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`Unit One
1. 0 degrees latitude
2. 0 degrees longitude – passes through
Greenwich, England
3. a circle drawn around the globe
parallel to the equator
4. a computer system that can capture,
store, query, analyze, and display
geographic date
5. A specific point on Earth distinguished
by a particular characteristic
6. a system that accurately determines
the precise position of something on
7. A two-dimension or flat scale model of
8. an arc drawn between North and South
9. an area of Earth distinguished by a
distinctive combination of cultural and
physical features
10. divided much of the country into a
system of townships and ranges to
facilitate the sale of land to settlers
11. greater cultural and economic
interaction among people all over the
12. master reference time for all points on
13. numbering system for meridians (axis
between North and South poles)
14. numbering system for parallels
15. physical character of a place
16. the acquisition of data from a satellite
orbiting Earth or from another longdistance method
17. the location of a place relative to other
18. the name given to a place on Earth
19. the physical gap or intervals between
two objects
20. the position that something occupies
on Earth
21. the relationship between the portion of
Earth being studied and Earth as a
22. the science of mapmaking
23. the scientific method of transferring
locations on Earth’s surface to a flat
24. The study of the earth and its features
and of the distribution of life on the
earth, including human life and the
physical environment
25. The study of where and why human
activities are located where they are
26. The study where and why natural
forces occur as they do
Unit Two
1. A bar graph representing the
distribution of population by age and
2. A figure indicating how long, on
average, a person may be expected to
3. A figure that describes the number of
children who die between the first and
fifth years of their lives in a given
4. A mathematical formula that describes
the level of interaction between two
places, based on the size of their
populations and their distance from
each other.
5. a model that tracks the steps through
which a society’s population moves as a
country/region progresses towards
6. a person with temporary permission to
work in another country
7. An environmental or cultural feature of
the landscape that hinders migration.
8. an increase in the percentage and in
the number of people living in urban
9. British economist of late 1700’s.
Considered the first to predict a
population crisis.
10. CBR – CDR = NIR
11. change in the migration pattern in a
society that results from
industrialization, population growth, and
other social and economic changes that
also produce the demographic transition
12. factors that induce people to leave old
13. factors that induce people to come to
new residences
14. Government policies designed to
reduce the rate of natural increase.
15. Government policies that encourage
large families and raise the rate of
population growth.
16. group who built on Malthus’ theory and
suggested that people wouldn’t just
starve for lack of food, but would have
wars about food and other scarce
17. High birth rates and death rates are
followed by plunging death rates,
producing a huge net population gain,
this is followed by the convergence of
birth rates and death rates at a low
overall level.
18. large coalescing supercities that are
forming in diverse parts of the world.
19. Large-scale emigration by talented
20. migration from a location
21. migration of people to a specific location
because relatives or members of the
same nationality previously migrated
22. migration to a location
23. movement from one region of a country
to another
24. movement within a region
25. Net migration from urban to rural areas
in more developed countries.
26. Only people exhibiting certain
characteristics in a population choosing
to migrate.
27. people who are forced to migrate from
their home country and cannot return
for fear of persecution because of their
race, religion, nationality, membership
of a social group, of political opinion
28. permanent movement compelled
usually by cultural factors
29. permanent movement from one country
to another
30. permanent movement undertaken by
31. permanent movement within the same
32. the amount of people an area can
33. the area of land occupied by humans
34. the average number of children a
woman has in her lifetime
35. the development of farming
36. the difference between the level of
immigration and the level of emigration
37. The diminishing in importance and
eventual disappearance of a
phenomenon with increasing distance
from its origin.
38. The distinctive cause of death in each
stage of the demographic transition.
Explains how countries’ population
39. the leap of medical knowledge in stage
2 of the demographic transition
40. The level of development that can be
maintained without depleting resources.
41. The number of deaths yearly per 1,000
people in a population.
42. The number of live births yearly per
1,000 people in a population.
43. The number of people per unit of area
of arable land, which is land suitable for
44. the number of people who can’t work
45. The process of population movement
from within towns and cities to the ruralurban fringe.
46. The proportion of individuals of different
ages within a population. You can use
an age distribution to estimate survival
by calculating the difference in
proportion of individuals in succeeding
age classes.
47. the ratio of men to women
48. the scientific study of population
49. The shape of a line graph of population
graph when growth is exponential.
50. the space within which daily activity
51. the tendency for growing population to
continue growing after a fertility decline
because of their young age distribution.
This is important because once this
happens a country moves to a different
stage in the demographic transition
52. the time it takes for an area’s population
to double
53. The total number of deaths in a year
among infants under one year old for
every 1000 live births in a society.
54. The total number of people divided by
the total land area.
55. too many people in one place for the
resources available
56. Where natural birth rate declines to
equal crude birth rate and the natural
rate of population approaches 0.
Unit Three
1. A boundary that separates regions in
which different language usages
2. A collection of languages related
through a common ancestor that
existed several thousand years ago.
Differences are not as extensive or old
as with language families, and
archaeological evidence can confirm
that these derived from the same
3. a collection of languages related to
each other through a common ancestor
long before recorded history
4. A collection of languages within a
branch that share a common origin in
the relatively recent past and display
relatively few differences in grammar
and vocabulary.
5. a dialect spoken by some African
6. a religious division of a branch that
unites a number of local congregations
in a single legal and administrative
7. A doctrine that claims that cultural traits
are formed and controlled by
environmental conditions.
8. a follower of a polytheistic religion in
ancient times
9. A form of speech that adopts a
simplified grammar and limited
vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for
communications among speakers of
two different languages.
10. a journey to a place considered sacred
for religious purposes
11. A language that is unrelated to any
other languages and therefore not
attached to any language family.
12. A language that is written as well as
13. a language that results from the mixing
of a colonizer’s language with the
indigenous language of the people
being dominated
14. A language that was once used by
people in daily activities but is no longer
15. a large and fundamental division within
a religion
16. A person who works fields rented from
a landowner and pays the rent and
repays loans by turning over to the
landowner a share of the crops.
17. A practice, primarily during the
eighteenth century, in which European
ships transported slaves from Africa to
Caribbean islands, molasses from the
Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods
from Europe to Africa.
18. A process by which real estate agents
convince white property owners to sell
their houses at low prices because of
fear that black families will soon move
into the environment.
19. A regional variety of a language
distinguished by vocabulary, spelling,
and pronunciation
20. a relatively small group that has broken
away from an established denomination
21. a religion in which a central authority
exercises a high degree of control
22. a religion that attempts to appeal to all
people, not just those living in a
particular location
23. a religion that does not have a central
authority but shares ideas and
cooperates informally
24. a religion with a relatively concentrated
spatial distribution
25. a repetitive act that a particular
individual performs.
26. a restriction on a behavior imposed by
a social custom.
27. a set of religious beliefs concerning the
origin of the universe
28. A state whose territory corresponds to
that occupied by a particular ethnicity
that has been transformed into a
29. A system of communication through the
use of speech, a collection of sounds
understood by a group of people to
have the same meaning
30. An attitude that tends to unify people
and enhance support for a state.
31. an individual who helps to diffuse a
universalizing religion
32. Any item, made by humans, that
represents a material aspect of culture
33. belief in or worship of more than one
34. belief that objects, such as plants and
stones, or natural events, like
thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a
discrete spirit and conscious life
35. Belief that race is the primary
determinant of human traits and
capacities and that racial differences
product an inherent superiority of a
particular race..
36. British Received Pronunciation. The
dialect of English associated with upper
class Britons living in the London area
now considered a standard,
37. Combination of Spanish and English,
spoken by Hispanic-Americans.
38. Concept that ethnicities have the right
to govern themselves.
39. Culture traditionally practiced by a
small, homogeneous, rural group living
in relative isolation from other groups.
40. during the Middle Ages, a
neighborhood in a city set up by law to
be inhabited only by Jews; now used to
denote a section of the city in which
members of any minority group live
because of social, legal, or economic
41. Dynamic culture based in large,
heterogeneous societies permitting
considerable individualism, innovation,
and change
42. Identity with a group of people
descended from a common ancestor.
43. Identity with a group of people that
share distinct traits as a product of
common cultural traditions.
44. Identity with a group of people that
share legal attachment and personal
allegiance to a particular place as a
result of being born there.
45. Laws (no longer in effect) in South
Africa that physically separated
different races into different geographic
46. literal interpretation and strict
adherence to basic principles of a
religion (or a religious branch,
denomination, or sect).
47. Locations on earth’s surface where
specific cultures first arose.
48. Modifications to the environment by
humans, including the built environment
and agricultural systems, that reflect
aspects if their culture
49. Practices followed by the people of a
particular cultural group.
50. Process by which a state breaks down
through conflicts among its ethnicities.
51. Process in which more powerful ethnic
group forcible removes a less powerful
one in order to create an ethnically
homogenous region.
52. Diffusion of a new idea by movement of
people to that new area
53. Speaking only one language.
54. State that contains more than one
55. State that contains two or more ethnic
groups with traditions of self-
56. symbol that stands for a concept rather
than a word
57. The central, enduring elements of a
culture expressing its values and
beliefs, including language, religion,
58. the class or distinct hereditary order
into which a Hindu is assigned
according to religious law
59. The contact and interaction of one
culture to another.
60. the doctrine or belief of the existence of
only one god
61. the everyday speech of the people (as
distinguished from literary language)
62. The form of a language used for official
government business, education, and
mass communications.
63. The man-made surroundings that
provide the setting for human activity,
ranging in scale from personal shelter
to neighborhoods to the large-scale
civic surroundings.
64. the manner in which people speak and
the way words are pronounced in
different parts of the world
65. the name by which a geographical
place is known
66. The physical manifestations of human
activities; includes tools ,campsites, art,
and structures. The most durable
aspects of culture
67. the spatial expression of a popular
custom in one location that will be
similar to another.
68. The specific customs that are part of
the everyday life of a particular culture,
such as language, religion, ethnicity,
social institutions, and aspects of
popular culture.
69. the spread of an innovation or an idea
through a population in an area
70. the study of where languages are
71. The theory that people have the ability
to adjust to the physical environment
72. the widespread use of English in the
French language,
Unit Four
1. a sovereign state comprising a city
and its immediate hinterland
2. a state in which the distance from the
center to any boundary does not vary
3. a state that completely surrounds
another one
4. a state that does not have a direct
outlet to the sea
5. a state that encompasses a very small
land area
6. a state that includes several
discontinuous pieces of territory
7. a state with a long, narrow shape
8. a territory that is legally tied to a
sovereign state rather than completely
9. a zone separating two states in which
neither state exercises political control
10. ability of a state to govern its territory
free from control of its internal affairs
by other states
11. an area organized into a political unit
and ruled by an established
government with control over its
internal and foreign affairs
12. an internal organization of a state that
allocates most powers to units of local
13. an internal organization of a state that
places most power in the hands of
central government officials
14. an otherwise compact state with a
large projecting extension
15. attempt by one country to establish
settlements and to impose its political,
economic, and cultural principles in
another territory
16. condition of roughly equal strength
between opposing countries or
alliances of countries
17. control of territory already occupied
and organized by an indigenous
18. invisible line that marks the extent of a
state’s territory
19. process of redrawing legislative
boundaries for the purpose of
benefiting the party in power
Unit Five
1. “hard to get” crops; delicacies; crops that
you would not normally see.
2. agricultural practice that preserves and
enhances environmental quality.
3. explains how population increase
necessitates increased inputs of labor
and technology to compensate for
reductions in the natural yields of
swidden farming.
4. commercial gardening and fruit farming
named because “truck” means bartering.
5. commercial grazing of livestock over an
extensive area.
6. farmers clear land for planting by
slashing vegetation and burning the
debris. Swidden is the cleared area that
is known by a variety of names in
different regions (swidden is the name in
one specific region).
7. first one to observe that rapidly
increasing population will cause
overpopulation and not enough
resources for all of the people.
8. first to observe vegetable planting.
9. form of agriculture that takes place along
the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea.
The two primary cash crops in this form
of agriculture are olives and grapes.
10. form of agriculture based on herding
domesticated animals.
11. found in LDCs. Production of food
primarily for consumption by the farmer’s
12. found in more developed countries;
production of food primarily for sale off
the farm.
13. growing of fruits, vegetables, and
14. inaccurate name given by Europeans
and North Americans to the flooded field
in which wet rice is planted; Malay word
for wet rice.
15. invention and rapid diffusion of more
productive agricultural techniques during
the 1970s and 1980s.
16. large farm that specializes in one or two
17. people shift actively from one field to
18. practice of rotating the use of different
fields from crop to crop each year to
avoid exhausting the soil.
19. process in semiarid regions where
human actions are causing land to
deteriorate to a desert-like condition.
20. reproduction of plants through annual
planting of seeds that result from sexual
21. ring surrounding a city from which milk
can be supplied without spoiling.
22. system of commercial farming found in
the United States and other relatively
developed countries.
23. system of planting crops on ridge tops to
reduce farm production costs; promotes
soil conservation.
24. term applied to subsistence agriculture
that means that farmers must work more
intensively to subsist on a parcel of land.
25. when farmers grow crops on a clear field
for only a few years until the soil
nutrients are depleted. The farmers then
leave the soil for a few year so the
nutrients in the soil can be restored;
uncropped land.
26. Process of moving up and down the side
of a mountain to adjust to climate
Unit Six
1. Approach that explains how many
industries are attracted to locations with
relatively skilled labor to introduce new
2. Also known as a relatively developed
country or a developed country, country
that has progressed further along the
development continuum.
3. Characteristics that involve transporting
materials to and from a factory.
4. Characteristics that result from the unique
characteristics of a location, such as land,
labor, and capital.
5. Compares the ability of men and women
to participate in economic and political
6. Country in an earlier stage of
development. Several analysts prefer the
term “developing country.”
7. Country that displays economic
dependence on another country
8. Created by the United Nations to
recognize a country’s level of
development as function of three factors:
economic, social, and demographic
9. Creator of the model that states that the
optimum location of a manufacturing firm
is explained in terms of cost minimization.
10. Economic activity in which the final
product weighs less than its inputs.
11. Economic activity that directly extracts or
harvests resources from the Earth.
12. Economic activity that links the primary
and secondary sectors to the consumers
and other businesses either by selling
goods directly or by performing services
utilizing those goods.
13. Economic activity that transforms raw
materials into usable products, adding
value in the process.
14. Economic policies that encourage
international trade.
15. Fundamental systems serving a country,
city, or area, such as transportation and
communication systems, power plants,
and schools.
16. Gross value of the product minus the cost
of raw materials and energy.
17. Home-based manufacturing. An example
of this is textile manufacturing.
18. Industrial parks for foreign companies to
conduct export-oriented manufacturing.
19. industries that sell their products or
services primarily to consumers outside
the settlement
20. Industry producing goods or services for
sale within the local region.
21. Industry that locate in a wide variety of
places without a significant change in its
cost of transportation, land, labor, and
22. Industry that makes something that gain
volume or weight during production.
23. Like GDP, only the incomes that people
earn abroad are also considered.
24. Lower production costs as a result of
larger volume of production.
25. Model created in the 1950’s that gives an
idea of where a country is in their stage of
development. There are five stages in this
26. Percentage of a country’s people who
can read and write.
27. Phenomenon of economic activity
congregating in or close to a single
location, rather than being spread out
uniformly across space.
28. Point of location where transfer among
transportation modes is possible.
29. Portion of the economy concerned with
manufacturing the process,
transformation, and assembly of raw
materials into useful products.
30. Portion of the economy concerned with
the transportation, communications, and
utilities, sometimes extended to the
provision of all goods and services to
people in exchange for payment.
31. Process of improving economic/material
conditions of people through the diffusion
of knowledge and technology.
32. Revolution that transformed how goods
are produced for a society and the way
people obtain food, clothing, and shelter.
33. Sector that includes jobs that focus on
business services, such as trade,
insurance, banking, advertising, and
34. Selective transfer of skilled jobs in MDCs
to LDCs that still allow skilled jobs to exist
in MDCs.
35. State that has prevented a union or
company from negotiating a contract that
requires workers to join a union as a
condition of employment.
36. States that optimum location of a
manufacturing firm is explained in terms
of cost minimization.
37. Term that analysts use instead of the
term “less developed country.”
38. Type of “industrial competition” in which
the countries within a group cooperate
through trade, and these groups compete
against the other
39. Type of industry in which labor cost is a
high percentage of expense.
40. Value of a particular product compared to
the amount of labor needed to make it.
41. Value of the total number of goods and
services produced in a country in a given
period of time (normally one year). Also
known as GNI (Gross National Income).
42. Wealth, whether in money or property,
owned or employed in business by an
individual, firm, or corporation.
43. What a state’s dollar can actually buy
compared to another state’s dollar; what
a country is able to buy.
44. the portion of the economy concerned
with the direct extraction of materials from
Earth’s surface, generally through
agriculture, although sometimes by
mining, fishing, and forestry.
Unit Seven
1. a community’s collection of basic
2. a market center for the exchange of
services by people attracted from the
surrounding area.
3. a model that holds that the potential use
of a service at a particular location is
directly related to the number of people
in a location and inversely related to the
distance people must travel to reach this
4. a pattern of settlements in a country
such that the nth largest settlement is
1/n the population of the largest
5. a pattern of settlements in a country,
such that the largest settlement has
more than twice as many people as the
second-ranking settlement.
6. a permanent collection of buildings and
7. a rural settlement in which the houses
and farm buildings of each family are
situated close to each other and fields
surround the settlement.
8. a rural settlement pattern characterized
by isolated farms rather than clustered
9. a sovereign state comprising a city and
its immediate hinterland.
10. a theory that explains the distribution of
services, based on the fact that
settlements serve as centers of market
areas for services; larger settlements are
fewer and farther apart than smaller
settlements and provide services for a
larger number of people who are willing
to travel farther
11. any activity that fulfills a human want or
need and returns money to those who
provide it.
12. area studied using a method created by
the US Bureau of the Census that
measures the functional area of a city.
13. businesses that provide services
primarily to individual consumers,
including retail services and personal
14. city around a beltway that is a node of
consumer and business services
15. density change in an urban area.
16. drawing of lines on a map to identify
areas in which banks will refuse to loan
17. Greek word for “great city.” Region
described as an MSA that may overlap
and cause several large metropolitan
areas to come so close together that
they form one continuous urban
18. housing maintained as result of the
alternative to demolishing houses.
19. housing provided to low-income
households, who pay 30% of their
income as rent for the housing.
20. industries that sell their products
primarily to consumers in the community.
21. legislation and regulations to limit
suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
22. mini edge city that is connected to
another city by beltways or highways.
23. model created by CD Harris and EL
Ullman in 1945, which explains that a
city is a complex structure that includes
more than one center around which
activities revolve.
24. model created by Chauncey Harris,
which describes how an urban area
consists of an inner city surrounded by
large suburban residential and business
areas tied together by a beltway or ring
25. model created by EW Burgess in 1923,
which explains that a city grows outward
from a central area in a series of
concentric rings, like the growth rings on
a tree.
26. name given to the second ring of the
concentric zone model, which surrounds
the CBD, in the concentric zone model.
This place typically contains industry and
poor-quality housing.
27. process by which middle-class people
move into deteriorated inner-city
neighborhoods and renovate the
28. process of legally adding land area to a
29. process of subdivision of houses and
occupancy by successive waves of
lower-income people.
30. rings of open space. New housing is built
in the older suburbs within the rings and
planned extensions, small towns, and
new towns are built beyond the rings.
31. rules developed in Europe and North
America in the 20th century that
encouraged spatial separation. They
also prevented mixing of land uses
within the same district.
32. services offered by the government to
provide security and protection for
citizens and businesses.
33. services that primarily help people
conduct business.
34. services that primarily meet the needs of
other businesses
35. services that provide goods for sale to
36. settlement where a large percentage of
poor immigrants to urban areas in LDCs
live because of a housing shortage.
37. site in which dwellings are dispersed
throughout the city rather than clustered
in a large project.
38. smaller urban areas that the census has
designated to include in part of their
39. something under which cities identify
blighted inner-city neighborhoods,
acquire the properties from private
owners, relocate the residents and
businesses, clear the site, and build new
roads and utilities.
40. the area of the city where retail and
office activities are clustered.
41. the area surrounding a central place,
from which people are attracted to use
the place’s goods and services.
42. the largest settlement in a country, if it
has more than twice as many people as
the second-ranking settlement.
43. the maximum distance people are willing
to travel to use a service.
44. the minimum number of people needed
to support the service.
45. the process of consolidating small
landholdings into a smaller number of
larger farms n England during the
eighteenth century.
46. theory developed by land economist
Homer Hoyt in 1939, which explains that
a city develops in a series of sectors
rather than rings.
47. what inner-city residents are frequently
referred to because they are trapped in
an unending cycle of economic and
social problems.
48. what US suburbs are characterized by;
the progressive spread of development
over the landscape.