Download Support and Movement

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Organ-on-a-chip wikipedia, lookup

Regeneration in humans wikipedia, lookup

Anatomy wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Support and Movement
April 30, 2017
1
What are tissues?


A group of cells that look alike and work
together make up a tissue.
Tissues form from stem cells that
differentiate during development.
April 30, 2017
2

Tissues are named
for the job they do.
There are 4 main
kinds: muscle
tissue, covering
tissue, connective
tissue and nerve
tissue
April 30, 2017
3
1. Muscle Tissue



Muscle tissue makes up muscles
Muscle tissue is made up of cells that can
become shorter
There are several types of muscle tissue:
Skeletal, Smooth and cardiac.
April 30, 2017
4
April 30, 2017
5
Skeletal Muscle


April 30, 2017
Skeletal muscle is a
type of striated
muscle, usually
attached to the
skeleton.
Skeletal muscles are
used to create
movement, by
applying force to
bones and joints .
6

They generally contract voluntarily.
April 30, 2017
7
Smooth Muscle


Smooth muscle
is a type of nonstriated muscle.
Smooth muscle
fibers are spindle
shaped, and like
all muscle, can
contract and
relax.
April 30, 2017
8

Smooth muscle is usually found within the
"walls" of hollow organs and elsewhere like
the bladder and abdominal cavity, the uterus,
male and female reproductive tracts, the
gastrointestinal tract, and the respiratory tract.
April 30, 2017
9
Cardiac Muscle


April 30, 2017
'Cardiac muscle' is a type
of involuntary striated
muscle found within the
heart.
Its function is to "pump"
blood through the
circulatory system by
contracting.
10
2. Covering Tissue


The skin that covers your body is made
up of epithelial tissue. Epithelial tissues
is made up of cells that join tightly
together.
Epithelial tissue also covers many parts
inside the body. It is your first line of
defense against many disease and
bacteria
April 30, 2017
11

April 30, 2017
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
is a tissue composed of a
layer of cells.. The
outermost layer of our
skin is composed of dead
epithelial cells.
12
Functions of epithelial cells

Functions of epithelial cells include secretion,
absorption, protection, transcellular transport,
sensation detection, and selective
permeability.
April 30, 2017
13
3. Connective Tissue



Tissue that holds some parts of the body
together is called connective tissue.
Connective tissue supports and protects
the body.
There are 4 types: Bone, ligaments,
tendons and blood
April 30, 2017
14
Bones


April 30, 2017
Bones are rigid connective
organs that make up the
skeleton of vertebrates.
Bones are primarily
comprised of osseous tissue
which may also be referred
to as bone or bone tissue.
15
Ligaments

Ligaments connect bones to one another.
April 30, 2017
16
April 30, 2017
17
Tendons

Tendons connect muscle to bones.
April 30, 2017
18
Blood



Blood is a liquid connective tissue.
It has blood cells that float in a yellow
liquid, known as blood plasma. .
Blood carries food, gases, and other
important substances to and from all the
cells in the body.
April 30, 2017
19
4. Nerve Tissue




Nerve Tissue is made up of nerve cells,
or neurons.
Nerve tissue carries messages.
It causes muscles to expand and
contract, controls breathing, digestion
and heart rhythms.
Your brain and spinal cord are made
mostly of nerve tissue.
April 30, 2017
20
April 30, 2017
21
What are
Organs and
Organ
Systems?
April 30, 2017
22
Organs



A group of tissues that
works together to do a
special job is called an
organ.
Examples -Heart - function is to
pump blood into the
blood vessels.
April 30, 2017
23


Nerve tissue – carry impulses to the heart
and control the heartbeat.
Blood vessels – surround the heart and
supply its cells with oxygen and nutrients.
April 30, 2017
24
April 30, 2017
25
Glands

April 30, 2017
Organs or groups of
cells that give off
substances used by
the body are called
glands.
26
Organ Systems



A group of organs that work together is
called an organ system.
All the organs in an organ system work
together to carry out certain life
processes.
There are 11 major organ systems
April 30, 2017
27
Skeletal system


Major structures –
Bones
Function –
Provides structure
and supports the
internal organs.
April 30, 2017
28
Muscular system


April 30, 2017
Major structures muscles (skeletal,
cardiac and
smooth)
Function – Provides
structure; supports
and moves trunk
and limbs
29
Circulatory System


Major structures
– Heart, blood
vessels, Blood
Function –
Transports
nutrients and
wastes to and
from all body
tissues.
April 30, 2017
30
Respiratory System


April 30, 2017
Major structures - Air
passages, lungs
Function – Carries air
into and out of lungs,
where gases (oxygen
and carbon dioxide)
are exchanged.
31
Immune system


Major structures – Lymph nodes and
vessels, white blood cells
Function – Provides protection against
infection and disease.
April 30, 2017
32
Integumentary System
•
•
Major Structures: skin,
hair, nails, sweat and oil
glands.
Function: Serves a barrier
against infection and
injury: helps to regulate
body temperature;
provides protection against
ultraviolet radiation from
the sun.
November 17, 2009
Digestive system


Major structures – mouth,
esophagus, stomach, liver,
pancreas, small and large
intestines
Function – Stores and
digests food; absorbs
nutrients; eliminates
wastes
April 30, 2017
34
Excretory System


Major structures –
kidneys, bladder,
ureters, urethra,
skin, lungs
Function –
Eliminates waste;
maintain water and
chemical balance
April 30, 2017
35
Nervous system


Major structures – brain, spinal cord,
nerves, sense organs, receptors
Function – controls and coordinates body
movements and senses; controls
consciousness and creativity; helps
monitor and maintain other body systems
April 30, 2017
36
Endocrine system


April 30, 2017
Major structures – Glands
(such as adrenal, thyroid,
and pancreas),
hypothalamus
Function – Maintains
homeostasis, regulates
metabolism, water and
mineral balance, growth
and sexual development,
and reproduction.
37
Reproductive system


Major structures – ovaries, uterus,
mammary glands (in females), testes (in
males)
Function – produces offspring
April 30, 2017
38
• Anatomy – the structure of body parts (also
called Morphology)
• Physiology – the function of the body parts, what
they do and how they do it
• Axial Portion - head, neck, trunk
• Appendicular Portion - arms & legs
1. Several body cavities
2. Layers of membranes within cavities
3. Variety of organs and organ systems within cavities
(VISCERA = internal organs. "Visceral organs")
Popular in horror movies and games
Homework: Organ Systems Concept Map
Homework: Fill out the
chart on the body regions
What is the Skeletal System?
April 30, 2017
46
Three Types of Skeletons



1. Hydrostatic (water)
- like a starfish
2. Exoskeleton (arthropods)
- tough, hard , outer covering.
- Protects the animal
3. Endoskeleton (vertebrates) - skeleton
inside the body
April 30, 2017
47


The Skeleton of
Humans is
composed of a
special connective
tissue called
BONE
There are 206
bones in the
human body
April 30, 2017
48

April 30, 2017
The skeleton is
divided into two
groups: the axial
skeleton and the
appendicular
skeleton, each
with it's own
purpose.
49
Axial


The axial skeleton, making up 80 of your 206
bones, encompasses all your upper body
bones.
It is subdivided into three groups: the skull,
the vertebral column, and the bony thorax.
April 30, 2017
50
April 30, 2017
51

It's main purposes are to protect your vital
organs, such as the brain, heart, and lungs,
and to provide an efficient structure to
perform a variety of work.
April 30, 2017
52
The Appendicular Skeleton


The appendicular skeleton refers to your arms
and legs.
They are called appendicular (from "append")
because they are attached by girdles, which
bridge each with the main body
April 30, 2017
53
April 30, 2017
54
Jobs of the Skeleton


April 30, 2017
Support, shape
and protect the
body
The spine also
allows for
movement
55


April 30, 2017
The backbone is
made up of separate
bones called –
vertebrae.
These bones are
hollow and allow us
to bend and twist.
56
April 30, 2017
57
Other jobs of the skeleton




Work with muscles to move the body
Protect important organs
Store minerals like calcium
Make blood
April 30, 2017
58
Bones are classified by their shape 
1. Long bones (humerus,
femur)
2. Flat bones (skull)
3. Short bones (fingers)
4. Irregular bones (vertebrae )
April 30, 2017
59
Cartilage


April 30, 2017
Cartilage is a tough, but
flexible connective tissue.
All of our bones are made of
cartilage first, but during the
2nd and 3rd months of
embryonic development,
they slowly turn into bone.
60
April 30, 2017
61
Bone Formation




Over time, cartilage is replaced by hard, living bone
tissue
Specialized cells produce calcium – enriched
material that makes up bone.
Other cells break down bone tissue during the
growth and remodeling stage of bone development.
The size and shape of bones change as a person
matures
April 30, 2017
62
What are bones?
April 30, 2017
63
Bones

The bones of the ear are the smallest bones in
the body.
April 30, 2017
64
Structure of Bones


April 30, 2017
Bones are made up of
living and non living
material
Each bone is covered by a
periosteum - thin
membrane that contains
blood vessels that carry
blood and oxygen to the
living bone cells.
65


The hardest part of bone is called compact
bone.
It is made up of living bone cells, protein
fibers, and nonliving materials.
April 30, 2017
66




EPIPHYSIS – expanded ends of bone.
ARTICULATES (forms a joint) with another
bone.
DIAPHYSIS – shaft of the bone
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE – hyaline
cartilage covering the ends of bones
Synovial fluid – fills spaces between bones
April 30, 2017
67
April 30, 2017
68
The role of calcium


Calcium is an important part of your diet. It
helps make bones hard.
Osteoporosis can result from bones that are
not calcium rich.
April 30, 2017
69
April 30, 2017
70
April 30, 2017
71



The ends of
bones are soft
and spongy.
Spongy bone is
very porous,
with many holes
in it.
Spongy bone
gives bone its
strength.
April 30, 2017
72
April 30, 2017
73
Marrow


April 30, 2017
Bone marrow is
soft connective
tissue that fills the
spaces in spongy
bone.
Bone marrow is
usually red or
yellow in color.
74



Spongy bone contains red bone marrow.
This is where new red blood cells are made.
Adults only have red bone marrow in certain
bones, such as the femur and the hips.
April 30, 2017
75
April 30, 2017
76


Long bones contain yellow marrow
Yellow marrow contains mostly fat.
April 30, 2017
77
Bone Marrow Transplants


Used to treat disorders such as leukemia and
anemia
Needed when a person’s blood cells produce
abnormal cell
April 30, 2017
78

Radiation is
given to a
person with
abnormal
bone marrow
and cells
from a
healthy donor
are inserted
into the
patient’s
bloodstream.
April 30, 2017
79
2 drawbacks to bone marrow
transplants


April 30, 2017
The patient’s body can
accept or reject the new
bone marrow.
High risk of infection
80
How do Joints Work?
April 30, 2017
81
Joints



The place where two or more bones meet is
called a joint.
Some bones are connected directly to other
bones at the joint.
Most bones are held together by ligaments.
April 30, 2017
82
April 30, 2017
83
3 Main Kinds of joints


Fixed (fibrous)
joints – do not
allow any
movement
The joints in your
skull are fixed.
April 30, 2017
84


April 30, 2017
Cartilaginous joints Partly movable joints
– allow a little bit of
movement.
The joints between
your ribs and your
breastbone move a
little bit.
85


April 30, 2017
Synovial joints Movable joints – allow a
lot of movement.
Your arms and legs are
movable joints.
86
April 30, 2017
87
4 major kinds of movable joints


Ball and socket joints
allow bones to move in
most directions.
Joint between upper
arm and shoulder
allows your arm to
move around in a
circle.
April 30, 2017
88


Gliding joints allow
some movement in all
directions. The bones
slide along each other.
Your wrist is a gliding
joint.
April 30, 2017
89


April 30, 2017
Hinge joints allow
bones to backward
and forward in one
direction.
Elbows and knees
90


Pivotal Joints allow
bones to move side
to side and up and
down.
The joint between
your skull and your
neck is a pivotal
joint.
April 30, 2017
91
Cartilage and bones



Cartilage is usually found in the joints.
It cushions bones and prevents them from
rubbing against one another.
It also acts as a shock absorber for the spinal
vertebrae.
April 30, 2017
92
Bones you must know!
April 30, 2017
93
cranium

the bones of the
skull surrounding
the brain, not
including the face
bones; the bone just
above/in front of the
ear is the temporal
bone
April 30, 2017
94
mandible

the jaw bone, so the
hinge of the jaw is
the temporomandibular joint,
and problems with
malfunctioning of
this joint are known
as TMJ
April 30, 2017
95
vertebrae

April 30, 2017
bones which
make up the
spine
96





Cervical vertebrae - the vertebrae in the neck
region
Thoracic Vertebrae - the vertebrae with ribs
attached
Lumbar vertebrae - the vertebrae in the lower
back
Sacrum - five fused vertebrae which are
joined to the pelvis
Coccyx - four fused vertebrae which comprise
the tailbone
April 30, 2017
97
Ribs

bones protecting
the chest cavity
(we all have
twelve pairs)
April 30, 2017
98
Sternum

the breastbone
April 30, 2017
99
Clavicle

the collar bone
April 30, 2017
100
Scapula

the shoulder blade
April 30, 2017
101
humerus

the top of the arm
April 30, 2017
102
Ulna

the little
finger side
of the lower
arm which
also forms
the elbow
April 30, 2017
103
Radius

April 30, 2017
the thumb side of the
lower arm; the
Radius Rotates
around
104
Carpals

the wrist bones
April 30, 2017
105
Metacarpals

the palm of the hand
April 30, 2017
106
Phalanges

the fingers and toes
April 30, 2017
107
Os (Coxa)

the hip bones
April 30, 2017
108
Ileum

the big bone on top that we think of as the hip
bone
April 30, 2017
109
Ischium

the bones on which you sit
April 30, 2017
110
Pubis

the lower front hip bone
April 30, 2017
111
Femur

the thigh bone
April 30, 2017
112
Patella

the kneecap
April 30, 2017
113
Tibia

the thick, inside (bigtoe side) shinbone
April 30, 2017
114
Fibula

the thin, outer (little-toe side) shinbone
April 30, 2017
115
Tarsals

the heel bones
April 30, 2017
116
Metatarsals

the arch of the foot, the sole
April 30, 2017
117
Phalanges

the fingers and toes
April 30, 2017
118
What is the muscular system?
April 30, 2017
119
Muscles


More than 600
muscles make up
the muscular
system
Muscles are tissues
that can shorten
along their length
April 30, 2017
120


Muscles are attached to
bones by tendons.
A tendon is a strong
elastic band of tissue.
When a muscle contracts,
it pulls on the tendon,
which makes the bone
move
April 30, 2017
121
Muscle Fibers


A muscle is composed of
many fibers (or cells).
Individual muscles are
separated from each other
and held in place by a
covering called the fascia.
April 30, 2017
122
3 types of connective tissue found in
muscles
1.
2.
3.
Epimysium – outermost layer – surrounds
entire muscle
Perimysium – separated and surrounds the
bundles of muscle fibers
Endomysium - surrounds each individual
muscle fiber.
April 30, 2017
123
April 30, 2017
124
Muscle actions


Muscles only move bones when they contract,
Muscles can only pull bones, they cannot
push bones.
April 30, 2017
125
Flexors

April 30, 2017
Muscles that bend
or flex your joints
126
April 30, 2017
127
extensors

Muscles that
straighten, or
extend your
joints.
April 30, 2017
128
Teamwork



April 30, 2017
Muscles must work in
teams of 2.
Example- biceps are
flexors, triceps are
extensors.
Flexion and extension are
opposite movements
129
April 30, 2017
130
Types of muscle movement



Abduction - Movement of muscle away from
the center of the body
Adduction - Movement of muscle towards the
center of the body
Circumduction – circular movement of a limb
April 30, 2017
131
3 kinds of muscles

There are three main kinds of muscles,
skeletal, smooth and cardiac
April 30, 2017
132
Skeletal Muscle



Skeletal muscle is striated muscle, meaning it
has stripes or dark bands.
Skeletal muscle is attached directly to the
skeleton - they make your body move.
Skeletal muscles are usually voluntary –
meaning you can control their movements.
April 30, 2017
133
http://health.howstuffworks.com/ad
am-200006.htm
April 30, 2017
134
Smooth muscle


Muscle tissue found in
the walls of blood
vessels, the stomach and
other internal organs.
It is involuntary muscle
because you cannot
control its movements.
April 30, 2017
135
Cardiac muscle


Found only in the heart and major blood
vessels. It is very strong and striated.
Cardiac muscle is involuntary.
April 30, 2017
136
Functions of muscle





Movement
Posture
Stabilize joints
Generate heat
Protect organs
April 30, 2017
137
http://health.howstuffworks.com/ad
am-200005.htm
April 30, 2017
138
Types of Joint Movement

Nonaxial joints

- Allow only slipping or gliding movements


– also known as plane joints
Uniaxial joints –

permit flexion and extension only –

April 30, 2017
Examples: elbow and interphalangeal joints
139

Biaxial joints



permit all angular motions
Examples: radiocarpal (wrist) joints, and
metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints
Multiaxial joints


April 30, 2017
permit the most freely moving synovial joints
Examples: shoulder and hip joints
140
Major muscles you must know
April 30, 2017
141
Heart

Contractile muscle responsible for circulating
blood throughout the body
April 30, 2017
142
Diaphragm

April 30, 2017
Responsible for
inflating and
deflating our
lungs
143
Biceps and Triceps

Arm muscles
April 30, 2017
144
Deltoid

Shoulder
muscle
April 30, 2017
145
Trapezius

Muscle of
the upper
back
April 30, 2017
146
Obliques


To the left
and right of
our
abdominal
muscles.
Help us
develop a 6pack
April 30, 2017
147
Gluteus maximus

Butt muscle - we sit on it!
April 30, 2017
148
Hamstrings

Muscles to
the rear of
the thigh
April 30, 2017
149
Soleus

Calf muscle
April 30, 2017
150
Temporalis

Used for
chewing and
crushing
April 30, 2017
151
Frontalis

Thin muscle - the forehead
April 30, 2017
152
Nervous System
Parts of the Nervous System



Brain
Spinal Cord
Nerves
Vocabulary to Know

Homeostasis

The regulation of steady, life-maintaining
conditions inside an organism, despite changes in
its environment
Nerve Cells

Neurons

Basic
functioning
units of the
nervous
system
http://35.9.122.184/images/40-AnimalStructureAndFunction/
Neurons

Made up of a cell body and branches called
dendrites and axons


Dendrites receive messages from other neurons
and send them to the cell body
Axons carry messages away from the cell body
Neurons
A message carried by a neuron is called an
impulse
Types of Neurons



Sensory
Motor
Interneuron
Sensory Neurons


Receive information
Send impulses to the brain or spinal cord
Interneurons

Send impulses from sensory neurons to motor
neurons
Motor Neurons

Conduct impulses from the brain or spinal
cord to muscles or glands throughout your
body
Synapse

Small space across which an impulse moves
from an axon to the dendrites or cell body of
another neuron
Synapse





An impulse reaches the end of an axon
Axon releases a chemical
Flows across the synapse
Stimulates the impulse in the dendrite of
the next neuron
Impulse moves from neuron to neuron
http://www.med.harvard.edu/publications/On_The_Brain/Volume7/Number1/images/Neuron.jpg
Two Parts


Central (CNS)
Peripheral (PNS)
http://inside.salve.edu/walsh/cns_pns.jpg
Central Nervous System


Brain
Spinal cord
The Brain



Coordinates body activities
Made up of approximately 100 billion
neurons
Divided into three major parts


the cerebrum
the cerebellum
the brain stem.
Cerebrum





Largest part of the brain
Thinking
Memory is stored
Movements are controlled
Impulses from the senses are interpreted.
Cerebellum




Interprets stimuli from eyes, ears, muscles
Controls voluntary muscle movements
Maintains muscle tone
Helps maintain balance
Brain Stem


Connects brain to spinal cord
Made up of the midbrain, the pons,


Act as pathways connecting various parts of the
brain with each other
Medulla

controls involuntary actions
http://www.cbituk.org/GRAPHICS/brain.gif
The Spinal Cord
Extension of the brain stem
 Bundles of neurons that carry impulses from
all
parts
of
the
body
to
the
brain
and
from
the
dles of neurons that carry impulses from all parts of the body to the brain and from the brain to all pa
brain to all parts of your body

The
Peripheral
Nervous
System
Your brain
Somatic and
and spinal
Autonomic
cord are
Systems
connected to
The
the rest of
peripheral
your body
nervous
by the
system has
peripheral
two major
nervous
divisions.
system. The
The somatic
PNS is
system
made up of
controls
12 pairs of
voluntary
nerves from
actions. It is
your brain
made up of
called
the cranial
cranial
and spinal
nerves, and
nerves that
31 pairs
go from the
from your
central
spinal cord
nervous
called spinal
system to
nerves.
your skeletal
Spinal
muscles.
nerves are
The
made up of
autonomic
bundles of
system
sensory and
controls
motor
involuntary
neurons
actionsbound
those not
together by
under
connective
conscious
tissue. For
control-such
this reason,
Research
as
your
a single
Visit the
heart
rate,
spinal nerve
Glencoe
breathing,
can have
Science
digestion,
impulses
Web site at
and
going to and
tx.science.gl
glandular
from the
encoe.com
functions.
brain at the
for more
These
two
same time.
information
divisions,
Some
about with
along
the
nerves
nervous
the
central
contain only
system.
nervous
sensory
Make a
system,
neurons,
brochure
make
up
and some
outlining
your
body's
contain only
recent
nervous
motor
medical
system.
neurons, but
advances.
most nerves
contain both
types of
neurons.
Peripheral Nervous System



Connects body to brain & spinal cord
12 pairs of nerves from your brain (cranial
nerves)
31 pairs from your spinal cord (spinal nerves)

Bundles of sensory and motor neurons held
together by connective tissue
http://www.christopherreeve.org/Research/Research.cfm?ID=178&c=21
Peripheral Nervous System

Two divisions


Somatic
Autonomic
http://abdellab.sunderland.ac.uk/lectures/Parmacology/Pics/anatomy/PNS.GIF
Somatic Nervous System


Controls voluntary actions
Made up of the cranial and spinal nerves that
go from the central nervous system to your
skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System

Controls involuntary actions-those not under
conscious control-such as your heart rate,
breathing, digestion, and glandular functions
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/autonomic.gif
Reflexes


Involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus
Involves a simple nerve pathway called a
reflex arc