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Transcript
Name: __________KEY____________
Class: ______________
Foods I
Food and Nutrition State Test Review
1. Define each of the following terms:
Chop:_to cut food into small pieces________________________________________
Cream:_to work sugar and fat together until the mixture is soft and fluffy_
*Circle the two ingredients are the most important to remember here.
Cut-In:__to cut flour into fat with a pastry blender or two knives__________
*Circle the two ingredients are the most important to remember here.
Dice:__to cut into small cubes______________________________________________
Flour:to sprinkle or coat with a powdered substance, often with crumbs or seasoning
*For the last time, this does not refer to the powdery white substance obtained from milling
wheat! What does it mean when a recipe asks you to flour something?
Fold-In:_to combine two mixtures by gently cutting down through the mixture, across the bottom , and
turning over near the surface_
Grate:__to rub food on a surface with sharp projections_____________________
Knead:_to work dough by pressing and folding until it becomes elastic and smooth (to develop
gluten)______________
Mince:__to cut food into the smallest possible pieces______________________
Peel:__to remove or strip the skin or rind of some fruits and vegetables____
Sauté:to brown or cook food in a small amount of fat over low or medium heat
Simmer:__to cook food just below the boiling point__________________________
Steam:to cook by the vapor produced when water is heated to the boiling point
Whip:__to beat rapidly to incorporate air and to increase volume____________
2. Know which pieces of kitchen equipment you need to use for each the terms above. List them on the left
next to the term above.
3. You will need to know how to measure the following ingredients and what equipment you need to do it:
-Flour
-Shortening (Remember, there are two methods!)
-Sifted Flour
-Oil, Milk, Water
-Sugar
-Margarine (Remember, there are several methods!)
-Brown Sugar
-Eggs
-Baking Soda
4. You will need to know what the following abbreviations stand for:
Tbsp., tbsp., or T. ___Tablespoon____
tsp. or t. ____Teaspoon________
min. _________Minute____________
hr. ________Hour___________
oz. ____________Ounce_____________
qt. ________Quart___________
pt. _____________Pint_____________
gal. ________Gallon_________
c. ______________Cup_____________
lb. or # ______Pound_________
doz. ____________Dozen____________
pkg. ________Package_________
5. How long should you wash your hands before cooking? ___20 seconds__________
6. Equivalents! Equivalents! Equivalents! Equivalents! Equivalents! Equivalents! You need to know….
1 Tbsp. = _____3__________ tsp.
1 c. = ______16_________ Tbsp.
1 pt. = ______2__________ c.
1 gal. = ______4__________ qt.
1 qt. = ______4__________ c.
1/2 Tbsp. = ____1 1/2______ tsp.
1/3 c. = ______5 1/3______ Tbsp.
1 stick of margarine = ___1/2_ c.
1/4 c. = _____4_________ Tbsp.
1 c. = ______8_________ fluid oz.
1 qt. = ______2_________ pt.
3/4 c. = ______12________ Tbsp.
1 gal. = ______16________ c.
1/2 c. = ______8________ Tbsp.
7. What two measuring cups do you use to measure 3/4 c.? _____1/2 c. & 1/4 c.__
8. If you are using a glass pan or a really dark pan, what should you do to the oven temperature? Turn it up or
down? By how much?
________Lower the temperature by 25_______________________________
9. What are three ways you can put out a grease fire?
1. __Cover with a lid_ 2. ____Baking Soda___ 3. ____Fire Extinguisher___
10. How should you care for a first-degree burn?
______Place under cool running water________________________________________
11. How should you care for a severely bleeding cut?
_____Put pressure on the wound_____________________________________________
12. What should you use when trying to reach items on a high shelf?
_____A step stool__________________________________________________________
13. What is the minimum amount of time you should wash your hands before cooking?
_____20 seconds_____________________________________________________________
14. What should you do FIRST if someone is being shocked?
____Turn off the power______________________________________________________
15. How should you lift the lid off of a pan that is full of hot, steamy food?
____Away from your face_____________________________________________________
16. When cooking on the stovetop, what direction should all of the pan handles be facing?
_____Toward the center______________________________________________________
17. Which one is safer, dull or sharp knives?
_____Sharp knives___________________________________________________________
18. When should you wash your hands? (At least 3 answers)
1. Before cooking______ 2. ___During Cooking____ 3. ____After Cooking___
19. What would a mixture of chlorine bleach and ammonia create?
______A toxic and deadly gas________________________________________________
20. What temperature should ground beef be cooked to in order to be safe?
______At least 160_________________________________________________________
21. What is the most common source for the food borne illness E. coli?
_____Ground Beef____________________________________________________________
22. What is the most common source for the food borne illness salmonella?
_____Poultry________________________________________________________________
23. What is the most common source for the food borne illness staph?
_____Human Mucous___________________________________________________________
24. What is the most common source for the food borne illness hepatitis?
_____Feces / Not Washing Hands After Using the Bathroom_____________________
25. Finish the phrase: When in doubt, ____throw________ __it__ ___out_______!
26. What is the temperature danger zone? Between ___40___ºF and ____140____ºF.
27. List the 3 safest ways to thaw frozen meats.
1. In the fridge 2. Under cold running water_ 3. __In the Microwave__
28. What are the 3 things that bacteria need to grow?
1. ____Food___________ 2. _____Moisture_______ 3. ____Warmth________
29. What are at least 3 things that are microwave safe?
1. ____Paper___________ 2. ____Plastic_________ 3. ____Glass__________
30. What are the 3 things that microwaves are attracted to?
1. ____Water___________ 2. _____Sugar_______ 3. _____Fat___________
31. What is standing time?
___The time allowed for a product to sit after microwave cooking____________
32. Why is standing time so important?
____To allow the food to finish cooking and cool down to prevent burns______
33. What type of dish would be the best for microwave cooking: tall or shallow? Why?
_____Shallow-It allows for more even and faster cooking_____________________
34. Which food would cook faster: a whole potato, or thin potato slices?
____This potato slices_____________________________________________________
35. Why will foods NOT brown in the microwave?
___Because there is no dry heat to pull moisture away from the food__________________
36. What are the 6 basic nutrients, how many calories per gram do they contain, and what is the MAIN function
of each?
Nutrient
Calories per Gram
Main Function
To provide reserve store of energy, carries fat soluble
1. Fat
9
vitamins, cushion, heat regulator
2. Carbohydrates
4
To provide energy
3. Protein
4
To build and repair body tissues
4. Vitamins
0
To regulate body functions
5. Minerals
0
To regulate body functions
Carries water soluble vitamins, regulates body
6. Water
0
temperature, carries waste products out
*Remember, three nutrients provide energy, three of them do not.
37. How many dietary guidelines are there? ___9_______ How often are they revised? ___Every 5 years___
38. What do dietary guidelines prevent? ____Bad health__________________________
39. Label the Food Guide Pyramid:
D.
A.
B.
C.
E.
F.
A. Food Group: __Grains_____
Color: ____Orange________
Serving Size: _____6 oz.____
D. Food Group: ____Fats & Oils__
Color: ______Yellow________
Serving Size: ___Use Sparingly_
B. Food Group: ___Vegetables_
Color: ____Green__________
Serving Size: ____2 1/2 c.___
E. Food Group: ____Milk/Dairy__
Color: ________Blue________
Serving Size: ____3 c._______
C. Food Group: ____Fruits___
Color: ________Red______
Serving Size: __2 c.______
F. Food Group: ____Meat & Beans_
Color: _________Purple_______
Serving Size: ____5 1/2 oz._____
40. How is activity represented on the food guide pyramid? ___The person climbing the
steps_________________________
41. How much exercise should teenagers get everyday? At least 60 minutes
42. How is variety represented on the food guide pyramid?____The different color
bands____________________________
43. How is gradual improvement represented on the food guide pyramid? __The slogan (Steps to a Healthier
You)___________
44. How many ounces of whole grains is the average American supposed to consume each day? __At least 3
oz.____________
45. What two colors of vegetables should be increased in the diet? Orange and dark green
46. What does nutrient dense mean? __foods that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals and
relatively fewer calories__
47. Which type of lipoprotein is better for you: HDL’s or LDL’s? ___HDL’s_____
48. Which one is MORE saturated: solid fats or liquid fats? ___Solid Fats______
49. Which one is LESS saturated: solid fats or liquid fats? ____Liquid Fats____
50. What are the three types of fat?
1. ____Saturated_______ 2. ___Monounsaturated__ 3. ___Polyunsaturated____
51. How much fiber does the average American need each day? ____20-35 grams____
52. What are the three types of carbohydrates?
1. __Sugars__________ 2. ___Starches________ 3. ____Fibers_____________
53. What percentage of our daily calories should come from carbohydrates? 55-60%
54. What type of carbohydrate is simple? ____Sugars___________
55. What type of carbohydrate is complex? ___Starches____________
56. Which type of carbohydrate (simple or complex) is the best energy source? ___Complex___________
57. Think of the dietary analysis assignment: what four things are considered when determining how many
calories you need?
1. ___Age_____ 2. ___Gender______ 3. ____Weight______ 4. ____Exercise____ (*NOT ETHNICITY!)
58. What two types of leavening agent do quick breads use?
1. __Baking Soda_______ 2. ____Baking Powder__________
59. What type of leavening agent does yeast bread use? ____Yeast________________
60. What gas is produced to raise yeast bread? ___CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)______
61. What is the ingredient that feeds yeast? ___Sugar_______ What is the ingredient that controls yeast?
___Salt________
62. Which mixing method has you make a well in the middle of the dry ingredients and the add all the liquid
ingredients at once? Muffin Method or Biscuit Method? (Circle One)
63. Which mixing method has you cut-in the fat and the knead the dough?
Muffin Method or Biscuit Method? (Circle One)
64. If I have 1 cup of uncooked rice, how much cooked rice would I end up with? ____3 cups___
65. If I have 1 cup of uncooked pasta, how much cooked pasta would I end up with? ____2 cups____
66. What type of rice has the most fiber? ________brown rice______
67. What are amino acids? ___The building blocks from which proteins are made__
68. What is a complete protein? ___a protein containing all 9 essential amino acids-from an animal
source_________________
69. What is an incomplete protein? __a protein that does NOT contain all 9 essential amino acids-from a plant
source__________
70. Is it possible to combine incomplete proteins to form a complete protein? ___Yes-(Rice and
Beans)___________________
71. What are the five functions of eggs? List one food example that you would find these in.
1. ___Binder______________ EX: ___Meat Loaf_____________________________
2. ___Thickener____________ EX: ___Pudding_____________________________
3. ___Coating_____________ EX: ____Breaded Chicken_________________________
4. ___Leavening Agent_______ EX: ____Angel Food Cake_______________________
5. ___Emulsifier____________ EX: ____Mayonnaise____________________________
72. What are the three stages of beating egg whites?
1. ____Foam______ 2. ___Soft Peaks_____ 3. ____Stiff Peaks_______________
73. What happens to eggs and cheese if you overcook them? They become tough and rubbery
74. Define:
1. Pasteurization: _heat treatment of milk/milk products to remove or kill harmful
bacteria________________________
2. Homogenization: _the breakdown and distribution of fat particles so that milk will not
separate___________________
75. List the four fat-soluble vitamins:
1. __K_______
2. __A__________
3. ___D__________ 4. ___E_________
76. List the seven water-soluble vitamins:
1. C-(Ascorbic Acid) 2. B1-(Thiamin)_
5. Folate (Folic Acid) 6. ___B6_______
3. B2-(Riboflavin)_
4. _B3-(Niacin)____
7. ___B12________
77. List the three types of minerals:
1. _Macro_________ 2. __Trace______
3. _Electrolyte_____
78. List the three macro minerals:
1. _Calcium____
2. _Phosphorus___
3. __Magnesium____
79. List the five trace minerals:
1. __Iron_
2. _Zinc_
3. _Fluorine________ 4. _Copper______
80. List the three electrolytes:
1. _Sodium____
2. __Chloride_____
5. _Iodine____
3. _Potassium______
81. What is the function of an electrolyte? __to maintain fluid balance in the body_______________________
82. What disease could you get if you are deficient in calcium? __Osteoporosis__
83. What disease could you get if you are deficient in iron? ___Anemia_________
84. What vitamin can you get from sunlight, as well as diary products? Vitamin D
85. What vitamin will help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida? ___Folate (Folic Acid)____________
86. What is the main function of vitamin C? __Heals wounds and helps body resist infection
87. List five ways to preserve nutrients when cooking fruits and vegetables?
1. __Cook in larger pieces_______________________________________
2. __Use small amounts of water___________________________________
3. __Cook only until fork tender____________________________________
4. __Cook Quickly_____________________________________________
5. __Save the water used to boil in__________________________________
88. What are the two best ways for cooking vegetables to preserve the most nutrients?
1. __Microwave_______________________________________
2. __Steaming________________________________________