Download Chapter 3

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

History of Mesopotamia wikipedia, lookup

Akkadian Empire wikipedia, lookup

Mesopotamia wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
CHAPTER 3
Section 2: “The Rise of Sumer”
The Big Idea
•The Sumerians developed the first
civilization in Mesopotamia.
I. An Advanced Society
• The Sumerians developed the world’s first
civilization.
• By 3000 BC, several hundred thousand
Sumerians had settled in Mesopotamia, in
a land they called Sumer.
II. The City-States of Sumer
• Most people in Sumer were farmers and
lived in rural, or countryside, areas.
• The centers of Sumerian society were the
urban, or city, areas.
• The basic political unit of Sumer was called
a city-state.
• The amount of countryside controlled by
each city-state depended on its military
strength.
• City-states often fought to gain more
farmland.
• By 3500 BC, the city-state of Kish became
very powerful.
• Over the next 1000 years, the city-states of
Uruk and Ur fought for control.
• One of Uruk’s kings, Gilgamesh, became a
famous figure in Sumerian history.
III. Rise of the Akkadian
Empire
• Another society developed along the Tigris
and Euphrates rivers.
• It was created by the Akkadians and was
located just north of Sumer.
• The Akkadians and the Sumerians lived in
peace for many years until Sargon sought
to extend Akkadian territory.
• He was the first ruler to have a permanent
army, which he used to launch a series of
wars on neighboring kingdoms.
• Sargon’s soldiers defeated all the city-states
of Sumer and northern Mesopotamia.
• Because he had control of the entire region
during his reign, he established the first
empire.
• The Akkadian Empire stretched from the
Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea.
• After Sargon’s death, his empire lasted only
a century.
• Eventually, the city-state of Ur rebuilt its
strength and conquered the rest of
Mesopotamia.
IV. Religion Shapes Society
• Religion was very important in Sumerian
society.
• It was the basis for all in Sumerian society.
VI. Sumerian Religion
• Sumerians practiced polytheism, the
worship of many gods.
• Each city-state considered one god to be
its special protector.
• The Sumerians believed that their gods had
tremendous power and that success in
every of life depended on pleasing the
gods.
• To gain the favor of the gods, people relied
on them.
VII. Sumerian Social Order
• Priests occupied a high level in Sumer’s
social order.
• Above the priests, were the kings, who
claimed they had been chosen by the
gods to rule.
• Below the priests were the craftspeople,
merchants, and traders.
• Trade greatly impacted Sumerian society.
• Traders exchanged grains for gold, silver,
copper, lumber, and precious stones.
• Below the traders, farmers and laborers
made up the large working class.
• Slaves were at the bottom of the social
order.
VII. Men and Women in Sumer
• Men, in Sumerian society held political
power and made laws.
• Women took care of the home and
children.
• Education was usually reserved for men, but
some upper-class women were educated
as well.
• Those women who were educated, often
worked as priestesses in Sumer’s temples.
• The daughter or Sargon, Enheduanna, was
the first known female writer in history.