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Music 181: Structure of the Major Scale I. Major Scales A. Content vs. Ordering as Properties of Pitch Class Sets B. Hierarchy II. Major Scales Symmetry and Asymmetry III. Constructing Major Scales Half Step; Half Tone; Semitone: Used generically for any interval that can be represented by two adjacent keys on the piano. Whole Tone; Whole Step: Used generically for any interval made up of two half steps. Whole tones are separated by one key on piano. Chromatic Semitone (written as a prime) Diatonic Semitone (written as a 2d) Whole Tone Diminished 2d=0 semitones (o2) [e.g. f# to gx]* Minor 2d=1 semitone (m2) Major 2d=2 semitones (M2) Augmented 2d=3 semitones (+2) Doubly Augmented 2d=4 semitones (++2) *Such intervals, where two notes sound the same on an equally tempered keyboard but written differently, are called enharmonic equivalents. are IV. Structure of the Major Scale/Names of Scale Degrees Tonic Supertonic Mediant Subdominant Dominant Submediant Leading Tome Tonic ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 W W 1/2 ^5 ^5 W ^6 ^7 ^8 ^6 ^7 ^8 W W 1/2 IV. Key Signatures A. Recognition--What two keys could the following signatures represent? B. Writing--What is the key signature (in both bass and treble clef) for B Major? Ab Major? C. Knowing the order in which sharps and flats are added to key signatures? #s= bs= F# Bb C# Eb G# Ab D# Db A# Gb E# Cb (pattern of ascending 5ths) (pattern of ascending 4ths) D. Visualizing the relationships between keys: What sharps are found in the key of A Major? In F minor? What sharp is found in the key of B Major that is not found in the key of E Major? How many flats or sharps in the key of D Major? In what major key would a phrase likely be in, if the accidentals include only F# and C#?