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Systematic Anatomy Department of Anatomy,Histology & Embryology Shanghai Medical College,Fudan University Dr.Hongqi Zhang (张红旗) Email: [email protected] Office: Building 9,Room308， 54237151－9308 Mobile:13761809799 1 Composition of reproductive system t off both b th sexs Internal genital organs Gonads Genital ducts Accessory glands External genital organs Male genital organ Female genital organ Composition of reproductive system Internal genital organs Gonads－testis G d t ti Genital ducts: Epididymis Deferent ductus Ejaculatory duct Urethra Accessory glands Prostate P t t Seminal vesicle Bulbourethral glane External genital organs Scrotum and penis Ureter Bladder Seminal vesicle Prostate Bulbourethral gland Penis Ductus deferens Epididymis Testis The position and shape of the testis A pair i off oval-shaped l h d organs.They Th are suspended d d on th the scrotum by the supermatic cord.Each testis have two extremities;two surfaces and two borders borders.The The function of testis is to produces sperm and secret androgens. Two extremity Two surfaces T Two borders b d Sup.extremity Inf.extremity Lat.surface Med.surface Ant.border Epidydimis Sup.extremity Post. border Post.border Lat.surface Ant. border Inf.extremity The structures of the testis Testis sends numerous fibrous septules into the gland, dividing it into 100～200 testicular lobules that contain 2～ 4 contorted seminiferous tubules → traight seminiferous tubules →rete testis Shape of the testis Sup. Sup extremity Post Post. border Inf extremity Inf.extremity Ant.border Testicle of a cat: 1 Extremitas capitata, 2 Extremitas caudata, 3 Margo epididymalis, 4 Margo liber, 5 Mesorchium Mesorchium, 6 Epididymis, tetibular bu a a a.& & v. 7 tet 8 Ductus deferens The descend of testis Testes follow the "path of descent" from high in the posterior fetal abdomen to the inguinal ring and beyond to the inguinal canal and into the scrotum. In most cases ((97% full-term, 70% p preterm), ) both testes have descended by y birth. In most other cases, only one testis fails to descend (cryptorchidism) and that will probably express itself within a year. Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism) ( yp ) - a testis that did not descend all the way into the scrotum Between the seventh week and birth birth, the testes descend into the scrotum due to shortening of the gubernaculum. The testes pass through the inguinal canal in the anterior abdominal wall. After the 8th week, a peritoneal evagination, the processus vaginalis, forms just anterior to the gubernaculum. It forms the inguinal canal by pushing out sock-like extensions of the transversalis fascia, the internal oblique muscle and external oblique muscle, muscle The inguinal canal extends from the base of the inverted transversalis fascia (the deep ring) to the base of the everted external oblique muscle (the superficial ring). After the processus vaginalis has evaginated into the scrotum, the gubernaculum shortens and pulls the gonads through the canal. The gonads always remain within the plane of the subserous fascia associated with the posterior wall of the processus vaginalis vaginalis. By the end of the pregnancy the testes have completely entered the scrotal sac. The gubernaculum is reduced to a ligamentous band attaching the inferior pole of the testis to the scrotal floor. Within the first year after birth the superior part of the processus vaginalis is usually obliterated leaving a distal remnant sac, sac the tunica vaginalis vaginalis, which lies anterior to the testis testis. Its lumen is normally collapsed but sometimes it may fill with serous secretions forming a testicular hydrocele. THE NORMAL MIGRATION OF THE TESTICLE: The testes develop in the abdominal cavity in early fetal life. By 14 to 17 weeks of intrauterine life they migrate to an opening in the body wall known as the inguinal canal canal. After 28 weeks they pass through the canal and by 35 to 40 weeks reach the scrotum. Undescended U d d d testes t t . Undescended U d d d testes are a common problem. At birth 3.5% of boys will have an undescended testes. Approximately 30% will have both testes involved. A large proportion of these testes will have descended by 3 months after birth with just 1% of boys still having an undescended testes by 1 year of age. Premature infants have a much higher chance of having an undescended testes. Testicular descent is a complex process and not yet fully understood. It is known that the p process depends p on adequate q hormone levels as well as mechanical and neurological factors. Diagram of an adult human testicle: A.) Blood vessels; B)H B.) Head d off epididymus; idid C.) Efferent ductiles; D.)) Seminiferous tubules;; E.) Parietal lamina of tunica vaginalis; F.) Visceral lamina of tunica vaginalis; G.) Cavity of tunica vaginalis; H.) Tunica albuginea; I ) Lobule I.) L b l off testis; t ti J.) Tail of epididymus; y of epididymus; p y ; K.)) Body L.) Mediastinum; M.) Vas deferens. Genital ducts Epididymis Deferencs ductus Djaculatory ducts urethra Genital ducts- epididymis p y Shape：oval shaped shaped, Head of epididymis Body of epididymis Tail of epididymis Position Located on sup.extremity & post. post border of testis Function Th site The it off accumulation l ti & storage of sperm Efferent ductules connect between testis and epididymis. Genital ducts- ductus deferens Muscular tube that transports sperm form epididymis to ejaculatory duct,about 50cm in length. four divisions 1-Testicular part- extends from the tail of epididymis to the sup. extremity i off testis i 2 - Spermatic part- － from sup. extremity of testis to the sup sup. 3 inguinal ring,----- where the 3 – performed vasectomyy is p 3 -Inguinal part- extends from sup. to deep inguinal rings 4 - Pelvic P l i partt - crosses the th ureter to reach the base of bladder terminal part dilates bladder, dilates, -ampulla ductus deferentis 3 4 2 1 Vasectomy V Vasectomy t Important concept-Spermatic cord Position Extends from the sup. extremity of testis to deep inguinal ring Contents: Ductus deferens;Testicular artery;Pampiniform plexus; N Nerves & llymphatic h ti vessels; l 3 llayers off ttunic i enwrap th the spermatic ti cord.there are internal spermatic fascia;cremaster; Ext. spermatic fascia Ext.spermati c fascia Spermatic cord Ductus deferens Genitofemoral n. penis Pampiniform plexus Testibular a. Cremaster Scrotum wall Skin testis Epididymis Pariatal layer Vesceral layer Dartos coat The covering of testis and spermatic cord Perididymis Genital ducts- ejaculatory duct Formed by union of distal portion ductus deferens & excretory duct of seminal vesicle Passes through the upper part of p p prostate and opens p into the prostatic part of urethra Ejaculatory duct Posterior surface of bladder Lat.view of bladder and prostate Accessory glands Seminal vesicle (paired) Prostate (five lobes) Bulbourethral gland (paired) Accessory glands- seminal vesicle Paired sacculated,coiled glands l d Secrete part of seminal fluid Located on post. surface of bladder lateral to ampulla bladder,lateral ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct is formed by union of distal portion ductus deferense and excretory duct of seminal vesicle Seminal vesicles Post.view of bladder Ureter Urinary bladder Ductus deferens Ampulla of ductus deferens Beginning of ejaculatory duct Prostate Seminal vesicle Ischiopubic ramus Deep transverse perineal m.and fascia Bulbourethral glands Prostate and seminal vesicles (post.view) Accessory glands- prostate Position Lies in the lesser pelvic cavity below the bladder,above the urogenital diaphragm. Shape Chestnut-shaped organ Post.view P t t Prostate Division - Three portions Base of prostate Apex of prostate Body of peostate Prostate Prostatic sulcus(post sulcus(post. surfaces) Five lobes Sagittal view Accessory glands- prostate Contains of five lobes Ant. lobe Mid. lobe Post.lobe Left lobe Ri ht llobe Right b Ant.lobe U th Urethra Right.lobe g L ft l b Left.lobe Capsule of protate Sheath of protate formed by pelvic fascia p Mid.lobe Post.lobe Transverse section of prostate Accessory glands - Bulbourethral gland Two small pea-shaped glands,located in the deep transverse muscle of perineum,opens into bulb of urethra. Bulbourethral gland Prostate cancer External genital organs Scrotum Penis External g genital organs g - scrotum Pouch of thin skin lying below the root of the penis Divided into two haves by septum of scrotum, contains testis and epididymis External g genital organs g - scrotum The wall of the testis consist of skin and dartos coat, a connective tissue layer y that contains manyy smooth muscle fibers which is continus anteriorly to the scarpa’s fascia of abdomen and posteriorly with Colles fascia of perineum Ext.spermati c fascia Spermatic cord Ductus deferens Genitofemoral n. n penis Pampiniform plexus Testibular a. Cremaster Scrotum wall Skin Dartos coat testis Epididymis Pariatal layer Vesceral layer Perididymis The regulation of testis temperature The testes work best at temperatures slightly less than core body temperature. The spermatogenesis is less efficient at lower and higher temperatures. p This is p presumably y why y the testes are located outside the body. There are a number of mechanisms to maintain the testes at the optimum temperature. While hot- cremaster dilate – the wall thinned- Decreased T While cool- cremaster contract – the wall thickened- keep warm The descend of testis The coverings g of testis and spermatic p cord Parietal peritoneum Transvers fascia Trasversus abdominis Obliquus internus abdominis Aponeurosis of obliquus externus abdominis External spermatic fascia Cremastter Parietal layer Visceral layer Internal spermatic fascia Tunica vaginalis of testis Vaginal cavity External genital organs - penis Division Root ；Body；Glans Cavernous body（3）Cavernous body of penis(2); Cavernous body of urethra(1) Head of penis Ext. orifice of urethra Head of penis Prepuce of penis Frenulum of prepuce Body of penis Cavernous body of penis Cavernouis body of urethra Sup.fascia of penis Prepuce of penis Frenulum of prepuce Crus of penis Bulb of urethra Crus of penis Bulbourethral gland The transverse section of penis p Dorsal n.of n of penis Dorsal sup. a.of penis Dorsal deep a.of penis skin Dorsal a.of penis Sup fascia of penis Sup.fascia Lat.v.of penis Deep.fascia of penis Deep a.of penis Cavernouis body of penis Albuginea of cavernouis body of penis cavernouis body of urethra Albuginea of cavernouis body of urethra urethra The masterpiece of great univers Penis P i like Stone St Penis sheath in new Guinea “Yang g yyuan stone” situated in Danxia Mountain of Guangdong g g Province. It is called the first strange (wonder) stone on the world which are 28 meters in height and 7meters in diameter. Male urethra It have a length about 16-20cm and pass through the prostate, the uregental diaphragm and the cavernous body of the urethra. Function:voiding the urine and ejaculating the seminal fluid. Three portions Three strictures Three dilations Two curvatures Ant.and post urethra Ureter bladder Ductus deferens Ampulla of ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct Prostate Urethra Penis epididymis scrotum Male urethra -Three portions 2 1 - Prostatic part 3cm; 2 - Membranous part 1 5cm; 1.5cm; 3 - Cavernous part 15cm 15 3 1 2 Male urethra -Three strictures 1 - Internal orifice of urethra 2 - Membranous part 3 - External orifice of urethra 1 2 3 Male urethra –Two curvatures 1 - Subpubic curvaturen(can not be changed) 2 - Prepubic curvature (can be changed) 2 1 Anterior urethra and posterior urethra 1 – Anterior urethra (prostatic part + membranous part) 2 – Posteror urethra (cavenous part only) 2 1 Male urethra –three dilations 1 - Prostatic part 2 - Bulb of urethra 3 - Nnavicular fossa of urethra 1 2 3 Local enlargement See you next time!