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# Download Introduction to Chance Models (Section 1.1) Introduction A key step

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```In the actual study, Buzz really did push the correct button 15 times out of 16, an outcome that
we just determined would rarely occur if Buzz was just guessing. So, our coin flip chance model
tells us that we have very strong evidence that Buzz was not just tossing a coin to make his
choices. This means we have strong evidence that Buzz wasnât just guessing. Therefore, we
donât believe the âby chance aloneâ explanation is a good one for Buzz. The results mean we
have strong enough evidence to be statistically significant, not a result that happened by
chance alone, and to convince us that something other than ârandom chanceâ was at play.
Definition: A result is statistically significant if it is unlikely to occur just by random chance.
If our observed result appears to be consistent with the chance model, we say that the
chance model is plausible or believable.
What next? A glimpse into Steps 5 and 6
The steps we went through above have helped us evaluate how strong the evidence is that
Buzz is not guessing (Step 4 of the Statistical Investigation Method). In this case, the evidence
provided by this sample is fairly strong that Buzz isnât guessing. Still, there are some important
questions you should be asking right now, such as: If Buzz isnât guessing what is he doing?
Step 5: Formulate conclusions. We should also ask ourselves: if Buzz wasnât guessing, does
this prove that Buzz and Doris can communicate? And if so, what does this say about other
dolphins? As weâll find in later chapters, the answers to these questions hinge mainly on how
the study was designed and how we view the 16 attempts that we observed (e.g., we assume
Buzz couldnât see the light himself, the light signal displayed each time was chosen randomly so
Buzz couldnât figure out a pattern to help him decide which button to push; Buzzâs 16 attempts
are a good representation of what Buzz would do given many more attempts under identical
conditions; but we might still wonder whether Buzzâs behavior representative of dolphin behavior
in general or are there key differences among individual dolphins).
Step 6: Look back and ahead. After completing Steps 1-5 of the Statistical Investigation
Method, we need to revisit the big picture of the initial research question. First, we reflect on the
limitations of the analysis, and think about future studies. In short, we are now stepping back
and thinking about the initial research question more than the specific research conjecture being
tested in the study. In some ways, this is the most important step of the whole study because it
is where we think about the true implications of the scientific study weâve conducted. For this
study, we would reflect on Dr. Bastianâs methods, summarize the results for Buzz, and reflect on
ways to improve the study to enhance the conclusions we can draw.
The 3S Strategy
Let us summarize the overall approach to assessing statistical significance that we have been
taking in this section. We observed a sample statistic (e.g., the number of âsuccessesâ or the
proportion of âsuccessesâ in the sample). Then we simulated âcould-have-beenâ outcomes for
that statistic under a specific chance model (just guessing). Then we used the information we
gained about the random variation in the âby-chanceâ values of the statistics to help us judge
whether the observed value of the statistic is an unusual or a typical outcome. If it is unusualâ
we say the observed statistic is statistically significantâit provides strong evidence that the
chance-alone explanation is wrong. If it is typical, we consider the chance model plausible.
You may have noticed that we only simulated results for one specific model. When we saw that
the sample statistic observed in the study was not consistent with these simulated results, we
June 27, 2014
MAA PREP workshop
6
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