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Chapter 3 Study Guide
1. The Tigris River and the Euphrates River gave Mesopotamia its name.
2. Mesopotamians built canals because they needed a way to control the river’s
flow.
3. City-states fought each other for farmland because each city-state wanted to
have enough farmland to grow food.
4. Sargon’s empire was in common with other Mesopotamian city – states in
that it fought with surrounding city-states.
5. Priests served as the link between the Sumerians and the gods.
6. Cuneiform is a form of writing using wedge-shaped symbols.
7. Ziggurats were tall to honor the gods.
8. The Hittites and Assyrians used iron weapons and chariots in battle.
9. The Phoenician alphabet spread along their trade routes.
10. Phoenicia was well known for cedar wood.
11. Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar both built up Babylon.
12. The army of Sargon I defeated all the city-states of Sumer and conquered
northern Mesopotamia.
13. A king known as Gilgamesh became a legendary figure in Sumerian literature.
14. Sumerian city centers were dominated by temples.
15. Sumerians used sharp reeds to make symbols on clay tablets.
16. The city-state of Ur rose to power after the death of Sargon I.
17. Sumerian women could be important religious leaders.
18. Babylon was located near present-day Iraq.
19. A large arc of farmland is called the Fertile Crescent.
20. Irrigation is a way of supplying water to an area of land.
21. Rural areas are located in the countryside.
22. Urban areas are located in the cities.
23. Polytheism means to worship many gods.
24. Social hierarchy is a division of society by rank or class.
25. Pictographs are picture symbols used for written communication.
26. Epics are long poems that tell the story of a hero.
27. A ruler of a kingdom or empire is a monarch.
28. Chariots are wheeled, horse-drawn battle carts.
29. The alphabet is a set of letters that can be combined to form words.
30. Hunter-gatherer groups first settled in Mesopotamia more than 12,000 years
ago.
31. The amount of land controlled by each city-state depended on its military
strength.
32. Sumerians developed a math system based on the number 60.