabilities.
SatNav~Satellitenavigation~softwarewhichfindsyourphysicalgeographicallocation
thengivesyoudirectionsonwhichwaytotravel.Thisismostcommonlyusedin
specialisthand-helddevicesaswellasmobilephones.
SATA~SerialATA~adisk-interfacetechnologydevelopedbyagroupoftheindustry’s
leadingvendorstoreplaceparallelATA.ItisthenaturalsuccessortoIDE.SerialATAonly
requiressevenwiresperdevice(4dataand3ground)andthecablescanbeupto1mlong.
SAV~SymantecAntiVirus~PreviouslycalledÂNortonAntiVirus(NAV)
SAX~SimpleAPIforXML~Apublic-domainalternativetoÂDOMÂforenabling
programminglanguagestoworkwithXMLdocuments.SAXisÂAPIÂthatuses‘start
events’and‘stopevents’toparseanXMLdocumentsothatanapplicationcaninteract
withit.
SB~SoundBlaster~SoundBlasterbrandbyCreativeLabs
SBAS~Satellite-BasedAugmentationSystem~systemsbroadcastfreecorrectionsignals
fromgeo-stationarysatellitestoimprovetheaccuracy,integrityandavailabilityofthe
GPSnetwork
SBB~StorageBridgeBay~specificationcreatedinMarch2006byanonprofitworking
group,includingcollaborativevendorssuchasIntel,Dell,EMCandLSI,whichdefines
SBBasthemechanical/electricalinterfacebetweenapassivebackplanedrivearrayand
theelectronicspackagesthatgivethearrayitspersonality.
SBC~SessionBorderController~AnappliancethatsimplifieshandlingofVoIPatthe
borderofanetwork
SBC~single-boardcomputer~acompletecomputerthatresidesonasingleprinted
circuitboard,usuallyasmallone.
SBCS~single-bytecharacterset~Acodedcharactersetinwhicheachcharacteris
representedbya1-bytecode.
SBCS~SmartBusinessCommunicationsÂSystem~Ciscounifiedcommunications
appliancethatprovidesvoiceanddatacommunications,voicemail,automatedattendant,
video,security,andwirelesscapabilitieswhileintegratingwithexistingdesktop
applications
SBL~SpamhausBlockList~RealtimedatabaseofIPaddressesofverifiedspamsources
andspamoperations,maintainedbytheSpamhausProjectteamandsuppliedasafree
servicetohelpemailadministratorsbettermanageincomingemailstreams.
SBLOG~spamblog~afakeblogcreatedsolelytopromoteaffiliatedWebsites,withthe
intentofskewingsearchresultsandartificiallyboostingtraffic.
SBM~SubnetBandwidthManager~AnIETFproposedstandardforhandlingresource
reservationsonsharedandswitchedIEEE802-stylelocal-areamedia
SBS~SmallBusinessServer~TakentorefertoSmallBusinessServer2003(orearlier
versions)fromMicrosoft.
SBSD~SlowButSureDeath~termusedbyhardwarerepairpeoplethatreferstothefact
thatcomputersarenotinquestionastoIFtheywillcrashanddie;itisonlyamatterof
when.Thethreelethalfactorsareheat,powerthatisnotcleanandcigarettesmoke
residue.
SCA~Servicecomponentarchitecture~acollectionofspecifications(proposedand
published)byaconsortiumofvendors.
SCADA~SupervisoryControlAndDataAcquisition~Usedextensivelybypower,
water,gasandotherutilitycompaniestomonitorandmanagedistributionfacilities.They
arealsousedtomonitorandcontrolenduserusagelevelsforpurposessuchasremote
meterreadingandloadshedding.
SCAI~Switch-to-ComputerApplicationsInterface~Protocolthatallowssubscriberâ
€™scomputertointeractwithdigitalswitch,makingitpossibletocoordinateinformation
indatabasewithincomingandoutgoingphonecallstoallowcompanyrepresentativeto
receivecustomercallandsimultaneouslyreceivecustomer’sfileforviewingondesktop
workstation.
SCAM~SCSIConfiguredAuto-Magically~ThisSCAMisactuallyagoodthing.It
allowsSCSIdevicestoautomaticallybeconfiguredwithanIDnumber,eveniftheyarenâ
€™tassignedone.
SCCM~Softwarechangeandconfigurationmanagement~SCCMtoolsareproductsand
suitesthatsupportthestructuredapproval,assignment,monitoring,executionand
reportingofchangestosoftwareproductsforteamsandteamsofteams.
SCCP~SignalingConnectionandControlPart~SS7protocolthatprovidesadditional
functionstoMessageTransferPart(MTP).TypicallysupportsTransactionCapabilities
ApplicationPart(TCAP).
SCCS~SourceCodeControlSystem~Asuiteofutilitiestoadministratesourcecode
suchthatonlyonepersoncanchangeanygivenfileatanygiveninstant.
SCM~ServiceControlManager~TheWindowscomponentthatmaintainsadatabaseof
installedservicesandmanageseachservice’sstate.
SCM~SpecifcCoverageMetric~Acodedatabaseusedtoenablethecollaborative
developmentoflargeprojectsbymultipleengineers.SCMrepositoriesaremanagedby
specifictools,whichmanagetherepositoryandhandlecheck-insandcheck-outsofcode
resourcesbyengineers.
SCM~SourceCodeManagement~Howmuchofanapplication’sfunctionalityis
testedforsecurity
SCM~Sourceconfigurationmanagement~asetofactivitiestocontrolchangeby
identifyingthesoftwareworkproductsthatarelikelytochange,establishingrelationships
amongthem,definingmechanismsformanagingdifferentversions,andauditingand
reporting.
SCM~supplychainmanagement~Theprocessofoptimizingthedeliveryofgoods,
servicesandinformationfromsuppliertocustomer.SCMisasetofbusinessprocesses
thatengagesatrading-partnercommunityinthecommongoalofsatisfyingtheend
customer.
SCO~SantaCruzOperation~softwarecompanybasedinSantaCruz,Californiawhich
wasbestknownforsellingthreeUNIXvariantsforIntelx86processors:Xenix,SCO
UNIX,andUnixWare.http://www.sco.com/
SCOM~SystemCenterOperationManager~End-to-endservice-managementproduct
thatisthebestchoiceforWindowsbecauseitworksseamlesslywithMicrosoftsoftware
andapplications,helpingorganizationsincreaseefficiencywhileenablinggreatercontrol
oftheITenvironment
SCORM~SharableCoursewareObjectReferenceModel~asetoftechnicalstandards
thatenableWeb-basedlearningsystemstofind,import,share,reuse,andexportlearning
contentinastandardizedway.
SCP~SecureCopy~Asecureprotocolfortransferringfilesoveranetwork.
SCP~Service/SignalControlPoint~ApartofSS7.ASCPisusuallyahostcomputer
withdatabases.
SCPC~singlechannelpercarrier~Atransmissionsysteminwhichaphysicalchannelis
allocatedsolelytoonecarrierforthedurationofthetransmission.
SCR~SustainableCellRate~anupperboundontheconformingaveragerateofanATM
connectionovertimescaleswhicharelongrelativetothoseforwhichthePCRisdefined.
SCSI~SmallComputerSystemInterface~AnANSI-standardelectronicinterfacethat
allowspersonalcomputerstocommunicatewithperipheralhardware.Nowobsolete
SCSL~SunCommunitySourceLicensing~TheSunMicrosystemslicensemodelfor
Java.Theagreementleveragesacommunity-baseddevelopmentmodelsimilarto‘opensourcesoftware’initiativesthathaveexistedovertheyears.
ScTP~screenedtwistedpair~Acablewherethetwistedpairisscreenedfrom
electromagneticinterferencebyathinaluminumscreen.
SCTP~StreamControlTransmissionProtocol~setofrulesfortransmittingmultiple
streamsofdataatthesametimebetweentwoendpointsthathaveanestablishednetwork
connection.
SCWCD~SunCertifiedWebComponentDeveloper~Aspecialtyperformance-based
certificationprogramofferedbySunMicrosystems(partofOracleÂCorporation)that
targetsinformationregardingJavacomponentsrelatedtoWebapplications,specifically
ServletsandÂJSP.
SD~SalesandDistribution~SDisSAPterm.
SD~SecureDigital~SDisatypeofmemorycardusedforstoringdataindevicessuch
asdigitalcameras,PDAs,mobilephones,portablemusicplayers,anddigitalvoice
recorders.
SD~SpanDestination~SDisCiscoterm
SDDL~SecurityDescriptorDefinitionLanguage~aformalwaytospecifyMicrosoft
Windowssecuritydescriptorsortextstringsthatdescribewhoownsvariousobjectssuch
asfilesinthesystem.Thesecuritydescriptormayalsoprovideanaccesscontrollistforan
objectorgroupofobjects.
SDDM~sourcedistributeddatamanager~Inadistributeddatamanagementnetwork,
programmingsupportthattranslateslocaldatamanagementrequestsforremotefilesor
SQLrequestsforaremotedatabaseintoaDDMrequest
SDDS~SonyDynamicDigitalSound~Multi-channel(5.1or7.1)digitalaudioformat,
compressedfromPCMat48kHz.Thedataratecangoupto1280kbps
SDEP~sequentialdependentsegment~Asegmentofadataentrydatabasethatis
chainedofftherootsegmentandinserted(last-infirst-out)intothelastpartofaDEDB
area.
SDFI~SecureDigitalForensicImaging~Asynchronousmethodoftelemedicine.It
denotesaspecificprocessthatensuresthefast,safeandsecurecapture,storageandinstant
deliveryofdigitalforensicevidence
SDH~SynchronousDataHierarchy~TheEuropeanstandardforusingopticalmediaas
thephysicaltransportforhigh-speed,long-haulnetworks.
SDH~SynchronousDigitalHierarchy~ITU-TSSInternationalstandard,similarto
SONET.Atechniqueforassemblingandtransmittingcomponentdigitalsignals,for
exampleforindividualphonecalls,intoasinglehighbitratedigitaldatastream.
SDK~softwaredevelopmentkit~Asetofdevelopmentutilitiesforwritingsoftware
applications,usuallyassociatedwithspecificsoftwareenvironments(forexample,the
JavaDevelopmentKit).
SDLC~SynchronousDataLinkControl~Linklayer-CiscoTechnologyHandbook:
SDLCandDerivatives
SDLC~Softwaredevelopmentlifecycle~methodologiesarebasedontheprinciplethat
securityimplementationshouldn’tbeanisolatedprocess,butratherpartofa
comprehensivesoftwareengineeringprocess.
SDLC~SynchronousDataLinkControl~Alink-levelcommunicationsprotocolusedin
anIBMSNAnetworkthatmanagessynchronous,code-transparent,serialinformation
transferoveralinkconnection
SDLT~SuperDigitalLinearTape~AÂQuantumÂstorageproductarchitecturethat
extendsthecapacityandtransferrateofÂDLTdrives.
SDMA~spatialdivisionmultipleaccess~asatellitecommunicationsmodeforusingdata
fromantennaarraysinwirelesscommunicationssystems.
SDN~SecondaryDirectoryNumber~Atelephonenumberthatispickedupona
telephoneset,butwhichisaPDNonanotherinstrument.
SDN~SoftwareDefinedNetwork~SoftwareDefinedNetwork
SDO~ServiceDataObjects~Anopenstandardforenablingapplicationstohandledata
fromheterogeneousdatasourcesinauniformway,basedontheconceptofadisconnected
datagraph.
SDO~ServiceDataObjects~Frameworkthatsimplifiesandunifiesdataapplication
developmentinaSOA.ItsupportsandintegratesXMLandincorporatesJ2EEpatterns
andbestpractices
SDP~ServiceDeliveryPlatform~Oracle’splatfromcontainsthetelephonyfunctionality,
isgearedtowardserviceprovidersandnottowardenterprises.Â
SDP~SessionDescriptionProtocol~AtextfileusedwithQuickTimeStreamingServer
thatprovidesinformationabouttheformat,timing,andauthorshipofalivestreaming
broadcastandgivestheuser’scomputerinstructionsfortuningin.
SDR~software-definedradio~software-definedradio
SDRAM~SynchronousDynamicRandomAccessMemory~Atypeofhigh-speed
DRAMthatcantransferburstsofnon-contiguousdataat100MB/secondorgreaterand
workswithupto100MHzprocessorspeeds.
SDS~SuddenDeathSyndrome~Usedindigitalphotographywhenyourcameradiesa
suddendeath
SDSL~SymmetricDigitalSubscriberLine~SDSLisatypeofofDSL,whichisusedfor
transferringdataovercoppertelephonelines.The‘symmetric’partofthetermmeansthat
anSDSLconnectionhasthesamemaximumuploadanddownloadspeeds.
SDTV~StandardDefinitiontelevision~thedigitaltelevisionformatthatprovidesa
videoqualityneartheequivalentofDVD.SDTVandHDTVarethetwodesignationsof
displayformatsfordigitaltelevision(DTV)transmissions,whicharestandardsasof2004.
SDVO~SerialDigitalVideoOutput~Makesitpossibletousea16-lanePCIexpressslot
toaddadditionalvideosignalinginterfacessuchasVGAandDVImonitoroutputs,SDTV
andHDTVtelevisionoutputs,orTVtunerinputstoasystemboardcontainingan
integratedIntel9xx-seriesgraphicsprocessor.
SDX~StorageDataAcceleration~ThistechnologywasintroducedbyWesternDigital.
TheideabehinditisthatslowerdrivessuchasCDandDVDdriveswouldattachdirectly
tolarger,fasterharddrives.
SE~secureelement~agenerictermthatdescribestheplacewhereamobilecontactless
applicationisstoredsecurely.
SEAL~simpleandefficientAAL~methodofrelayingÂATMÂcellsbetweenATM
Layerandahigherlayer
SEA-ME-WE~SoutheastAsia-MiddleEast-WesternEurope2~Asubmarinecable
networkthatwentintooperationin1994,linkingoveronedozencountriesfromFranceto
Singapore.
SEA-ME-WE3~SoutheastAsia-MiddleEast-WesternEurope3~Afiber-optic
submarinecablenetworkthatwentintoservicein1999,linkingover30countriesbetween
WesternEuropeandSoutheastAsia.
SEAS~SaaS-enabledapplicationserver~platformmiddlewarethatisspeciallydesigned
withmultitenantcapabilitiesintransactionisolation,dataaccessisolation,andsecurity
andperformanceisolationtosupportthedesignanddeploymentofSaaS-stylebusiness
applications.
SEC~SiemensEnterpriseCommunications~ajointventureoftheÂSiemensÂparent
companyandTheÂGoresGroup,emergingasasignificantcompetitorintheenterprise
UCmarket.
SECAM~SequentialCouleuraMemoire~Acolortelevisionbroadcastingsystemusing
625picturelinesanda50-hertzfieldfrequency,inwhichthetwocolor-differencesignals
aretransmittedsequentiallyinsteadofsimultaneously.ItwasdevelopedinFranceandis
alsousedintheformerSovietUnion.
SEG~securee-mailgateway~solutionsthatprovideenterprisemessagetransferagent
(MTA)capabilities,offerprotectionagainstinboundandoutbounde-mailthreats
SEM~StrategicEnterpriseManagement~AsuiteofSAPanalyticalapplicationsthat
supportintegratedplanning,decisionmakingandperformancemonitoring.SEMuses
multidimensionalÂOLAPÂfunctionalitytoprocessdataheldinSAP’sBusiness
InformationWarehouse.
SEN~SiemensEnterpriseCommunications~providesprofessionalbusinesssolutions,
managedservices&unifiedcommunicationstoallbusinesstypes.Âwww.siemensenterprise.com
SEO~SearchEngineOptimization~JustabouteveryWebmasterwantshisorhersiteto
appearinthetoplistingsofallthemajorsearchengines.Say,forexample,thatBobruns
anonlinesoccerstore.Hewantshissitetoshowupinthetopfewlistingswhensomeone
searchesfor‘soccershoes.’
SERK~ServerExtensionsResourceKit~MicrosoftFrontpageserverextensions
additionaldocumentationandsoftware
SERP~SearchEngineResultsPage~thepagethatyouseeafteryouperformasearch
usingasearchengine.Itincludesalistofsearchresultsthatarerelevanttothesearch
phraseorkeywordsyouentered.
SES~SecureEasySetup~Asimplepush-buttonconfigurationmethodthatautomates
wirelessnetworkconnectionsetupbetweenLinksysroutersandwirelessdevices
SES~SeverelyErroredSeconds~AunitusedtospecifytheerrorperformanceofT
carriersystems.Thisindicatesasecondcontainingtenormoreerrors,usuallyexpressed
asSESperhour,day,orweek.
SET~SecureElectronicTransaction~Astandardinconceived1995byÂVisaÂand
MasterCardtoensurethatallInternet-basedpaymenttransactiondetailsareencrypted,the
partiesauthenticated,acknowledgmentsfullyrecordedandthecustomerpaymentdetails
madeavailableonlytothebank.
SETI~SearchofExtraterrestrialIntelligence~thecollectivenameforanumberof
activitiestodetectintelligentextraterrestriallife.SETIprojectssurveytheskytodetect
theexistenceoftransmissionsfromacivilizationonadistantplanet.
SEX~SunUsers’Group&elsewhere~Atechniqueinventedbytheblue-greenalgae
hundredsofmillionsofyearsagotospeeduptheirevolution,whichhadbeenterribly
slowupuntilthen.
SFA~SalesForceAutomation~Theprocessofusingsoftwaretoautomatethebusiness
tasksofsales,includingorderprocessing,contactmanagement,informationsharing,
inventorymonitoringandcontrol,ordertracking,customermanagement,salesforecast
analysisandemployeeperformanceevaluation.
SFD~Start-of-framedelimiter(Ethernet,HDLC,etc.)~Linklayer-IEEE802.3
(Ethernet),orRFC2687(HDLC),forexamples
SFD~Start-of-FrameDelimiter~Adatapacketonthewireiscalledaframe.Aframe
beginswithPreambleandSFD,followingwhicheachEthernetframefeaturesanEthernet
headerfeaturingsourceanddestinationMACaddresses.
SFF~SmallFormFactor~Adevicethatissmallerthanothersinitsfield.
SFP~Smallform-factorpluggable~Hardware-SeagateSpecification
SFP~SmallForm-factorPluggable~Astandardhotswappablesmallmulti-pinconector
usedmostlyforfibrechannelopticalmodulesondiskarraycontrollers.
SFTP~SSHFileTransferProtocol(orprogram)~Anetworkprotocolprovidingfile
transferandmanipulationoverasecuredatastream.
SFTP~SSHFileTransferProtocol(orprogram)~SFTPclientisacommand-line
programthatimplementstheclientpartofSFTP,suchasthatsuppliedwithOpenSSH.
SFU~ServicesForUnix~AsetoftoolstobetterintegrateexistingUnixandWindows
environments
SGC~ServerGatedCryptology~SGCisatechnologyforanotherleveloftransaction
andoperationsecurityontheInternet.Itisassociatedwithonlinebanking.
SGF~StructuredGraphicsFormat~AnapplicationoftheÂXML,thatisusedto
describeaWebsitesothatitspagesandcontentcanbedisplayedandaccessedina
structured,usuallytabularform.
SGI~SiliconGraphicsIncorporated~SGIwasfoundedbyDr.JamesClarkin1982and
haditsinitialpublicofferingin1986.Itisbestknownforproductsusedtodevelop
computergraphicssuchasthoseusedtocreatespecialeffectsandanimationinmotion
pictures.ÂHTTP://WWW.SGI.COM
SGML~StandardGeneralizedMarkupLanguage~Developedin1986SGMLprovidesa
richsetofrulesfordefiningnewdataformats.Awell-knownexampleofusingSGML
isÂXML,whichisasubsetofSGML:ThedefinitionofXMLisallofSGMLminusa
coupleofdozenitems.SGMLisanInternationalStandardsOrganization(ISO)standard:
ISO8879:1986.
SGRAM~SynchronousGraphicsRandomAccessmemory~atypeofmemorythatis
optimizedforgraphicsuse.SGRAMiscapableofrunningatmuchhigherspeedsthanfast
pageorEDODRAM.
SGSN~ServiceGPRSSupportNode~mediatesaccesstonetworkresourcesonbehalfof
mobilesubscribers(MS)andimplementsthepacketschedulingpolicybetweendifferent
QoSclasses.
SHA~SecureHashAlgorithm~Ahashingalgorithmthatgeneratesa160-bithashvalue
(SHA-1).UsedwiththeDigitalSignatureAlgorithm(DSA)intheDigitalSignature
Standard(DSS),amongotherplaces
S-HTTP~SecureHTTP(rarelyused)~Transportandotherlayers-RFC2660Seealso
https
S-HTTP~SecureHypertextTransportProtocol~AlsoknownasHTTPS,thisisan
extensionofHypertextTransportProtocol(HTTP)thatprovidessecurityservicesfor
transactionconfidentiality,authenticityandintegritybetweenHTTPserversandclients.
SI~systemintegration~Theprocessofcreatingacomplexinformationsystem.This
processmayincludedesigningorbuildingacustomizedarchitectureorapplication,and
integratingitwithneworlegacyhardware,packagedandcustomsoftware,and
communications.
SI~systemintegrator~Anorganizationoranindividualthatperformssystem
integration.Majorsystemintegrationprojectsoftenrequiretheassistanceofaspecialty
firmthathastheresourcesandexpertisetomanageaprojectplanthatcouldlastover
severalmonthsorevenyears.
SID~SecurityIdentifier~Auniquevalueassignedtoanobjectbywhichitisidentified.
Securityzones-AtechniqueusedinIEtoallowyoutoassigndifferentlevelsofsecurity
todifferentsetsofWebsitesdependingonwherethey’relocatedorhowmuchyoutrust
them.
SIEM(SEM&SIM)~SecurityInformationandEventManagement~Originallytools
forregulatorycompliance,logmanagementandanalysis,trouble-shootingandforensic
analysis.Thisisspreadingintosoftwareandappliancesthatarebeginningtoplayabig
roleinproactivesecurity.
SigBlock~signatureblock~Thesignatureblockthatautomaticallyappearsattheendof
everyoutgoinge-mailmessage.
SIIA~Software&InformationIndustryAssociation~Anassociationforsoftware
companies.SeealsoÂhttp://www.siia.net/
SIIT~StatelessIp/IcmpTranslationalgorithm~TranslatesbetweenIPv4andIPv6
packetheaders(includingICMPheaders)inseparatetranslator‘boxes’inthenetwork
withoutrequiringanyper-connectionstateinthose‘boxes’
SIL~SafetyIntegrityLevel~arelativelevelofrisk-reductionprovidedbyasafety
function,ortospecifyatargetlevelofriskreduction
SIM~SecurityInformationManagement~Softwaredesignedtoautomatethecollection
ofeventlogdatafromsecuritydevicesandhelpingusersmakesenseofitthrougha
commonmanagementconsole
SIM~subscriberidentitymodule~Asmall,programmablesmartcardcontaininga
cellularservicesubscriber’sidentitykey.TheSIMcontainscodestoidentifyasubscriber
toadigitalmobileserviceandthedetailsofthespecialservicesthesubscriberhaselected
touse.
SIMD~SingleInstructionMultipleData~Aprocessorinstructionthatcanperform
operationsacrossmultipledatainstructions.
SIMM~singlein-linememorymodule~asmallcircuitboardthatcanholdagroupof
memorychips.Typically,SIMMsholdup8(onMacintoshes)or9(onPCs)RAMchips.
OnPCs,theninthchipisoftenusedforparityerrorchecking.Unlikememorychips,
SIMMsaremeasuredinbytesratherthanbits.
Simulcast~simultaneousbroadcast~Asimulcastisabroadcastthatcanbesharedlive
withmultiplesites.
SIP~SessionInitiationProtocol~TheIPequivalentofITUStandardNumber7
Signaling(SS7).AcontrolprotocoldevelopedwithinIETFforcreating,modifyingand
terminatingmultipartysessions,particularlyInternetconferencingandInternettelephony
sessions.Â
SIPP~StableImagePlatformProgram~AprogramlaunchedbyÂIntelÂinJune2003.
SIPPaimstogivePCmanufacturersandenterprisesgreaterplatformstabilityand
advancednoticeoffuturePCdesktopandnotebookchanges.
SiS~SiliconIntegratedSystems~aworldwideleaderinthedevelopment,manufacturing
andmarketingofleading-edgelogicproducts,includingcorelogic,multimedia,
connectivityandinformationappliances
SIS~SingleInstanceStore~Architecturedesignedtomaintainduplicatefileswitha
minimumofdisk,cache,andbackupmediaoverhead
SIS~studentinformationsystem~Asystemusedinacademicenvironmentstoenrolland
registerstudents,andtotrackstudentinformationsuchaspriortranscripts,coursestaken,
gradesreceivedandprogresstowardadegree.
SISMAPI~SiebelInternetSessionNetworkAPI~aproprietary(originallySiebel
Systems,nowÂOracle)messageformatprotocolusedforcommunicationsbetween
variousSiebelapplicationcomponents.
SITA~SocieteInternationaledeTelecommunicationsAeronautiques~AEuropean
provideroftelecommunicationsandITservicestotheairlineindustry,headquarteredin
Geneva.
SIU~smallestinstallableunit~Thefileorsetoffilesthatcomprisetheatomic(non-
aggregated)installableunit(IU)thatisintendedtobedeployedintoasinglehosting
environment.
SIX~SharedwithIntenteXclusive~Databasemanagementsystem’slockingattribute
SKMS~ServiceKnowledgeManagementSystem~ServiceKnowledgeManagement
System
SKU~StockKeepingUnit~Thenumberofeachspecificproductavailableforsale.For
example,ifahardwaredeviceorsoftwarepackagecomesindifferentversions,thereisan
SKUforeachone.
SL~ScientificLinux~ScientificLinux(SL)isaLinuxdistributionproducedbyFermi
NationalAcceleratorLaboratoryandtheEuropeanOrganizationforNuclearResearch
(CERN).
SLA~ServiceLevelAgreement~Defineshowaserviceshouldperformandthe
sanctionsifitfailstoperform.http://www.slf4j.org/
SLARP~SerialLineARP(AddressResolutionProtocol)~LinkandotherlayersArchivedCiscoSerialLineEncapsulationextension
SLI~ScalableLinkInterface~Methodforlinkingtwo(ormore)videocardstogetherto
produceasingleoutput.Itisanapplicationofparallelprocessingforcomputergraphics,
meanttoincreasetheprocessingpoweravailableforgraphics
SLIC~SubscriberLineInterfaceCard~InterfacebetweenhomephonelinesandÂCO
SLIP~SerialLineInternetProtocol(obs.)~Telecom-RFC1055
SLIP~SerialLineInternetProtocol~Astandardthatwaspopularintheearly1990’sfor
usingaregulartelephoneline(aserialline)andaÂmodemÂtoconnectacomputerasa
realInternetÂsite.SLIPhaslargelybeenreplacedbyÂPPP.
SLM~servicelevelmanagement~Thedisciplined,proactivemethodologyusedto
ensurethatadequatelevelsofservicearedeliveredtoallITusersinaccordancewith
businessprioritiesandatacceptablecost.
SLPDA~ServiceLocationProtocolDirectoryAgent~Aprotocolthatregistersservices
availableonanetworkandgivesuserseasyaccesstothem.Whenaserviceisaddedtothe
network,theserviceusesSLPtoregisteritselfonthenetwork.
SLR~ScalableLinearRecording~Aquarter-inchtapeformatdevelopedbystorage
vendorTanbergData.
SLS~SoftlandingLinuxSystem~OneofthefirstLinuxdistributions,originallyshipped
onanumberoffloppies,thateventuallybecametheSlackwaredistribution.
SLSI~SuperLargeScaleofIntegration~Theprocessofplacingfrom50,000to100,000
circuitcomponents.Also,thequalityoftheirconnections
SM/SI~SocialMiningandSocialIntelligence~processesfordevelopingandapplying
analyticstosocialcontent.Thesetechnologieswillenableorganizationstodiscoverand
makesenseoftheknowledge,behaviors,affiliationsandtendenciesofWebcommunities,
societiesandenvironments.
SMART~Self-MonitoringAnalysisAndReportingTechnology~Itisusedtoprotect
andpreventerrorsinharddrives.TheSMARTtechnologybasicallymonitorsand
analyzesharddrives(hencethename),thenchecksthehealthofyourharddriveandlets
youknowifthereareanyproblems.
SMASH~Simple,ManyAndSelf-Healing~SupercomputingarchitecturebyIBM
SMATV~satellitemasterantennatelevision~Transmissionoftelevisionprogramming
toaSatelliteMasterAntennainstalledontopofanapartmentbuilding,ahotel,orat
anothercentrallocationfromwhereitservesaprivategroupofviewers.Thetransmission
usuallyisdoneinC-bandto1.5or2meterdishes.
SMB~ServerMessageBlock~Acommonformatforsharingfiles,directoriesand
devicesinMicrosoft’soperatingsystems
SMBP~ServerMessageBlockProtocol~Thisarchitectureprovidesamethodforclient
applicationsinacomputertoreadandwritetofilesonandtorequestservicesfromserver
programsinacomputernetwork,localordistant.
SMD~StorageModuleDevice~Anindustry-standardinterfaceusedforlarge-capacity,
high-performancedisks
SMDR~stationmessagedetailrecording~Acomputergeneratedreportshowinginternal
usageonatelephonesystem;usuallyincludesextensionnumber,trunknumberused,
phonenumberdialed,timeofcall,durationandoperatorinvolvement.
SMDS~SwitchedMultimegabitDataService~public,packet-switchedserviceaimedat
enterprisesthatneedtoexchangelargeamountsofdataoverthewide-areanetworkona
nonconstantor‘bursty’basis.
SMF~SemanticModellingFormat~XML-basedlanguagethatcanbeusedtopersist
EnglishQuerymodelinformation
SMI~StructureofManagementInformation~IntheSNMP,therulesusedtodefinethe
objectsthatcanbeaccessedbymeansofanetworkmanagementprotocol.
SMiShing~SMSphishing~atypeofphishingattackwheremobilephoneusersreceive
textmessagescontainingaWebsitehyperlink,which,ifclickedwoulddownloadaTrojan
horsetothemobilephone.
SMLT~SplitMulti-LinkTrunking~animprovementoverMulti-LinkTrunking(MLT),
amethodoflinkaggregationthatallowsmultipleEthernetlinkstobeaggregatedtogether,
andhandledasasinglelogicaltrunk.
SMP~SimpleManagementProtocol~anothernameforSNMP2.SNMP2isanenhanced
versionoftheSNMPwithfeaturesrequiredtosupportlargernetworksoperatingathigh
datatransmissionrates.
SMP~SymetricMultiProcessing~AmultiprocessingarchitecturedevelopedbyInteland
agroupofleadingPCmanufacturers.Thearchitecturedescribeshowmultipleprocessors
inthesameservercansharethesamesystemmemoryandprovideincreased
performance/scalability.
SMS~SecurityManagementSystem~TippingPointAppliancemanagesmultipleIPS
systems
SMS~ShortMessageService~Abidirectionalpagingfunctionthatisbuilt
intoÂGSMÂsystems.Eachmessagecanbeupto160characterslong.Thenetworkstores
messagesforseveraldaysandattemptstodeliverthemessageswhenevertheportable
phoneisswitchedon.
SMS~SystemsManagementServer~Microsoft’spremierremote,large-batchcomputer
managementapplication.Usedtoinventorylargenumbers,determinecapabilitiesofeach,
anddeployselectedsoftwaretosystemsthatarecapableofreceivingthesoftware.
SMSC~ShortMessagingServiceCenter~Onawirelessnetwork,SMSCallowsshort
textmessagestobeexchangedbetweenmobilecelltelephonesandothernetworks.
SMSC~SmartMixed-SignalConnectivity~globalsupplierofsemiconductorsolutions
thatdistributevideo,sound,photosanddatainthehome,automobile,officeand
factory.Âwww.smsc.com
SMSI~SimplifiedMessageServiceInterface~ALucentTechnologiesservicethat
transmitsout-of-bandinformationbetweenDirectTalkandcertainswitches.
SMTP~SimpleMailTransferProtocol~Applicationlayer-RFC5321
SMTP~SimpleMailTransferProtocol~AÂTCP/IPÂprotocolgoverningelectronic
mailtransmissionandreception.
SN~SequenceNumber~AcellsentperiodicallyoneachlinkofanAIMUXtoindicate
howmanycellshavebeentransmittedsincethepreviousSNcell.
SNA~SystemsNetworkArchitecture(IBM)~Multiplelayers-SNAProtocolSuite
SNA~SocialNetworkAnalysis~atechniqueforanalyzingpatternsofrelationships
amongpeopleingroups,andtherolesthatindividualsplayinaninformalnetwork.It
involvescollectingdatafrommultiplesources,analyzingthedatatoidentifyrelationships
andminingitfornewinformation.
SNA~SystemsNetworkArchitecture~AnIBM-developednetworkarchitecture,with
layerssimilartothoseoftheÂOSIÂnetworkreferencemodel
SNAP~SubNetAccessProtocol~Linklayer-IEEE802OverviewandArchitecture
SNAP~Sub-NetworkAccessProtocol~astandardforthetransmissionofIPdatagrams
overIEEE802networks.
SNC~SupplyNetworkCollaboration~SAP’sSCMtool
SNI~SwitchNodeInterface~Thelink(s)betweenaPPNandanEPNoverwhichcontrol
informationispassed.
SNIPS~System&NetworkIntegratedPollingSoftware~aÂsystemandnetwork
monitoringsoftwareÂthatrunsonUnixsystemsandcanmonitornetworkandsystem
devices.ItiscapableofmonitoringDNS,NTP,TCPorwebports,hostperformance,
syslogs,radiusservers,BGPpeers,etc.Newmonitorscanbeaddedeasily
SNMP~SimpleNetworkManagementProtocol~Applicationlayer-RFC1155,RFC
3410thruRFC3418andothers
SNMP~SimpleNetworkManagementProtocol~Asetofstandardsforcommunication
withdevicesconnectedtoaÂTCP/IPÂnetwork.Examplesofthesedevicesinclude
routers,hubs,andswitches.AdeviceissaidtobeSNMPcompatibleifitcanbemonitored
and/orcontrolledusingSNMPmessages.
SNS~socialnetworkingsite~anyWebsitethatenablesuserstocreatepublicprofiles
withinthatWebsiteandformrelationshipswithotherusersofthesameWebsitewho
accesstheirprofile.Socialnetworkingsitescanbeusedtodescribecommunity-based
Websites,onlinediscussionsforums,chatroomsandothersocialspacesonline.
SOA~ServiceOrientedArchitecture~Whenbusinessesgrow,theyoftenaddnew
productsandservices.Whiletheseadditionsmayhelpmakethebusinesslarger,itisoften
difficulttoimplementtheminanefficientmanner.ThegoalofSOAistomakeiteasyfor
businessestogrowandaddnewservices.more…
SOA~StartofAuthority~SOAisfordomainnamesystemrecord
SOAP~SimpleObjectAccessProtocol~SOAPisamethodoftransferringmessages,or
smallamountsofinformation,overtheInternet.SOAPmessagesareformattedinXML
andaretypicallysentusingHTTP(hypertexttransferprotocol).Botharewidelysupported
datatransmissionstandards.
SOC~SecurityOperationCentre~SecurityOperationCentre
SOC~SeparationOfConcerns~Softwaredevelopmenttechniqueusedinaspectorientedprogramming(AOP)
SOCKS~SOCKetS~protocolforhandlingÂTCPÂthoughaproxyserver;libraryof
softwareaddedtoanindividualapplicationforsecurecommunicationthroughthefirewal
SODIMM~SmallOutlineDualInlineMemoryModule~Thesememorymodulesare
typicallyusedinlaptopandnotebookcomputerswherespaceandlowpowerconsumption
isamajorconsideration.SODIMM’sareabouthalfthesizeofitsDIMMcounterpart.
SOF~Startofframe~Linklayer-IEEE802.3(Ethernet),orRFC2687(HDLC),for
examples
SOH~StartOfHeader~Acontrolcharacterthatisusedtoindicatethestartofaheader
thatprecedesthemessagestext.
SoIP~StorageoverIP~themergingofFibreChanneltechnologieswithIP-based
technologytoallowforaccessingstoragedevicesoverTCP/IPnetworks
SOM~Self-OrganizingMap~Algorithmusedtovisualizeandinterpretlargehighdimensionaldatasets.Typicalapplicationsarevisualizationofprocessstatesorfinancial
resultsbyrepresentingthecentraldependencieswithinthedataonthemap
SONET~SynchronousOpticalNetwork~AÂITUÂstandardforhigh-speed
communicationsoverfiber-opticnetworks.Itofferssynchronoustransmissionatspeeds
uptomultigigabitratesandincludesfeaturestoenablemultivendorinteroperability,
improvedtroubleshootingandnetworksurvivability.
SONIC~ScienceOfNetworksInCommunities~SONICstandsforScienceOf
NetworksInCommunities
SONIC~SACOn-LineInteractiveController~SONICstandsforSACOn-Line
InteractiveController
SORBS~SpamandOpenRelayBlockingSystem~DNSBLincludesmorethan3
millionlistedhoststhatareconsideredtobecompromised
SOS~SophisticatedOperatingSystem~SOSisApple///OS
SOS~SymbianOperatingSystem~SymbianOperatingSystem
SOS~SecureObjectStore~LotusNotesdatabasesystem
SOW~statementofwork~Adocumentthatprovidescomprehensivedescriptionsof
requiredservices-alongwithrealisticinformationconcerningthecurrentenvironmenttoensurethatvendorsdeliverwhattheenterpriseneedsatthepricethathasbeen
negotiated.
SOX~Sarbanes-OxleyAct~Mostsignificantpieceofcorporatesecuritieslegislation
sincetheSecuritiesActof1933andTheSecuritiesandExchangeActof1934.TheAct’s
requirementsaresignificantandhavebroughtaboutsubstantialchangeintheworkand
roleofauditorsandtheoperationsandfinancialdisclosuresofpubliclytraded
corporations.
SP~Service-Packs~Aminorsoftwareproductrevisionthatcontainsfeatureupdatesor
bugfixes,butnotenoughnewcodetowarrantanewversionnumber.e.g.SP1orSP2
SP~storageprocessor~anintelligentRAIDcontrollerthatisenclosedwithinastorage
device.
SPAN~SwitchedPortAnalyzer~FeatureoftheCatalyst5000switchthatextendsthe
monitoringcapabilitiesofexistingnetworkanalyzersintoaswitchedEthernet
environment.SPANmirrorsthetrafficatoneswitchedsegmentontoapredefinedSPAN
port.
SPARC~ScalableProcessorARChitecture~ArchitecturebasedonaÂRISCÂconcept.
Sunanditssuppliersdesignedthearchitecturetosignificantlyimprovepriceand
performance
SPB~StoredProcedureBuilder~Developmentenvironmentforcreating,installingand
testingstoredprocedures
SPC~storedprogramcontrol~Amethodwherebyinstructionsareplacedinthememory
ofacommoncontrolledswitchingunitforuseasareferencewhenprocessingcalls.
Instructionsmayinclude:classmarks,codeconversions,routingandtroubleanalysis.
SPD~SerialPresenceDetect~An8-pinserialEEPROMchipavailableonsome
SDRAMmemorythatkeepsspecificinformationaboutaÂDIMM’ssize,speed,
voltage,drivestrength,numberofrowandcolumnaddresses,DIMMmanufacturer,
andÂRAMÂmanufacturer.
SPD~SystemProductsDivision~ProprietaryAS/400I/Obus
SPE~SynergisticProcessorElement~IntheCellBroadbandEnginearchitecture,a
groupingofmultipleSynergisticProcessorUnits(SPUs).
SPE~SystemPolicyEditor~Itprovidesanadministratorwiththemeanstocentrally
manageWindowsdesktopenvironments,andisaflexiblealternativetomandatoryuser
profiles
SPF~SenderPolicyFramework~allowsthee-mailaddressownertospecifywhichmail
serverstheyusetosendmailfromtheirdomaintopreventsenderaddressforgery.
SPF~ShortestPathFirst~Aroutingalgorithminwhicheachrouterusesthelengthofthe
pathtodeterminetheshortest-pathspanningtree.
Sphairon~Sphere,luminary,globalandElektron,Technology(vision)~Oneofthe
leadingproducerofÂISDN-NTsworldwideandaspecialistforDSLbroadbandnetwork
solutions.website:Âwww.sphairon.com
SPI~SerialPeripheralInterface~Aninexpensivebusforchipinterconnectionthatis
popularoncircuitboards.
SPI~StatefulPacketInspection~Afirewallmechanismwhichexamineseachincoming
networkpacketandonlyallowsthroughthosepacketswhichareforaknownopen
connection.
SPICE~SimpleProtocolforIndependentComputingEnvironment~ahostedvirtual
desktopprotocolandakeypartofRedHatEnterpriseVirtualizationforDesktops.
SPIM~SpamoverInstantMessaging~atypeofspamthatusesIMplatformsasthe
transportmedium.UsersofdifferentpublicIMsystems,whousepublicprofilesarequite
likelytoreceiveunsolicitedadvertisingmessagesfromspammers.
SPIT~SpamoverInternetTelephony~SPIToffersspammersalow-costalternativeto
unsolicitedmarketing.Massmarketingusingautomatedvoicemessagesisaccomplished
literallywiththepushofabutton.
SPL~SenderPolicyFramework~ananti-spamapproachinwhichtheInternetdomainof
ane-mailsendercanbeauthenticatedforthatsender,therebydiscouragingspammailers,
whoroutinelydisguisetheoriginoftheire-mail,apracticeknownase-mailspoofing.
SPL~SoundPressureLevel~Ameasureindecibelsofthesoundpowerproducedbyan
object.Itismeasuredwithasoundlevelmeter.
SPM~StatisticalPacketMultiplexing~Technologytodynamicallyallocatebandwidthto
activecircuits
SPM~supplierperformancemanagement~productsusedashboardandreporting
mechanismstoaggregateinformationonsuppliers,theirfinancialcondition,their
certificationsandsocialresponsibilityperformance,andtheirtrackrecordofmeeting
requirements
SPML~ServiceProvisioningMarkupLanguage~SaaSindustrystandards
SPOF~Singlepointoffailure~agenericphraseforanycomponentofasystemthat
uponfailurewillcauseamalfunctionintheentiresystem.ASPOFcanbeahardwareor
electricalcomponentorasoftwarecomponent.
SPOI~SignalingPointOfInterface~ThedemarcationpointontheSS7signalinglink
betweenaLECnetworkandaWirelessServicesProvider(WSP)network.
SPOT~SmartPersonalObjectsTechnology~SPOTistheresultofaMicrosoftresearch
projecttoembedmoreintelligenceinavarietyofeverydaydevicessuchasclocks.
Microsoftisbynomeansthefirstvendortopromotesuchavision,butthespecificityand
practicalityofMicrosoft’sapproachsetsitapartfrommanyearlierefforts.
SPREAD~SystemsProgramming,Research,EngineeringAndDevelopment~Systems
Programming,Research,EngineeringAndDevelopmentbyIBM
SPSS~StatisticalPackagefortheSocialSciences~Astatisticalanalysissoftware
packageinventedin1968,whichbecamethefoundingproductofChicago-based
analytical-softwarefirmSPSS,Inc.,acquiredbyIBM
SPU~SynergisticProcessorUnit~A128-bitprocessorwithsingle-instructionmultipledata(SIMD)capabilitiesspecializedforcomputationally-intensivetasks.
SPX~SequencedPacketExchange~ANovellNetWaresession-basedcommunications
protocolusedtogovernthetransportofmessagesacrossanetwork.Itisdesignedto
providereliableend-to-enddatatransport,includingerrordetectionbetweentwoend-user
devices.
SQL~StructuredQueryLanguage~SQLisastandardizedquerylanguageforrequesting
informationfromadatabase.
SQLPL~SQLprocedurallanguage~AlanguageextensionofSQLthatconsistsof
statementsandlanguageelementsthatcanbeusedtoimplementprocedurallogicinSQL
statements.
SQR~SecuritytoQualityDefectRatio~Theratioofthenumberofsecuritydefectsto
thenumberofallidentifeddefects
SR~SpeechRecognition~Speechrecognitionistheprocessbywhichacomputer
identifiesspokenwords.Basically,itmeanstalkingtoyourcomputer,ANDhavingit
correctlyrecognizewhatyouaresaying.
SRAM~Staticrandomaccessmemory~Hardware-PCGuide’sDefinition
SRAM~staticrandomaccessmemory~atypeofmemorythatisfasterandmorereliable
thanthemorecommonDRAM.Thetermstaticisderivedfromthefactthatitdoesn’t
needtoberefreshedlikedynamicRAM.
SRAT~StaticResourceAffinityTable~Canbeusedtodescribethephysicallocationof
processorsandmemoryinlarge-scalesystems,allowingthreadsandmemorytobe
groupedinanoptimalmanner
SRGS~SpeechRecognitionGrammarSpecification~Grammarintendedforuseby
speechrecognizersandothergrammarprocessorssothatdeveloperscanspecifythewords
andpatternsofwordstobelistenedforbyaspeechrecognizer
SR-IOV~Single-rootI/Ovirtualizationstandards~developedbythePCISpecialInterest
Group(PCI-SIG)andenablesVMmigration.TheIntelEthernetÂ
SR-IOV~Single-rootI/Ovirtualizationstandards~ServerAdapter’simplementation
assistsdirectconnectivityfromtheadaptertothevirtualmachinestoprovidenear-native
performance.
SRL~SingingReturnLoss~Thefrequency-weightedmeasureofreturnlossattheedges
ofthevoiceband(SRLLow,260to500HzandSRLHigh,2200to3400Hz),where
singing(instability)problemsaremostlikelytooccur.
SRM~storageresourcemanagement~SRMreferstosoftwarethatmanagesstorage
fromacapacity,utilization,policyandevent-managementperspective.
SRS~SharedRegistryServer~Thecentralsystemforallaccreditedregistrarstoaccess
andregister/controldomainnames.
SRT~SourceRoutingTransparent~AnIETFBridgingStandardcombiningTransparent
BridgingandSourceRouteBridging.
SRT~(formerly)SourisRiverTelecommunications~thelargesttelecommunications
cooperativeinNorthDakota,withtelephone,wirelessphone,broadbandInternet,security
systems,andcabletvservices.Âhttp://www.srt.com/
SRV~Servicerecords~SRVRecordsrepresentadatacategoryintheDomainName
SystemthatlocalizesspecificdomainrelatedservicessuchasFTPandSIP.
SS7~SignalingSystem7~DefinedbyITU-T,SS7isaninternationalout-of-band
signalingprotocolthatprovidestwomajorcapabilities:high-speedcircuit-switched
connectionsforfastercallsetupandremotedatabaseaccessfortransactionprocessing.
SS7hasbeendeployedthroughoutthePSTN.
SSA~SocialSecurityAdministration~anindependentagencyoftheUnitedStates
federalgovernmentthatadministersSocialSecurityÂwww.ssa.gov
SSA~SurvivableSystemsAnalysis~Practicalengineeringprocessthatenablesyouto
systematicallyassessthesurvivabilitypropertiesofproposedsystems,existingsystems,
andmodificationstoexistingsystems
SSAP~SourceServiceAccessPoint~partoftheLLCLSAPfordatatype.
SSB~sequentialstorebuffer~Asequentialstorebufferisatechniquefordividingthe
costofawrite-barrierbyrememberingwhichobjectsaremodifiedandupdating
rememberedsets(andsoon)atalaterstage.
SSD~Solid-StateDrive~adatastoragedevicethatusessolid-statememorytostore
persistentdata
SSE~SimpleSharingExtension~ExtensionstoRSS
SSE~StreamingSimdExtensions~XeonCPUextensiontotheinstructionset
SSH~Secureshell~Applicationlayer-RFC4252
SSH~SecureShell~Asetofapplicationsandprotocolstoprovidesecureencrypted
messagetransmissionbetweentwocomputersonaninsecure(e.g.public)network.
SSI~Server-SideIncludes~Instructstheservertoincludesomedynamicinformationin
aWebpagebeforeitissenttoaclient.Thisdynamicinformationcouldbecurrentdate,an
opinionpoll,etc.
SSI~SmallScaleIntegration~Chipscontainingtensoftransistors,butnothundreds.
SSID~Servicesetidentifier(Wi-Fi)~Wireless-IEEE802.11
SSID~ServiceSetidentifier~Identifiesanetworkconsistingofoneormoreaccess
points.SuchanetworkisalsoknownasanExtendedServiceSet(ESS).
SSIM~SymantecSecurityInformationManager~enablesadocumented,repeatable
processforsecuritythreatresponseandITpolicycomplianceviaintegratedlog
managementandincidentresponsesolutions.
SSL~SecureSocketsLayer~AprotocoldesignedbyNetscapeCommunicationsto
enableencrypted,authenticatedcommunicationsacrosstheinternet.SSLusedmostlyin
communicationsbetweenwebbrowsersandwebservers.
SSLE~sequentialsystemsoflinearequations~aninfeasibleQP-freemethodbasedon
theupdateoftheinverseofthesymmetricmatrix
SSMP~SimpleScreenManagementProtocol~Acommunicationsprotocolfortextbasedterminals.
SSO~singlesign-on~Atermusedtodescribetechnologythatenablesausertoaccess
multiplecomputerplatformsorapplicationsystemsafterbeingauthenticatedjustone
time.
SSO~SystemSecurityOfficer~Apersonresponsibleforenforcementoradministration
ofthesecuritypolicythatappliestothesystem.
SSSCE~ShortSelf-ContainedCorrect(orCompilable)Example~Preferredformof
codesnippetspostedinnewsgroupsandbugreports.Âhttp://sscce.org/
STA~SingleThreadedApartment~Athreadingcontextforcomponentsthatrequirea
messagequeueorthreadaffinity.AccesstocomponentsinanSTAisbydefinition
synchronized
STEP~Standardfortheexchangeofproduct~adraftISOstandardfortheexchangeof
CADdata.
STK~SatelliteToolKit~Graphical,object-orientedsoftwareforsatelliteandspace
stationorbitalandsensorcoverageanalysis[
STM~scanningtunnelingmicroscopes~scanningtunnelingmicroscopes
STM~SynchronousTransportModule~Asystemoffiber-optictransmissionrates
definedintheSynchronousDigitalHierarchy(SDH)scheme(seeÂSDH).STMlevelsare
theEuropeanequivalentofSynchronousOpticalNetwork(SONET)OpticalCarrierLevel
N(OC-N)hierarchyinNorthAmerica(seeÂSONETandÂOC-N).Eachlevelquadruples
asfollows:
STP~SpanningTreeProtocol~Linklayer-Cisco’sIntroductiontoSpanningTree
Protocol
STP~shieldedtwistedpair~Acablewherethetwistedpairisshieldedfrom
electromagneticinterference.
STP~SoaToolsPlatform~Opensourcecollaborativesoftwaredevelopmentproject
dedicatedtoprovidingageneric,extensible,standards-basedtoolplatformforproducing
ServiceOrientedArchitecture(SOA)applications
STP~SpanningTreeProtocol~providesaloopfreetopologyforanyLANorbridged
network.
STP~StraightThroughProcessing~Abilitytotakeafinancialtransactionthough
completeconfirmationautomatically
STP~SwitchingTransferPointsorSingleTransferPoints~partofSS7.STPsarepacket
switches.
STS~SecurityTokenService~Serviceusedtoissuetokens
STT~SecureTransactionTechnology~Technologydevelopedbysoftwarecompanies
andcreditcompaniestoprotectfinancialdealingsovertheInternetandpreventfraud.
STUN~SessionTraversalUtilitiesforNAT~anInternetstandards-tracksuiteof
methods,includinganetworkprotocol,usedinNATtraversalforapplicationsofreal-time
voice,video,messaging.
STX~StartOfText~Acontrolcharacterthatisusedtoindicatethebeginningofa
messageandisplacedimmediatelybehindtheheaderinatransmittedblock.
SUA~SingleUserAccount~AllowsmultipleuserstoshareasingleIPaddress(either
dynamicorstatic)assignedbyyourInternetServiceProvider(ISP)
SUS~SoftwareUpdateServices~SoftwareupdatemanagementsolutionbyMicrosoft
SUT~SystemUnderTest~TherealopensysteminwhichtheImplementationUnder
Test(IUT)resides.
SVBR~SemanticsofBusinessVocabularyandBusinessRules~vocabulariesexistfor
specificverticalindustries-forexample,HealthLevelSeven(HL7),theAgencyforCooperationandResearchinDevelopment(ACORD),andtheSocietyforWorldwide
InterbankFinancialelecommunicationÂ
SVC~ScalableVideoCoding~traffichandlingtechniques,anextensionofH.264
SVC~supervisorcall~Arequestthatservesastheinterfaceintooperatingsystem
functions,suchasallocatingstorage.
SVC~supervisorcall~Aninstructionthatinterruptstheprogrambeingrunandpasses
controltothesupervisorsothatitcanperformthespecificserviceindicatedbythe
instruction.
SVC~SwitchedVirtualCircuit~Virtualconnectionsetuponlyforthedurationofa
singlecommunicationssession.
SVC~SwitchedVirtualCircuit~InOSI,atemporaryassociationbetweentwoDTEsthat
isinitiatedwhenoneDTEmakesacallrequesttothenetwork.
SVD~SecondaryVirtualDisk~aÂVDÂconfiguredusinghybridÂRAIDÂlevelslike
RAID10orRAID50.ItselementsÂareBVDs.
SVG~ScalableÂVectorGraphics~anXMLfilethatisusedtoholdgraphicaldatathat
canberesizedwithoutlossofquality.SVGdatacanbekeptinitsownfile,oreven
embeddedwithinawebpage
SVGA~SuperVideoGraphicsArray~AdisplaystandarddefinedbytheVideo
ElectronicsStandardsAssociation.Itprovideshigherresolutionthanthe640x
480ÂVGAÂstandard,andsupportsasmanyas16millioncolors,dependingonthe
computersystemandamountofavailablememory.
S-Video~Super-Video/ÂSonyVideo~atechnologyfortransmittingvideosignalsover
acablebydividingthevideoinformationintotwoseparatesignals.Onesignalforcolor
(chrominance),andtheotherforbrightness(luminance).
SVPCo~SmallValuePaymentsCo.~Abankingconsortium,formedinJuly1998,thatis
governedby12largeU.S.banksSVPCoisconcentratingonElectronicCheck
Presentment(ECP),whichrequirescooperationfrommanybanksinordertosucceed.
SWorS/W~Software~acomputerprogramthatenablesacomputertoperforma
specifictask,asopposedtothephysicalcomponentsofthesystem(hardware).
SWAP~SharedWirelessAccessProtocol~Aprotocolusedforwirelessvoiceanddata
networkinginthehome,developedbytheHomeRFWorkingGroup.
SWAT~SambaWebAdministrationTool~SambaWebAdministrationTool
SWAT~SolutionswithAdvancedTechnologies~SWATisCiscoterm
SWIFT~SocietyforWorldwideInterbankFinancialTelecommunication~Aselfdescribingmessagingformatusedinthebankingandfinanceindustrytosupport
electronicfundstransfer.
SWIM~SystemWideInformationManagement~SystemWideInformation
Management
SWL~shortwavelength~Atypeoffiberopticcablingthatisbasedon850-mmlasers
andsupports1.0625-Gbpslinkspeeds.
SWOP~SpecificationsforWebOffsetPublications~Thesespecificationsstandardize
thesubmissionofmaterialssuppliedtoweboffsetpublications,andareasofresponsibility
foreachoftheinvolvedindustrysegments.Seehttp://www.swop.org/
SWT~StandardWidgetToolkit~AnEclipsetoolkitforJavadevelopersthatdefinesa
common,portable,userinterfaceAPIthatusesthenativewidgetsoftheunderlying
operatingsystem.
SYN(TCP)~Synchronization~Linkandotherlayers-RFC793andmanyothers
Sync~Synchronisation~pulseensuresthatthemonitordisplayingtheinformationis
synchronizedatregularintervalswiththedevicesupplyingthedata,thusdisplayingthe
dataattherightlocation.
syslog~systemlogging~SyslogisthesystemloggingfacilityforUnixsystems.
Sysop~SystemOperator~Anyoneresponsibleforthephysicaloperationsofacomputer
systemornetworkresource.Forexample,aSystemAdministratordecideshowoften
backupsandmaintenanceshouldbeperformedandtheSystemOperatorperformsthose
tasks.
SYSVOL~SystemVolume~ashareddirectorythatstorestheservercopyofthe
domain’spublicfilesthatmustbesharedforcommonaccessandreplicationthroughouta
domaininMicrosoftWindows.
~T~
T1~~Thisisadatatransfersystemthattransfersdigitalsignalsat1.544megabitsper
second(quiteabitfasterthana56Kmodem,whichmaxesoutataround0.056Mbps).
T2~~OneofseveraltypesofdigitalvoicelinesdefinedintheU.S.T-carriersystem.A
T2linehasatransmissioncapacityofupto6.312megabitspersecond.
T2L~TRANSISTOR-TRANSISTORLOGIC~Alogicgatefamilythatprovideshigherspeedandhigher-powerthantheobsoleteDTLlogicfamily.
T3~~AT3lineactually30timesfaster,supportingdatatransferratesof44.736
megabitspersecond.
T4~~Acommunicationslinecapableofcarryingdigitizedvoicesignalsatupto274.176
megabitspersecond,asdefinedintheT-carriersystem
T5~~240T1lines,whichcancarry5760voicechannelsorupto400.352Mbpsworthof
data.
TACACS~TerminalAccessControllerAccessControlSystem~DevelopedbyÂCisco
Systems,itisstandardsecurityprotocolusedinauthenticatingtheidentityofacomputer
ordeviceseekingremoteaccesstoprivilegeddata(suchasthatbehindafirewall).
TAE~textanalysisengine~Asoftwarecomponentthatisresponsiblefordiscovering
andrepresentingcontextandsemanticcontentintext.
TAO~TrackatOnce~AmethodofwritingdatatoaCD-RorCD-RWdisconatrackby
trackbasis.Recordingcanbepausedbetweenwritingtracks,unlikeDiscatOnce,which
requiresanuninterruptedfull-discrecording.
TAPI~TelephonyApplicationProgrammingInterface~AnumberofITcompanies,led
byMicrosoftandIntel,havecollaboratedtodesignacommonWindowsgraphicaluser
interfacefortelephonyandaTelephonyApplicationProgrammingInterface(TAPI).
tar~TapeARchive~Acompressionformatcommonlyusedinthetransferandstorageof
filesonUNIXcomputers(.tar).
TAXI~TransparentAsynchronousTransmitter/ReceiverInterface~Encodingscheme
usedforÂFDDIÂLANsÂaswellasforÂATM.Supportsspeedsofupto100Mbpsover
multimodefiber.TAXIisthechipsetthatgenerates4B/5Bencodingonmultimodefiber.
Tb~terabit~Forprocessorstorage,realandvirtualstorage,andchannelvolume,2tothe
powerof40or1099511627776bits.Fordiskstoragecapacityandcommunications
volume,1000000000000bits.
TB~TeraByte~1024gigabytes,1,099,511,627,776bytes
Tbps~terabitspersecond~Atrillionbitspersecond.
TBR~TechnologyBusinessResearch~specializesinprovidingin-depthandtimely
insightswithinthecomputer,software,telecom,mobility,andprofessionalservices
industries.Âhttp://tbri.com/
TCA~TransactionCostAnalysis~Methodologythatcanbeusedtomeasurethecostof
individualshopperoperationssuchasregistering,browsing,searchingacatalog,adding
anitemtoashoppingcart,checkingout,andsoon
TCAP~TransactionCapabilitiesApplicationPart~fromITU-Trecommendations
Q.771-Q.775orANSIT1.114isaprotocolforSS7networks.
TCB~trustedcomputingbase~everythinginacomputingsystemthatprovidesasecure
environment.Thisincludestheoperatingsystemanditsprovidedsecuritymechanisms,
hardware,physicallocations,networkhardwareandsoftware,andprescribedprocedures.
TCG~TrustedComputingGroup~Groupthatdevelopsandpromotesopen,vendorneutral,industrystandardspecificationsfortrustedcomputingbuildingblocksand
softwareinterfacesacrossmultipleplatforms.See
alsoÂhttps://www.trustedcomputinggroup.org/
tcl~ToolCommandLanguage~portableinterpretedcomputerlanguagedesignedtobe
easytouse.
TCO~totalcostofownership~thecompletecostofowningandusingamachineduring
itsusefullife,includingnotonlythecostofthemachineitself,butalsomaintenance,
repairs,andconsumablesuppliessuchasinkandpaper.
t-commerce~televisioncommerce~interactiveTVcapabilitu,includingÂVODÂmovie
rentalsandgames
TCP~TestCoordinationProcedure~Setofrulestocoordinatetestprocessbetween
lowertesteranduppertester.Enableslowertestertocontroloperationofuppertester.
May,ormaynot,bespecifiedinabstracttestsuite.
TCP~TransmissionControlProtocol~Aconnection-orientedprotocolthattransmits
datainbytestreams.DataistransmittedinpacketscalledTCPsegments,whichcontain
TCPheadersanddata.
TCP/IP~TransmissionControlProtocol/InternetProtocol~Transportlayer-RFC793
andmanyothers
TCP/IP~TransmissionControl/InternetProtocol~Thisisusedforcommunications
acrossinterconnectednetworksandisbeingincreasinglydeployedtoconnectdiverse
computerarchitecturesandplatforms,bothbetweenenterprisesandwithinenterprises.
TCPoperatesatLayer4(thetransportlayer)oftheOSIstack.IPoperatesatLayer3(the
networklayer)oftheOSIstack.
TCQ~TaggedCommandQueuing~SCSIfeaturetoallowmultipleI/Orequests
TCS~TataConsultancyServices~Inida-basedITservices,businesssolutions,and
outsourcingcompany.Âwww.tcs.com
TCS~TelecommunicationsSystems~wirelesscommunicationsproviderin
U.S.Âhttp://www.telecomsys.com
TCU~transmissioncontrolunit~Acommunicationcontrolunitwhoseoperationsare
controlledsolelybyprogrammedinstructionsfromthecomputingsystemtowhichthe
unitisattached.
TDCA/S~Tele-DenmarkCommunications~formertelecommonopolyinDenmark.Itis
nowprivatized.Thus,itisthebiggestcompanyinallaspectsoftelecommunicationin
Denmarkwithlandline,mobile,Internet,VHFmaritimeborderline-radioetc.
TDD/TTY~ToneDialingfortheDeaf/Teletype~amethodbywhichthehearing
impairedcantypemessagesovernormalphonelinesusingspecialequipment.ManyISPs
haveaTDD/TTYfortechnicalsupport.
TDDM~targetdistributeddatamanager~Inadistributeddatamanagementnetwork,
programmingsupportthattranslatestheDDMrequestsreceivedfromasourcesysteminto
datamanagementorSQLrequestsonthetarget(orremote)system.
TDK~TokyoDenkiKagaku~English:TokyoElectricandChemicals.aJapanese
companywhichmanufactureselectronicmaterials,electroniccomponents,andrecording
anddata-storagemediahttp://www.tdk.com/
TDL~timedifferentiallinking~softwaredetectingaccounttakeovers,newaccountfraud
ande-commercefraud
TDM~Time-divisionmultiplexing~Physicallayer-FedStd1037C
TDM~timedivisionmultiplexing~adata,voiceandvideocommunicationstechnique
thatmultiplexesseverallow-speedsignalsintoonehigh-speedtransmissionchannelby
allocatingbrief,interleavedtimeperiodstoeachsignal.
TDR~TimeDomainReflectometry~usedtopinpointflawsandproblemsin
undergroundandaerialwire,cabling,andfiberoptics.
TD-SCDMA~Timedivision-synchronouscodedivisionmultipleaccess~China’shomegrown3Gstandardforcellularnetworks.
TE~TrafficEngineering~TEisCiscoMPLSterm
TEC~TivoliEnterpriseConsole~AnIBMsystemandnetworkmonitoringproduct.
TECcollectseventinformationfromavarietyofsystemandapplicationresources,
correlatestheinformationtodeterminedetectproblemsandperformsautomatedproblem
resolution.
TEC~ThermoelectricCooler~ThermoelectricCooler
TED~TechnologyEntertainmentandDesign~TEDisaglobalsetofconferencesowned
bytheprivatenon-profitSaplingFoundation,formedtodisseminate‘ideasworth
spreading.’Âhttp://www.ted.com/
TED~TieredElectronicDistribution~TEDisNovellZENWorksterm
TED~TorrentEpisodeDownloader~TEDstandsforTorrentEpisode
DownloaderÂhttp://www.ted.nu/
TED~TunnelEndpointDiscovery~TEDisCiscoterm
TEHO~tailendhopoff~Callinaprivatenetworkwhichiscarriedoverflatrate
facilities(intermachinetrunksorIMTs)totheswitchingnodeclosesttoitsdestinationand
isconnectedintothepublicnetworkasalocalcall.
TEI~TotalEconomicImpact~forresterterm,ahighlycustomizedmethodologythat
helpsITprofessionalsmakebetter,morecost-effectivedecisionsregardingtheselectionof
technologyvendors.http://www.forrester.com/TEI
Telco~telephonecompany~Itgenerallyreferstothelocal-exchangecarrier(LEC)
telematics~telecommunicationsandinformatics~thebroadindustryrelatedtousing
computersinconcertwithtelecommunicationssystems.Thisincludesdial-upserviceto
theInternetaswellasalltypesofnetworksthatrelyonatelecommunicationssystemto
transportdata.
telephony~Telephonetechnology~Theconversionofsoundintoelectricalsignals,its
transmissiontoanotherlocation,anditsreconversiontosound,withorwithouttheuseof
connectingwires.
Telnet~telephonenetworkprotocol~ThecommandandprogramusedtoÂloginÂfrom
oneÂInternetÂsitetoanother.Thetelnetcommand/programgetsyoutothelogin:prompt
ofanotherÂhost.
TEM~telephoneexpensemanagement~TEMtoolsfacilitatethecontrolofacquisition,
operationandsupportofcorporatetelecomassetsandnetworkservices.Thecoverage
typicallyincludesvoiceanddatacommunicationsaswellascellphones.
TERM~technology-enabledrelationshipmanagement~Theconceptofformingone
enterprisewideviewofthecustomeracrossallcustomercontactchannels.Itisacomplex
area,requiringcomplexsolutionstoproblemsofintegration,dataflow,dataaccessand
marketingstrategy.
TESS~TransactionEventsÂ~CAAPMsoftware
TESS~andStatisticsServer~CAAPMsoftware
TETRA~TerrestrialTrunkedRadio~asetofstandardsdevelopedbytheETSIthat
describesacommonmobileradiocommunicationsinfrastructurethroughoutEurope.
texel~TextureElement~Thesmallestelementofatextured3Dsurface.Pixelsmakeup
2Dsurfaces,buttexelsmakeupthesurfacesthatcovertextured3Dobjects.
TFRC~TCP-FriendlyRateControl~acongestioncontrolmechanismdesignedfor
unicastflowsoperatinginanInternetenvironmentandcompetingwithTCPtraffic.
TFS~TeamFoundationServer~Productiveandeffectivesolutionformanagingchange
acrossorganizationsofallsizes.Itenablesyoutosecurelymanageallprojectartifactsand
sourcecodeinonerepository
TFS~ThreeFingerSalute~ReferstotheControl-Alt-Deletekeycombinationusedto
rebootolderversionsofWindowsandÂDOSÂortobringupthetaskmanagerinnewer
versions.
TFT~ThinFilmTransistor~Thesetransistorsareusedinhigh-qualityflatpanelliquidcrystaldisplays(LCDs).TFT-baseddisplayshaveatransistorforeachpixelonthescreen.
TFTP~TrivialFileTransferProtocol~Applicationlayer-RFC1350
TFTP~TrivialFileTransferProtocol~asetofconventionsthattransfersfilesbetween
hostsusingminimalprotocol.
TGT~ticket-grantingticket~Aticketthataprincipalpassestotheticket-grantingserver
whenaserviceticketisrequested.
TGT~ticket-grantingticket~Aticketthatallowsaccesstotheticketgrantingserviceon
thekeydistributioncenter(KDC).
TI~TexasInstruments~amanufacturerofsemiconductorsandcomputers,headquartered
inDallas,Texas.JackS.Kilbydevelopedthefirstworkingintegratedcircuit(“silicon
chipâ€?)atÂTIÂin1958,makingitpossibletominiaturizeelectronicequipmenttoa
degreefarbeyondearlierexpectations
TIA~TelecommunicationsIndustryAlliance~Organization-Telecommunications
IndustryAssociation
TiB~tebibyte~1,099,511,627,776bytes.1024gibibytes
TIES~timeindependentescapesequence~providesameanstoswitchbetween
commandmodeanddatamodeonananalogmodem.TIESisanalternatemethodtothe
Heatheringtonescapesequence.TIESwasdevelopedbyagroupofmodemmanufacturers
in1991.
TIFF~TagImageFileFormat~Adefactostandardformatforbit-mappedimagefiles.
TIP~TelepresenceInteroperabilityProtocol~Cisco-developed,mechanismtodealwith
multiscreenenvironments
TISPAN~Telecoms&InternetConvergedServices&ProtocolsforAdvancedNetworks
~TISPANisastandardizationbodyofETSI,specializinginfixednetworksandInternet
convergence.
TKIP~TemporalKeyIntegrityProtocol~Adataencryptiontechnology.
TLB~translationlookasidebuffer~Thetranslationlookasidebufferoraddress
translationcacheissmallpieceofassociativememory(1)withinaprocessorwhichcaches
partofthetranslationfromvirtualaddressestophysicaladdresses.
TLD~TopLevelDomain~Thelast(right-hand)partofacompleteÂDomainName.
TherearealargenumberofTLD’s,e.g..biz,.com,.edu,.gov,.info,.int,.mil,.net,.org,
andacollectionoftwo-letterTLD’scorrespondingtothestandardtwo-lettercountry
codes,e.g.,.us,.ca,.jp,etc.
TLI~TransportLayerInterface~Aninterfacethatistosupersedethesocket-based
interprocesscommunicationsmechanismsasthewaytoaccesstransportservices.
ModeledaftertheindustrystandardISOTransportServiceDefinition
TLL~TaskLibraryLanguage~InIBMTivolienvironment,aprogramminglanguage
usedtodefineatasklibrary.
TLM~TransportationLifecycleManagement~ManhattanAssociates’TMSproductthat
iscapableofhandlingmanyoftheneedsofuserswithcomplextransportation
requirements
TLP~TransactionalLicensingProgram~AdobeOpenOptionsmakesiteasyfor
organizationsofallsizestogetthebenefitsofvolumeorderingthroughtheTLP
TLS~TransportLayerSecurity~Aprotocoldesignedtosecuretheprivacyof
communicationsovertheInternet.Itisdefinedinrequestforcomment2246fromthe
InternetEngineeringTaskForce.
TMHES~TrendMicroHostedEmailSecurity~TrendMicroe-mailsecuritySaaS
offering
TMPfile~temporaryfile~Temporaryfilesaregeneratedbyapplicationsandshouldbe
deletedautomaticallybytheapplicationthatcreatedthemwhentheyarenolonger
required-unfortunatelythisfrequentlydoesnothappensotemporaryfilescantendto
buildupovertime.
TMRS~trafficmeasurementandrecordingsystems~Acomputer-generatedreportwith
usageinformationoftelephonesystems;usuallyincludestrunkutilization,outages,
queuingtimeandtheneedforadditionalcommonequipment.
TMS~ThreatManagementSystem~Symantecâ„¢DeepSightâ„¢TMSprovides
actionableintelligencecoveringthecompletethreatlifecycle,frominitialvulnerabilityto
activeattack.Âhttps://tms.symantec.com/
TMS~transportationmanagementsystem~transportationmanagementsystem
TNC~TrustedNetworkConnect~anopenarchitectureforNAC
TNEF~TransportNeutralEncapsulationFormat~FormatforconvertingasetofMAPI
propertiesintoaserialdatastream.Primarilyusedbytransportprovidersthatneedto
encodeMAPImessagepropertiesfortransmissionthroughamessagingsystemthatdoes
notsupportthosepropertiesdirectly
TNS~TransactionNetworkServices~leadingglobalproviderofdatacommunications
andinteroperabilitysolutions.http://www.tnsi.com/
TOA~timeofarrival~Atechniquethatusestotriangulationtodeterminethegeographic
positionofmobiledevices,suchascellphones.Thepositionisdeterminedbycomparing
thedifferenttimesthatasignalbroadcastbythedevicearrivesatvarioussites
TOD~ToolonDemand~featureofsomeversionsoftheAOLsoftwareallowsusto
updateportionsoftheclientsoftwareonyourcomputerwithoutyouhavingtoupgradeto
acompletelynewversion.
TOD~time-of-day~Atimingdevicethatcountsunitsoftimebasedonthestartingpoint
of00hours,00minutes,and00secondsonJanuary1,1900.
TOE~TCP/IPOffloadEngine~atechnologyusedinNICstooffloadprocessingofthe
TCP/IPstacktothenetworkcontroller.
TOFU~TrustOnFirstUse~Security-ImprovingSSH-styleHostAuthenticationwith
Multi-PathProbing
ToS~TypeOfService~AfieldwithinanIPheaderwhichcanbeusedbythedevice
originatingthepacket,orbyanintermediatenetworkingdevice,tosignalarequestfora
specificQoSlevel
TOSLink~ToshibaLink~Astandardopticalconnectionfordigitalaudio.
TPF~TransactionProcessingFacility~Ahigh-availabilityIBMsystemdesignedto
supporttransaction-drivenapplications.
TPM~TransactionsPerMinute~Theamountofdatabasetransactionsaservercandoin
aminute’stime.Thismethodofmeasurementisoftenusedtocomparehigh-powered
databaseserverswithmultipleprocessors.
TPM~TrustedPlatformModule~AcomponentonthePCmotherboardthatis
specificallydesignedtoenhanceplatformsecurityabove-and-beyondthecapabilitiesof
today’ssoftware.
TP-MIC~Twisted-PairMediaInterfaceConnector~Connectorjackatenduseror
networkequipmentthatreceivestwistedpairplug.
TPMs~transactionprocessingmonitors~enterpriseapplicationplatforms
TPS~transactionspersecond~ameasurementusedtodeterminehowmanytransactions
havebeenprocessedinonesecondintransaction-orientedsystems.
TPS~TransactionProcessSystem~atypeofISthatcollects,stores,modifiesand
retrievestransactionofanorganization.
TPV~ThirdPartyVendor~supplierthatprovidesservicestotheprimaryservice
providerthathassignedthelargeprojectsmanagementoroutsourcingagreementwiththe
client.
TR~TerminalReady~Thislightisilluminatedwhenyourcomputerhasturnedon
theÂRS-232(serial)interface.Sometimesthislightwillnotcomeonuntilyouhave
loadedyourcommunicationssoftwareintomemory.
tracert~traceroute~Tracerouteisatoolthemapstherouteapackettakesfromthelocal
machinetoaremotedestination.
Transceiver~Transmitter/Receiver~ADevicethatreceivesandsendssignalsovera
medium.Innetworks,itisgenerallyusedtoallowfortheconnectionbetweentwo
differenttypesofcableconnectors,suchasAUIandRJ-45.
TRIP~TelephonyRoutingoverInternetProtocol~DiscoveryandexchangeofIP
telephonygatewayroutingtablesbetweenproviders
TRIP~TokenRingInterfaceProcessor~High-speedinterfaceprocessorontheCisco
7000seriesrouters.TheTRIPprovidestwoorfourTokenRingportsforinterconnection
withIEEE802.5andIBMTokenRingmediawithportsindependentlysettospeedsof
either4or16Mbps.
TripleDES/TDES~TripleDataEncryptionStandard~AvariantofDataEncryption
Standard(DES).ItusesthreedifferentDESkeys,insequence,toencryptafile
TRUE~task-relateduserexit~Auserexitprogramthatisassociatedwithspecified
eventsinaparticulartask,ratherthanwitheveryoccurrenceofaparticulareventinCICS
processing
TRM~TeradataRelationshipManager~TeradataMCCMproduct
TRS~Tip,Ring,Sleeve(cable)~Ananalogcableusedtoconnectaudiodevices.It
typicallycomesin1/4″and1/8″diameters.
TS~TerminalServer/Services~(MicrosoftWindows)TerminalServer.
TS-CAL~TerminalServices-ClientAccessLicense~alicenseallowingmorethanthe
minimumnumberofuserstoaccessaWindowsserverthroughREMOTEDESKTOP.
TSF~TextServicesFramework~Simpleandscalableframeworkthatenablesadvanced
textinputandnaturallanguagetechnologiesforapplications
TSIG~TransactionSignature~acomputernetworkingprotocolusedbytheDNSasa
waytoauthenticateupdatestoadynamicDNSdatabase.
TSM~TivoliStorageManager~Protectsdatafromhardwarefailuresandothererrorsby
storingbackupandarchivecopiesofdataonofflinestorage
TSM~trustedservicemanager~anewroleintroducedinthevaluechaintoprovidea
singlepointofcontactforallserviceproviderswantingtoputtheirapplicationsontoNFC
phones.TheTSMwouldhaveamasterkeytothesecureelementandwouldmanagethe
securedownloads.
TSN~TheSierraNetwork~alsocalledImagiNationNetwork(INN),anearlyonline
multiplayergamingsystem.DevelopedbySierraOn-Linein1989,andfirstavailableto
thepublicin1991.
TSO~TimeSharingOption~MultitaskingsystemforIBMMVSoperatingsystem
TSOP~ThinSmallOutlinePackage~OneofseveralpackagingoptionsforAMDflash
devices.
TSR~TerminateandStayResident~programusuallyloadedautomaticallyonstartup,
whichremainsinmemorytoprovideparticularfunctionssuchasconnectiontoanetwork
orprotectionagainstviruses.
TSRM~TivoliServiceRequestManager~IBM’sITservicedeskproduct
TSV~TabSeparatedValue(file)~aplain-textfilethatincludeslinesoffields(stringsof
characters)thatareseparatedfromeachotherbysingletabstops.
TTL~TimeToLive~usedwhena‘ping,’orarequestforaresponse,issenttoanother
computer,suchasaserver.TheTTLrepresentsthenumberofhops,orserversindifferent
locations,therequestcantraveltobeforereturningafailedattemptmessage.
TTL~TimeToLive~Thetimeintervalinsecondsthatanentrycanexistinthecache
beforethenameserverdiscardsit.
TTL~TransistorTransistorLogic~Aspecificmethodofwiringadigitalcircuitusing
bipolartransistors.
TTP~trustedthirdparty~Atrustedentitythatvouchesfortheidentityofthesenderor
receiverofinformationinasecuritysystem.InÂPKIÂsecurity,theroleoftrustedthird
partyisplayedbyacertificationauthority
TTS~Text-To-Speech~Atermusedinvoiceprocessing.Thecomputer‘reads’thetext
outaloud.Thetechnologyisusedextensivelyforblindpeople.
TTY~TeleTypewriter~Thistermreferstoameansofsendingdataonecharacterata
time.TheTTYinterfaceisoftenusedbydumbterminalstocommunicatewith
mainframes.
TUCOWS~TheUltimateCollectionofWinsockSoftware~wellknownforitspopular
websitedirectoryofshareware,freeware,anddemosoftwarepackagesavailableto
download.Âhttp://www.tucows.com/
TUP~TelephoneUserPart~providesconventionalPSTNtelephonyservicesacrossthe
SS7network.TUPwasthefirstlayer4protocoldefinedbythestandardsbodiesandas
suchdidnotprovisionforISDNservices.
TUR~trunkutilizationreport~Acomputerprintoutdetailingthetrafficonatrunk.
TVO~totalvalueofopportunity~AGartner-developedmodelthatbringsanumberof
factorstogethertoderivethebusinessvalueofITinvestments,therebyprovidingabasis
forITdecisionmaking.
TVT~ThinkVantageTechnology~Lenovobrandingforproprietarysoftware.
TWA~transactionworkarea~aworkareaforagiventask.
TWAIN~technologywithoutaninterestingname~aprotocolfordeliveringgraphical
imagesfromascanningorimagingdevicetoapplicationsoftware.seeÂwww.twain.org
TWX~TeletypewriterExchangeService~Adatacommunicationsserviceprovidedby
theAT&TCorporationusingteletypewriterstationsconnectedtophonelines,foraccessto
otherTWXstations.TWXsupportsbothASCIIandBaudotcodedmachines.
TX~Transmit/Transmission~Theactofuploadingorsendingdata.
TXT~TrustedeXecutionTechnology~HardwareextensiontosomeofIntel’s
microprocessorsandrespectivechipsets,intendedtoprovideusersandorganizations
(governments,enterprises,etc.)withahigherleveloftrustwhileaccessing,modifyingor
creatingsensitivedataandcode
TXTrecord~Textrecord~ADNSrecordtypethatstoresatextstringforaresponsetoa
DNSquery.
~U~
U2F~UndetectableandUntraceableFraud~Amajorissueforinformationtechnologyis
fraudmadepossiblebytechnologyandelectronictransactions,especiallycrimesthat
leavenotraceandnoaudittrail.
UA~UpgradeAdvantage~AMicrosoftsoftwarelicenseprogram.
UAC~UserAccountControl~AsecuritytechnologyinWindowsVistathatreduces
exposuretoattacksbyrunninginnonadministrativemode,evenwhenloggedonwithan
administrativeaccount,unlessanduntiladministrativeprivilegesarerequiredtoperforma
task.
UART~universalasynchronousreceiver-transmitter~Amodulecomposedofasingle
integratedcircuit,whichcontainsboththereceivingandtransmittingcircuitsrequiredfor
asynchronousserialcommunication.
UAT~UserAcceptanceTest~Normallyasuiteofdocumentedtests,derivedfroma
requirementsorfunctionalspecificationandagreedwithaclient,thatwhensuccessfully
completedindicatethataproducedproductisacceptable
uauth~userauthentication~userauthentication
UBE~unsolicitedbulkemail~aformaltermforspam.ThemostcommontypeofUBE
isUCE:bulkemailthatistryingtogettherecipienttobuysomeproductorservice.
UBR~UndefinedBitRate~AneconomicalclassofÂQoSÂonamoment-to-moment
basis,withoutguaranteeingservicelevels.
UC~Unifiedcommunications~UCisadirectresultoftheconvergenceof
communicationsandapplications.Differingformsofcommunicationshistoricallyhave
beendeveloped,marketedandsoldasindividualapplications.Insomecases,theyeven
hadseparatenetworksanddevices.
UC&C(orUCC)~UnifiedCommunications&Collaboration~Mashups,consoles,APIs
andpackagedclientswillenableothercollaborationservicestobeblendedintoamixthat
includese-mail,RSSfeeds,calendars,blogs,tasks,wikis,personalpagesanddiscussion
threads.Â
UC2~UnifiedCommunicationsandCollaboration~IBMportfoliobasedonLotusNotes
messaging,SametimecollaborationproductsandtheEclipseclientframework
UCB~unitcontrolblock~Acontrolblockincommonstoragethatdescribesthe
characteristicsofaparticularI/Odeviceontheoperatingsystem
UCC~UniformCodeCouncil~DataModelstandard
UCCW~Ultimatecustomwidget~versatileAndroidwidgets
UCD~UnicodeCharacterDatabase~Consistsofanumberofdatafileslistingcharacter
propertiesandrelateddataalongwithadocumentationfilethatexplainstheorganization
ofthedatabaseandtheformatandmeaningofthedatainthefiles.See
alsoÂhttp://www.unicode.org
UCD~UplinkChannelDescriptor~aconceptintheIEEE802.16(WiMAX)network,
whichdescribestheuplinkburstprofile
UCD~User-centereddesign~adesignphilosophywheretheend-user’sneeds,wants
andlimitationsareafocusatallstageswithinthedesignprocessanddevelopment
lifecycle.
UCE~UnsolicitedCommercialEmail~Electronicjunkmailadvertisingaproduct,
service,orwebsite,wheretherecipientdidnotrequesttoreceivethemessage.
UCM~UnifiedChangeManagement~AChangeManagement(CM)concept
implementedbyRationalSoftwareCorporation(acquiredbyIBM)
UCM~UnifiedComputingSystem~Cisconext-generationdatacenterplatform
acceleratesthedeliveryofnewservicessimply,reliably,andsecurelythroughend-to-end
provisioningandmigrationsupport.
UCM~UniversalContentManagement~Oracle’sunifiedplatformforWCM,document
anagement,digitalassetmanagementandretentionmanagement
UCM~UniversalCustomerMaster~SiebelMDMproduct,acquiredbyOracle
UCM~UseCaseMaps~avisualrepresentationoftherequirementsofasystem,usinga
preciselydefinedsetofsymbolsforresponsibilities,systemcomponents,and
sequences.Âwww.usecasemaps.org
UCP~UbuntuCertifiedProfessional~firstintroducedinMay2006isacomputerbased
examinationabouttheUbuntuoperatingsystem.ItisadministeredbytheLPIfoundation.
UCS~UniversalCharacterSet~Acharactersetusing16-bitcharactercodes,alsocalled
ISO10646.UCSisastandarddefinedbytheISOandIEC.
UCS~UniversalCharacterSet~Aprinterfeaturethatpermitstheuseofavarietyof
characterarrays.
uDAPL~UserDirectAccessProgrammingLibrary~aspecificationandalibrarythat
definesasinglesetofuserAPIsforallRDMA-capabletransports.
UDDI~UniversalDescription,DiscoveryandIntegration~Amethodforfindingnew
WebServicesbyreferringtoacentraldirectory.Thespecificationforanindexofall
availableWebserviceswhichiscomparabletoaglobalYellow-Pagesdirectory.UDDI
helpsbusinessestoproducedescriptionsoftheservicestheyoffer,passondetailstothe
registryandthusappeartobeaservicesprovider.www.uddi.org
UDF~UniversalDiskFormat~ThevolumeformatofDVDdisks.
UDLP~UniDirectionalLinkProtocol~Thisprotocolisusedbyinexpensive,receive
onlyantennastoreceivedataviasatellite.
UDMA~UltraDMA(UltraDirectMemoryAccess)~AprotocoldevelopedbyQuantum
CorporationandIntelfordiskdrivesthatenablesthecomputertotakeadvantageofthe
fastUltraATAdiskdrives.
UDO~UltraDensityOptical~Opticalstoragetechnologythatincreasescapacitiesby
usinganextremelyfocusedbluelasertowriteandreaddata.HP,Sony,andPlasmon
collaboratedontheUDOstandard
UDP~UserDatagramProtocol~Transportlayer-RFC768
UDP~UserDatagramProtocol~ItispartoftheTCP/IPsuiteofprotocolsusedfordata
transferring.UDPisaknownasa‘stateless’protocol,meaningitdoesn’tacknowledge
thatthepacketsbeingsenthavebeenreceived.Forthisreason,theUDPprotocolis
typicallyusedforstreamingmedia.Whileyoumightseeskipsinvideoorhearsomefuzz
inaudioclips,UDPtransmissionpreventstheplaybackfromstoppingcompletely.
UDRP~UniformDisputeResolutionpolicy~defineshowdisputesoverdomainname
registrationsareresolvedintheglobaltop-leveldomains(.biz,.com,.info,.name,.net,
and.orgaswellas.aero,.coop,and.museum).
UFS~UnixFileSystem~Thedefaultdisk-basedfilesystemundertheUnixoperating
system
UGC~Usergeneratedcontent~UGCcoversarangeofmediacontentavailableina
rangeofmoderncommunicationstechnologies.
UGS~UnsolicitedGrantService~oneofthefiveQoSservicetypesdefinedintheIEEE
802.16WiMAX.The802.16protocolsupportsfivetypesofQoS.
UHF~UltraHighFrequency~Electromagneticfrequenciesintherangeof300to3000
megaherz.Usedforsometelevisionandradiotransmission.
UHV~UltraHighVoltage~atermmeaninganyamountofvoltageinexcessof800,000
volts.
UI~userinterface~Theconnectionbetweentheuserandacomputer’shardwareor
softwarethatpermitstheusertoworkproductivelywithasystemoraprogram.User
interfacedesignrequiressignificantskillandattentionandhasbecomearecognized
specialty.
UIA~UnifiedInformationAccess~InformationAccessprovidestotalinsightbasedon
aggregatingalltypesofdataandcontentinoneuniversalindex
UL~UnderwritersLaboratoriesInc.~aworldleaderinproductsafetytestingand
certification,isworkingwithHPonatwo-yearprojecttostandardizeprocessesand
technologies.
ULH~ultra-long-haul~100Gbpsopticalsystem
ULV~UltraLowVoltage~Aclassofprocessorsthataredeliberatelyunderclockedto
uselesspowerattheexpenseofperformance.
UM~Unifiedmessaging~UMisanextensionofvoicemailthatenablessubscribersto
accessandmanagemessages,suchasvoicemail,faxmailande-mail,fromasingle-user
interface.
UMA~Unified-MemoryArchitecture~AllowstheCPUandvideocontrollertosharethe
samemainmemoryand64bitdatapath.OneortwoMBofmainmemoryisallocatedto
videoviaaWin95utilityorinthePCssetup.
UMA~UnlicensedMobileAccess~providesaccesstoÂGSMÂandÂGPRSÂmobile
servicesoverunlicensedspectrumtechnologies,includingBluetoothand802.11,typically
usingabroadbandconnectionto‘backhaul’traffictotheserviceprovider.
UMA~UpperMemoryArea~InaPC,thememoryareabetween640Kand1024K.
UnderÂDOS,thismemoryareaisordinarilydesignatedforuseby
theÂROMÂBIOSÂanddisplay,andisunavailableforusebyotherprograms.
UMA~UserModeAudio~TogetherwithPUMA,isanengineintheWindowsVista
ProtectedEnvironmentthatprovidesasaferenvironmentforaudioplayback,aswellas
checkingthattheenabledoutputsareconsistentwithwhatthecontentallows
UMB~UltraMobileBroadband~thebrandnamefortheprojecttoimprovethe
CDMA2000mobilephonestandardfornextgenerationapplicationsandrequirements.
UMB~uppermemoryblock~Anuppermemoryblockisacontiguousblockofmemory
startingatanaddressabove640KB.MS-DOSdistinguishesbetweenconventional
memory(addressesbetween0and640KB)anduppermemory(addressesabove640KB).
UMC~ultramodularcomputing~Theradicaladoptionofmodularprinciplesbasedon
usingcommoditycomponentsinastandardizedarchitectureinordertosimplifythe
environmentforcreating,delivering,andoperatingapplicationswithinanenterprise.
UMID~UniqueMaterialIDentifier~Amethodologyformaterialssupplierstocodea
materialthatonlyTHEYsupply.Whileusedinthecomputerandchipmakingindustries,
itisalsousedinotherindustriessuchasmedical,foodprocessingandweapons,tonamea
few.
UML~UnifiedModelingLanguage~Astandardizedvisualnotationforcommunication
aboutsystemspecificationsanddesigndetails.InitiallycreatedatRationalSoftware(now
partofIBM).
UMS~UnfiedMessagingSystems~atechnologythatshouldallowuserstoaccess
messagessentindifferentformatsthroughonesingleinterface.
UMTS~UniversalMobileTelecommunicationSystem~UMTSisenvisionedasthe
successortoGlobalSystemforMobileCommunications(GSM).UMTSsignalsthemove
intothethirdgeneration(3G)ofmobilenetworks.
UNC~Uniform/UniversalNamingConvention~thisisasyntaxforanetworkresource,
fileorprinter,inthestandardformat:
UNI~User-to-NetworkInterface~ATMUserNetworkInterfaceisanATMForum
specificationoftheinterfacebetweenanATMuserdeviceandtheATMnetwork.
Unicode~UNIversalCODE~A16-bitcharactersetdefinedbyISO10646.
UNR~UbuntuNetbookRemix~Canonical-sponsorednetbook-optimizedLinux
distributionthatisbasedonUbuntu.IthasbeenavailablesinceUbuntu8.04‘Hardy
Heron’.UNRisanoptionalpreinstalledLinuxonsomenetbookssuchasDellInspiron
Mini10vandtheToshibaNB100.
UOL~UniversoOnline~UOLisaBrazilianonlineserviceproviderandISP.
UOW~unitofwork~Inadvancedprogram-to-programcommunications,theamountof
processingthatisstarteddirectlyorindirectlybyaprogramonthesourcesystem.
UOW~unitofwork~Arecoverablesequenceofoperationsperformedbyanapplication
betweentwopointsofconsistency.
UOW~unitofwork~Arecoverablesequenceofoperationswithinanapplication
process.
UPA~userprintablearea~Theareawithinthevalidprintablearea(VPA)whereusergenerateddatacanprintwithoutcausinganexceptioncondition.
UPC~UniversalProductCode~Thebarcodeprintedonretailmerchandise,itcontains
thevendor’sidentificationnumberandtheproductnumber.
UPnP~UniversalPlugandPlay~PlugandPlaydescribesdevicesthatworkwitha
computersystemassoonastheyareconnected.UPnPisanextensionofthisideathat
expandstherangeofPlugandPlaydevicestonetworkingequipment.UniversalPlugand
Playusesnetworkprotocolstoallowawiderangeofdevicestobeinterconnectedand
workseamlesslywitheachother.www.upnp.org
UPS~UninterruptiblePowerSupply~Inthetechnologyworld,UPSismorethanjusta
brownshippingcompany.Itisalsoatypeofpowersupplythatusesbatterybackupto
maintainpowerduringunexpectedpoweroutages.
UPT~UniversalPersonalTelecommunications~asetofstandardsdevelopedbythe
CCITTforwirelinepersonalcommunications.
URC~UtilityReadyComputing~HP’sintegratedITcomputecapacityacquisition
programthatincludesaportfolioofdeployment,support,availability,andmanagement
services.
URI~UniformResourceIdentifier~AnaddressforsresourceavailableontheInternet.
ThefirstpartofaURIiscalledthe‘scheme’.themostwellknownschemeishttp,but
therearemanyothers.EachURIschemehasitsownformatforhowaURIshouldappear.
URI~UniformResourceIdentifier~Acompactstringofcharactersforidentifyingan
abstractorphysicalresource.
URL~UniformResourceLocator~Thestandardwaytogiveaddressofanyresourceon
theInternetthatispartoftheWWW.ThemostcommonwaytouseaURListoenterintoa
WWWbrowserprogram,suchatNetscape,orLynx.
URN~UniformResourceName~AÂURIÂthatissupposedtobeavailableforalong
time.ForanaddresstobeaURNsomeinstitutionissupposedtomakeacommitmentto
keeptheresourceavailableatthataddress.
uRPF~UnicastReversePathForwarding~limitthemalicioustrafficonanenterprise
network
URT~universalreceivertransmitter~Acircuitwhichisusedforsynchronous,
asynchronous,orcombinedsynchronous/asynchronouscommunications,andwhich
containsaserial-to-parallelconverterfordatatransmittedoutofthecomputeranda
parallel-to-serialconverterfordatacomingin.
URT~UserRegistrationTool~Dynamicauthorizationandpolicycontrolframeworkthat
managesaccesstotheÂLANÂbypartitioningusertrafficthroughÂVLANs
USB~UniversalSerialBus~Physicalandotherlayers-USB3.0Specification
USB~UniversalSerialBus~anexternalbusstandardthatsupportsdatatransferratesof
12Mbps.
USB~UpperSideBand~UpperSideBandinHAMandcommercialradio
USENET~USEr’sNETwork~Aworld-widesystemofdiscussiongroups,with
commentspassedamonghundredsofthousandsofmachines.NotallUSENETmachines
areontheÂInternet.USENETiscompletelydecentralized,withover10,000discussion
areas,calledÂnewsgroups.
USF~UniversalServiceFund~Financialmechanismthathelpscompensatephone
companiesforprovidingaccesstotelecomserviceatreasonableandaffordablerates
acrossthecountry.
USG~UNIXSystemsGroup~ThedivisionofNovellconcernedwithUNIXandUNIX
products.
USHER~UnitedStatesHigherEducationRootCertificateAuthority~USHERisa
publickeyinfrastructure.
USL~UNIXSystemLaboratories~ThedivisionofAT&Twhichwasresponsiblefor
UNIXfrom1990untilitwasacquiredbyNovellin1993.
USM~UnifedServiceModel~CAÂextensibleschemathatmodelsbothentitiesand
rela-tionshipsaswellaspoliciesandrulesthatgovernhowtheCatalystServicesfederate,
correlateandreconciledataandcapabilities
USM~Unsharpmasking~Aprocessusedtosharpenimages.
USMT~UserStateMigrationTool~Tooltomigrateuserfilesandsettingsduringlarge
deploymentsofMicrosoftWindowsXPandMicrosoftWindowsVista®operating
systems
USO~universalserviceobligation~TheobligationundertheTelecommunicationsAct
1997toensurethatstandardtelephoneservices,payphonesandprescribedcarriage
servicesarereasonablyaccessibletoallAustraliansonanequitablebasis,whereverthey
resideorcarryonbusiness.
USP~UniversalStoragePlatform~HitachiÂVMthatdeliverscontroller-based
virtualization,logicalpartitioninganduniversalreplicationforopensystemsand
mainframeenvironmentsinarackmountedstorageservicesplatform.
USP~usagesensitivepricing~Chargeforservicebasedontheamountofuse.
usr~UnixSystemResources~Inanyunix(andvariantslikelinux)systemthe/usr
directory
USRT~Un