* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Greek v. Greek Opa! Gyros For Everyone! Christopher Mendez Teaching Unit Project SE 350 –Secondary School Experience Dr. Glandon Fall 2009 Greek v. Greek Introduction This thematic unit focuses on the ancient Greek conflict that pitted Athens versus Sparta known as the Peloponnesian War. The unit will explore the causes, events, characters, and effects of this historic confrontation. This unit is roughly intended for students in 9th grade. Since different states teach different aspects of history at different stages of education, it is hard to pinpoint where this unit will fit. However, the unit is to be used in a World History or a Western Civilization class. The unit is organized into eight days of lesson, but I see this unit taking anywhere from 8 to 12 days depending on how quickly the students are absorbing the information. The unit was written for a higher level class, but could be easily adapted for all level. I hope you enjoy it. Greek v. Greek Unit Rationale Hello Class, We are about to embark on a journey to the past, almost two and a half millennia ago, to explore one of the greatest conflicts of all time. This conflict involves the two most powerful civilization of ancient Greece, pitting them against one another in a battle for supremacy. I am of course referring to the Peloponnesian War, which was a clash between Athens and Sparta from the years 431-404 BCE. You may be asking yourself, “Self, why the heck are we learning about a war that took place almost 2500 years ago?” There are many reasons to study this topic, but the most obvious reason is that it is awesome! The Peloponnesian War contains so many classic plot lines, that you may think we are discussing a Hollywood movie. Athens was known for its thinkers, philosophies, poetry, and intellectual value; Sparta was known for its art and valiant warriors. It’s the classic nerds vs. jocks motif. If you already know anything about ancient Greece you know that the Athenian military hinged around its powerful navy; in contrast, Sparta had an unmatched ground army. College football fans are surely familiar with the great Army vs. Navy rivalry; the Peloponnesian war evokes a similar rivalry but instead of lasting sixty minutes, the contest lasts for 27 years. We will be learning about some epic characters. Pericles, the greatest Athenian general, is revered like a super hero. We will meet a guy by the name of Alcibiades. This character is so unbelievable that he couldn’t possibly be made up. Alcibiades actually fought for both sides in the war, and ended up losing his life for. As we work our way through this exciting unit, we may actually learn something along the way. Put on your thinking cap and embrace yourself for the voyage. Its go time! Your Teacher, Mr. Mendez Greek v. Greek Unit Goals 1. To improve communication skills (written and oral) 2. To enhance collaboration skills 3. To learn about the people, places, and events of the Peloponnesian war 4. To critically think about the causes and effects of historic events 5. To better understand ancient cultures 6. To make history fun and relevant Lesson #1 Mystery Folder: Way Better Than Mystery Meat Unit Pre-test and Introduction Class/Subject: Western Civilization Grade Level: 9th Grade Date: 10/10 Period: 2 Time: 45 minutes Behavioral Objective: Unit Goals 1, 2, 3 Objectives Students will complete pre-test to determine what they need to learn Students will work with others to complete a task Students will conduct research using books and internet sources PA Standard 8.1.9 D 1.6.8 A 1.6.8 C 1.8.8 A Materials/Equipment: It’s All Greek to Me! pre-test handout Pen/pencil Mystery folders Inserts for mystery folders Textbooks Computers with internet access Paper for recording research Unit rationale handout Procedure: Motivational Technique/Opening 1) This lesson will begin with no initial opening other than a normal greeting from the teacher (this is because I do not want to prime the students ; I want them to draw on their own knowledge for the pre-test). 2) Following the pre-test the teacher will put the students into pairs (one group of 3 if necessary). Each pair will be given a mystery folder. This mystery folder will peak the students’ interests and make them eager to find out what is inside. Development of Lesson 1) A pre-test will be passed out to the students (this will reveal that our next topic is the Peloponnesian War), and the teacher will read the directions with the class. The students will then fill out the pre-test; this will take 5-7 minutes. The teacher 2) 3) 4) 5) will collect the pre-test to read later. The teacher will then tell the students the answers to the pre-test in an attempt to quell their endless thirst for knowledge. Following the pre-test, arrangement into pairs, and distribution of mystery folders, the students will be instructed to open their mystery folder to reveal what is inside. Each folder will have a single sheet of paper. Each paper will contain an image and a single name, phrase, or word that has significance to the unit’s theme. (samples attached) The teacher will describe what the purpose of these papers – a mini-project. The papers will be a topic on which the pairs must work together to conduct research; they will become minor experts on the subject. This research will be used to give a short (2-3 minutes) presentation to the rest of the class. These presentations will be at the beginning of the periods to which they pertain; they are used as a lead-in to the day’s lesson. Students’ presentation dates will vary as we progress through the unit. For example, the following day we will be discussing Thucydides, so the pair that has Thucydides will present tomorrow. The presentations are very informal and simply consist of the pair telling us what they have found out about their topic; the teacher will clarify and supplement their information. This presentation is not graded (however, participation or homework point will be lost for not completing the assignment). There will be 10-15 topics depending on class size. Teacher will select the most important topics in smaller classes. After the teacher explains the mini-project (4-5 minutes), students will be given 2 minutes to trade topics with another group if they wish. This gives some sense of choice and ownership to the topics. Students will then get to work researching immediately. They will be able to use their books and given access to computers for internet research. Teacher will field questions and offer any needed assistance. Research will continue for the rest of the period until about 3 minutes before the end. Closure/Outside Work 1) The lesson will wrap up with a reminder that the Thucydides group must present tomorrow and that this will really kick off our Peloponnesian War unit. 2) The teacher will distribute the unit rationale letter and explain that the students should read it so that they can understand why the following unit is going to be great! 3) Homework consists of reading the rationale letter and finishing any research for the mini-projects. Self Evaluation: o How could I have better captured the interest of the students? o Did I explain the mini-project well enough? o Were the students doing research when they were supposed to be? o Did the students work well as teams? o Is it fair to make a group present the next day? Lesson #2 Who Names Their Kid Thucydides? Getting to Know Thucydides the Historian Class/Subject: Western Civilization Grade Level: 9th Grade Date: 10/11 Period: 2 Time: 45 minutes Behavioral Objective: Unit Goals 1, 3, 5, 6 Objectives Students will read historic summaries and primary sources Students will analyze historic perspectives Students will communicate effectively with other students and instructor PA Standard 1.6.8 A-D 8.1.9 B-D Materials/Equipment: Thucydides the Historian handout History of the Peloponnesian War excerpt handout History of the Peloponnesian War book Chalk/Dry erase marker Pencil/pen Note paper Mystery Folder presenters (they bring the original handout) Procedure: Motivational Technique/Opening 1) Class will begin with the mystery folder presentation for the pair assigned Thucydides (2-3 minutes) with input from teacher alluding to the upcoming lesson 2) After the presentation the teacher will write the following quote on the board: “We (Greeks) are lovers of the beautiful, yet simple in our tastes, and we cultivate the mind without loss of manliness” Development of Lesson 1) After the presentation group has presented, the teacher will add any essential information. 2) The class will then look at the quote on the board. One student will be called upon to read the quote aloud. As a class we will then discuss the quote including 3) 4) 5) 6) what the quote is saying, what is tells us about Greek and Athenian society, and any personal thought about the quote (5 minutes). The teacher will then distribute the Thucydides the Historian handout (attached). This handout is a basic overview of Thucydides and his writing about the Peloponnesian War. We will read this document as a class with one student at a time reading a paragraph aloud there will be four readers total. Students will be allowed to keep the handout, but are encouraged to take any further notes from the ensuing discussion. We will then discuss the document and get any feedback from the class. The important ideas of the document are to be emphasized including that Thucydides was a historian, he was an Athenian, and he is the most widely used source for information about the Peloponnesian war. Key points will be noted on the blackboard. Teacher will then show the students a copy of the book, History of the Peloponnesian War, and distribute the excerpt handout. Class will look at the document, including the Greek version on the back. This will give the students an idea of what the original text would have looked like. Teacher will read part of excerpt to the students (it is rather archaic and densely written) while the students follow along with their own copies. The teacher will note that students are not going to have to read text from the book and that they should be happy about that! Class will discuss Thucydides, his work, and his legacy, mostly lead by the teacher. Deeper questions will be addressed such as “What do you think were Thucydides motive for writing are?” “How do you think the work was received at the time it was written?” and “What sort of bias might his writing possess?” This will take us to the end of the period. Closure/Outside Work 1) Students will be told to turn to a neighbor and tell that neighbor something that was learned about Thucydides today. Then teacher will call on some students to repeat to the class what they have learned. 2) Mystery folder groups with Athens, Sparta, Greek Democracy, and Oligarchy topics will be reminded that will present the following day. 3) No homework except for any incomplete research for mystery folder Self Evaluation: o Did students respond adequately to questions? o Was my description of the material too simple or too complex? o Were the students actively involved in their own learning? o Were students given too much information at once? Lesson #3 You Got A Problem With Me?! The Origins of the Athens/Sparta Feud Class/Subject: Western Civilization Grade Level: 9th Grade Date: 10/12 Period: 2 Time: 45 minutes Behavioral Objective: Unit Goals 2, 3, 4, 6 Objectives Students will examine the causes of the Peloponnesian war Students demonstrate analysis of historic events by actively participating in a class discussion Students will list one cause of the war PA Standard 8.1.9 A-D 1.6.8 A-E Materials/Equipment: Mystery folder presenters (they bring their handouts) Large map of Mediterranean region/Greece Pencil/Pen Notebook paper Cartoon transparency Overhead projector War, What is it Good For? handout Procedure: Motivational Technique/Opening 1) Class will begin with the teacher displaying the dumb cartoon. This will hopefully at least get a chuckle and break the ice a little. 2) There will be 4 mini-project presentation groups (Athens, Sparta, Greek Democracy, and Oligarchy) so this will take at least 10 minutes, but is a very good lead into the topic of the day. Development of Lesson 1) As the four groups present, the teacher will add any important information that was missed from the students. The map will be used to illustrate locations discussed in the presentations and ensuing discussion. 2) Following the presentations, class will basically consist of an informal lecture/class discussion. The topic of this discussion is the causes of the Peloponnesian War. Students are encouraged to take notes on the important points. The mini-project presentations will give the class a good background on the two city-states and their respective governments; this will aide greatly in the discussion. As we discover the causes, the teacher will ask students to come to the board and write a cause in their own word. 3) Among the major points should be the following: the expansion of Athens following its success in the Greco-Persian Wars, the differences in ideology of the two city-states, Athens desire to spread democracy, Sparta’s fear of Athenian aggression, and economic/political alliances with other states. Closure/Outside Work 1) Students will be told to get out a piece of paper. The material written on the board will be erased. Students are told to write down one cause of the war. This is their ‘ticket’ to leave the room. They must present it to the teacher and he must approve it before students are allowed to leave class. 2) Students who have the topics of Pericles and the plague are reminded that they must present tomorrow. 3) As students exit, they will pick up the War, What is it Good For? handout. Homework consists of simply reading this handout. Self Evaluation: 1. Did I get student excited and involved in class discussion? 2. Did students listen and respond to others’ comments? 3. How effective is my closure strategy? 4. Is the mini-project a good lead-in tool? Lesson #4 Fight, Fight, Fight! Pop Quiz and Archidamian War Class/Subject: Western Civilization Grade Level: 9th Grade Date: 10/13 Period: 2 Time: 45 minutes Behavioral Objective: Unit Goals 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 Objectives Students will demonstrate their understanding of the homework reading by completing a pop quiz. Students will demonstrate analysis of historic events by actively participating in a class discussion Students will name one advantage and one disadvantage of each city state in the Archidamian War PA Standard 8.1.9 A-D 1.6.8 A-E Materials/Equipment: Surprise! pop quiz Pen/Pencil Mini-project presenters Note paper Map of Mediterranean/Greece Chalk/ markers Computer with internet access hooked up to projector Truce…Psych! handout Procedure: Motivational Technique/Opening 1) Class opens with a review of yesterday’s material. Students are asked to name one cause of the Peloponnesian War and write correct answers on the board. The prize for answering is a piece of candy (or a ham sandwich; choices are important) and a high five. 2) This is followed by a pop quiz and the mini-project presentations (Pericles, Cleon and plague). 3) Class is divided in half by an imaginary line created by the teacher. One half is told they are Sparta, the other is Athens. Students are told to just keep this in mind, but not told for what this will be used. Development of Lesson 1) Following the candy for answers activity, the teacher will spring a pop quiz on the students. This quiz will be worth only 2 bonus points on the test, with a possibility of 3 points if the bonus question is correct. 1-3 questions correct is worth 1 point, 4-6 questions is worth 2 points. This will reward students who did the homework and encourage reading in the future. The quiz will take less than 5 minutes. 2) The three groups who were assigned the topics of Pericles, Cleon, and the plague will then present their research as a lead in to the lesson of the day. 3) As was stated above, the class is divided into Sparta and Athens, but not told much more. Throughout the lesson, the teacher will remind the students that they are in these groups. For example, when posing a question the teacher could say, “Let me get someone from Sparta to answer this one.” 4) The bulk of the lesson will be a class discussion with a focus of expanding on the material in the homework reading. Students are encouraged to take notes on important facts, some of which will be written on the board as the lesson progresses. The map and computer will be used to bring visuals into the lesson. When discussing places, the map can be used to show location and spatial relation. Images of people and events will be displayed over the projector to give students a connection with the material. The discussion will continue until about 5 minutes before the end of class. Closure/Outside Work 1) Toward the end of the lesson, students will be told to get up to meet with their fellow Athenians or Spartans. The students are told to work together as a group to come up with one advantage and one disadvantage their city-state has had so far in the war (up to the end of the Archidamian War). 2) One ‘orator’ is chosen from each group to present their answers. This will not only review the material, but will also help to put them in the time period by making students think like a Greek. 3) Before leaving students will receive the Truce…Psych! handout to read for homework. 4) Mini-project groups who have Nicias and Alcibiades are reminded that they will present tomorrow. Self Evaluation: 1. Were the students able to work as a group to quickly come up with answers to question? 2. Did I create a relaxed atmosphere in which students are able to speak freely? 3. Is a pop quiz an effective motivational tool? 4. Other than candy, high fives, and bonus points, what will get students more likely to participate? Lesson #5 Can’t We All Just Get Along? Peace and Sicilian Campaign Class/Subject: Western Civilization Grade Level: 9th Grade Date: 10/14 Period: 2 Time: 45 minutes Behavioral Objective: Unit Goals 3, 4, 5 Objectives Students will use a historic document to analyze a historic culture Students will demonstrate understanding of homework reading by orally responding to questions Students will name at least on aspect of the Peace of Nicias PA Standard 8.1.9 A-D Materials/Equipment: Truce…Psych! handout Mini-project presenters (they bring original handout for visual) Peace of Nicias hand out Pen/Pencil Note paper CD player CD of “Give Peace a Chance” Procedure: Motivational Technique/Opening 1) The song “Give Peace a Chance” by The Plastic Ono Band (John Lennon and Yoko Ono’s band) will be playing as the students enter the room. The song doesn’t have much relevance to the topic of the day, but we will be talking about peace so it’s a good introduction 2) The groups with the topics of Nicias and Alcibiades will present their research. Development of Lesson 1) Following the mini-project presentations, students will be asked to get out their Truce…Psych! handouts, which they were to have read for homework. We will discuss the reading by first reviewing what he already know from yesterday. Teacher will throw out some refresher questions to the class. 2) The first topic of the day is the Peace of Nicias, which the students should be pretty familiar with because of the reading and the presentation. Teacher will distribute the Peace of Nicias handout. This sheet is a list of the major points of the peace treaty. As a class we will read through it and students will be cued in to highlight certain information. Teacher will then ask some more analytical questions such as “Why do you think passages like ‘inhabitants shall have the right to go where they please taking their property with them’ are included?” “What does this tell us about Greek society?” “How does this compare with our rights today?” “Ultimately, was this an effective treaty?” and so on. 3) The topic will switch to the breaking of the peace and Athens reinitiating the war. The main plot here is the actions of Alcibiades, which remind me of an action movie. The story of Alcibiades is pretty interesting, and the teacher happens to be a good story teller, so the teacher will narrate Alcibiades story while asking some questions along the way to keep the students interested. This will take class close to the end of the period. Closure/Outside Work 1) Students are told to turn to a neighbor and tell that neighbor one point included in the Peace of Nicias. 2) Homework reading will be distributed before students leave. Self Evaluation: 1. Were the students able to immediately remember an aspect of the Peace of Nicias? 2. How interested were the students in the narration of the Alcibiades story? 3. Were the questions asked to students within their ability level? 4. Did the opening grab their attention at all? Lesson #6 The End is in Sight Ionian War and the End Class/Subject: Western Civilization Grade Level: 9th Grade Date: 10/17 Period: 2 Time: 45 minutes Behavioral Objective: Unit Goals 3, 4, 5 Objectives Students will demonstrate a knowledge of the consequences of the Peloponnesian War in a class discussion Students will demonstrate understanding of historic reading through participation in class discussion PA Standard 8.1.9 A-D Materials/Equipment: All Good Things Come to an End handoutworksheet Large map of the Mediterranean/Greece Pen/Pencils Note paper Computer with internet access hooked up to projector Cued up video and pictures Consequences of War handout Procedure: Motivational Technique/Opening 1) Class will begin with a short video clip from the internet. It can be found at “http://www.comedycentral.com/videos/index.jhtml?videoId=176580&title=rajdesai-factually-correct”. The video is a stand up act about political campaign ads, but includes a line about the Peloponnesian War. See this stuff does come up in real life! 2) Mini-projects will follow the video clip with the topics of Lysander and Persia. Development of Lesson 1) Before beginning the lesson, we will review yesterday’s material. The teacher will ask questions to the students and correct responses get a gold star. 2) Following the introduction, we will address the reading that was assigned for homework. The discussion will expand upon the reading and delve deeper into causes and effects of the events involved. Maps and visuals will be used to better demonstrate events and personalities. 3) Teacher will then distribute the Consequences of War handout. Class discussion will shift to this topic. We will go through each consequence systematically. These of course are not the only consequence but they are what they should know. This will take us to the end of the period. Closure/Outside Work 1) Teacher will stand at the door. Students will have to tell the teacher one effect of the Peloponnesian War in order to get out the door. 2) Homework consists of beginning to study for the upcoming test. Self Evaluation: Was this lesson boring because I was trying to get too much done? Were students able to understand the consequences of historic events actions? Did the opening do any good to engage students? Lesson #7 There’s No Time Like the Present to Get Learnin’ Review Game Stations Class/Subject: Western Civilization Grade Level: 9th Grade Date: 10/18 Period: 2 Time: 45 minutes Behavioral Objective: Unit Goals 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Objectives Students will demonstrate their knowledge of the Peloponnesian War by participating in review games Students will work collaborate with one another to complete activities PA Standard 8.1.9 A-D Materials/Equipment: Figure It Out crossword puzzle & answer sheet Timeline worksheet & answer sheet Flashcards Class notes Pen/pencil Procedure: Motivational Technique/Opening 1) Being that this lesson primarily consists of review games, an opening hook is not entirely necessary. A normal ‘how are you doing’ introduction will be used. Development of Lesson 1) This lesson consists of three review activities. These are set up in three different stations. The class will be divided into three groups and the groups will rotate roughly every 12 minutes to get to all the stations. The teacher will explain all three activities before students begin. The teacher will also be walking around to aide in any activities and field questions. 2) The first station consists of flashcards. These flashcards consist of various terms and questions that may be on tomorrow’s quiz. Students will ask questions to one another as a whole group or as pairs/threesomes. These flashcards are to be used by giving the less descriptive term to the guesser and asking for a longer description. For example, the clue given will be “Thucydides” and the answer is “Greek historian responsible for first hand account of the Peloponnesian War,” instead of vice versa. 3) The second station consists of a crossword. The group will work together to complete the puzzle. Due to the nature of crosswords, this activity is more based on identification of definitions with students providing terms. Students will be allowed to see the answer sheet at the end of the activity to check their work. 4) The third station is a timeline activity. This consists of 16 events given to the students is a term bank. Students will have to arrange these events in chronological order. There are a few hints on the worksheet to make this activity a little more clear. This activity will help the students organize the events of the war. Students will be allowed to see the answer sheet at the end of the activity to check their work. 5) Students will be allowed to use any class notes they wish during theses activities. Obviously they will be more likely to ask each other question rather than look up in their notes. This will encourage collaboration. Closure/Outside Work 1) Homework will be studying for tomorrow’s quiz Evaluation: 1. Were the students interested in these activities? 2. Were the directions clear and simple? 3. Did the activities help the students review for the quiz? 4. Did the students work well to help each other complete the activities? Lesson #8 It’s Time to Show Your Stuff Post-Evaluation Class/Subject: Western Civilization Grade Level: 9th Grade Date: 10/19 Period: 2 Time: 45 minutes Behavioral Objective: Unit Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 Objectives Students will demonstrate their knowledge of the Peloponnesian War by completing a quiz on the subject. Must achieve a 70% or they will have to retake it. PA Standard 8.1.9 A-D 1.4.8 B Materials/Equipment: CD player “Eye of the Tiger” recording Peloponnesian War quiz Pen/pencil Class notes Thinking caps Procedure: Motivational Technique/Opening 1) Class will begin with the playing of the classic song “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor (the song from Rocky). This will get the student super pumped to do their best on the quiz Development of Lesson 1) Following the playing of the song, the students will be instructed to put on their thinking caps. Students will be given roughly 10 minutes to look over their handouts, readings, and notes. Students are also free to ask questions to the teacher, except for questions like “What’s the answer to number 12?” 2) Students will be instructed to put their notes away and clear their desks of everything except a pen or pencil. Quizzes will be distributed. Students will be given the remainder of the period to complete the quiz. When students are done, they will bring the test to the front of the room and sittay quietly until everyone is finished. Closure/Outside Work 1) If everyone finishes before the end of the period, students will have the rest of the period to themselves. 2) Students will be told to have a good day. 3) No Homework Self Evaluation: 1. Did the students get excited by the pre test procedure? 2. Did students use their study time efficiently? 3. Were the students given enough or too much time to complete the evaluation? HANDOUTS Name __________________________ Date _______ Period _____ Surprise! Archidamian War Reading Pop Quiz Answer the following questions with a single word or phrase. Read the questions carefully before responding. When you are finished turn your paper over. Good luck. 1. Into how many eras is the Peloponnesian War usually divided? 2. What is the first of these eras called? 3. Who was the strong leader of Athens at the start of the war? 4. What killed the guy from question 3? 5. Which city state had a feared naval fleet? 6. Who won the final battle of the Archidamian War? Bonus: Name one city, other than Athens or Sparta, mentioned in the reading. (Spell to the best of your ability.) Name _________________________________ Date ____________ Period ______ It’s All Greek to Me! Peloponnesian War Pretest The purpose of this pretest is to see what you, as a class, already know about the Peloponnesian War. It is not graded, but try your best because this activity will be used to focus our unit on things that are new to you. Write you answers in the space provided below each question. Feel free to guess and be creative with your answers if you have no clue (its more entertaining for me to read). 1. Who was the historian responsible for a detailed history of this war? 2. Peloponnese is a large peninsula in what modern day country? 3. What two city-states were involved in the Peloponnesian war? 4. Who was the ultimate victor of the war? 5. Did the Peloponnesian War take place from 431-404 B.C.E. or 404-431 A.D.? 6. In what language did Greek historians write? 7. The end of the war brought to an end what age of Greece: Bronze Age, Golden Age, Banana Age, or Stone Age? 8. What non-Greek empire got involved in the war? 9. If a country is considered to have powerful maritime forces, which of the following would it have: strong economy, strong army, strong navy, or Lance Armstrong? 10. How did Pericles die? 11. How excited are you to begin this unit: super excited, extremely excited, insanely excited, or super extremely insanely excited? Thucydides the Historian Thucydides was one of those shining stars of ancient Athens. Among his peers in that elevated group were: the philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle; the playwrights Sophocles, Aristophanes, and Euripides; the historians Herodotus and Xenophon; the sculptors Praxiteles and Phidias; the leaders Pericles, Cleon, and Antiphon. Imagine a scene where these illustrious men could meet one another as they strolled down the stoned paved streets of Athens. They lived during a time when Athens was at its height. It dominated its 'world' commercially, politically, militarily, and culturally. At the heart of the century was ' the Golden Age ' of Athens. The Golden Age lasted 28 years and is defined by the period when Pericles was influential in the public affairs of Athens (457 to 429 B.C.). Western civilization was born in 400's B.C. Athens. His Work: History of the Peloponnesian War His 'history' was a careful and precise chronology of the political and military events of his day. He had access to both sides in the war and gathered notes for years. The actions and consequences of the war were not the work of gods or mythical creatures. Unlike much of earlier Greek literature, this was a true story about real people making real choices. As innovative as that was, it was much more than just that. It is an excellent piece of literature. His writing style had strength and energy. He included dramatic, memorable dialogue into the text like Pericles' Funeral Oration. It was one of the first reads that captured the readers' imagination and kept them turning the pages. Thucydides didn't actually compose the story until after the war ended. During most of the war, Thucydides lived outside of Athens and the lands of the Delian League (Athens allied states). He returned to his beloved Athens only after Athens lost the war in 404 B.C. He put most of his work together in the 3 years preceding his death in 401 B.C.E. His account of the war was incomplete. His tale stopped in 411. Other writers picked up the story and continued the saga until the completion of the war and beyond. His work is divided into eight books, though that format was probably created by translators centuries later. Source: http://www.thucydides.netfirms.com/thucydides/bio.html Truce…Psych! Peace of Nicias and Sicilian Expedition Please read the following passage with a critical eye on the important people and events. Pay more attention to the sequence of events rather than actual dates. In our last reading we looked at the first part of the Peloponnesian War, known as the Archidamian War. This part of the war ended around 422 B.C.E. with a large battle at Amphipolis that claimed the lives of the two top generals in the war: Cleon of Athens and Brasidas of Sparta. Cleon’s successor is Nicias; this brings us to the next phase of the war. The Peace of Nicias When Nicias became the leader of Athens in 421 B.C.E., he inherited a military that had achieved some great victories and suffered some immense losses. Nicias was known as a great negotiator. The treaty that Nicias drafted officially put an end to the Archidamian War. However, it did not resolve conflict in the way a peace treaty is supposed to; it was more of a temporary ceasefire. The treaty basically let both sides keep their existing territory with the exception of Amphipolis, which was returned to Athens. Beyond this, the peace treaty did nothing to insure that the sources of the conflict would be resolved. Nicias treaty was to take keep the peace for 50 years, but as we will see neither side ever intended to honor that agreement. The Sicilian Campaign The major player in breaking the peace between Athens and Sparta was an Athenian general by the name of Alcibiades. Nicias and Alcibiades were political rivals, yet they lead Athenian military forces together. While Nicias wanted to keep the peace, Alcibiades went to work convincing other Athenian officials that they should invade the city of Syracuse on the island of Sicily. Syracuse was a stronghold of the Spartans and Alcibiades figured that if Athens could conquer it, the Spartans would crumble. Eventually, Alcibiades gained so much support that Nicias had no other choice but to lead his forces to Syracuse. Alcibiades and Nicias amass a huge force to travel to Sicily; they will have the element of surprise and hope to quickly take the city. However, on the eve of their departure several statues of Hermes (the Greek messenger god) were mutilated and desecrated across Athens. This was seen as a bad omen and Alcibiades was accused of being responsible – he was charged with sacrilege and ordered to return to Athens at once for his punishment. Instead of returning to Athens, Alcibiades flees and seeks refuge in Sparta. At this point, the Athenian responsible for rustling up the attack against the Spartans was now on the Spartans’ side. In exchange for protection, Alcibiades warns the Sparta of the approaching attack. Alcibiades and Gylippus, a Spartan military tactician, worked together to fortify for the attack. It was now the Athenians who were taken by surprise. The initial wave of Athenians is decimated, but they rebound and send an additional 5,000 troops. Over the next two years, Sparta defends Syracuse with the growing aide of its allies. By 413, the Athenian forces at Syracuse are completely wiped out. War, What is it Good For? Apparently it settles beef! Please read the following passage with a critical eye on the important people and events. Don’t get bogged down with dates or weird Greek city names. As we have recently discussed in class, the origins of the Peloponnesian War go back many years to the Greco-Persian Wars (499450 B.C.E.) in which Athens and its allies (Delian League) successfully defended their territories from the invading Persian Empire. Following this victory, Athens became expansion minded; they wanted to spread their ideologies and influence. This was concerning to the Spartans, who were attempting to increase their own authority in the Peloponnese region (southern peninsula of modern-day Greece). Although they are not considered part of the Peloponnesian War, there were two conflicts between Athens and Sparta before the outbreak of full blown war. They actually took place between Athens and Corinth (who was an ally of Sparta). The dispute was over two cities called Corcyra and Potidaea. Both were former colonies of Corinth who had been conquered by Athens in 433 B.C.E. The following year, both cities revolted against Athens putting Corinth and Athens at odds. This was spark, added to the preexisting tensions between Athens and Sparta set flame to the Peloponnesian War. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E) is usually divided into three distinct sections: The Archidamian War, the Peace of Nicias & Sicilian Expedition, and the Ionian War. The Archidamian War The first Spartan attack of the war came at Attica, an Athenian colony, in the year 431 B.C.E. Sparta was known for its superior ground forces and had the advantage of surprise. Pericles, a high general, took lead of the Athenian defenses. He rallied the rural population of Athens and brought them within the highly fortified city walls of Athens. Unable to penetrate these defenses, the Spartan forces ravaged and burned the farmland and villages surrounding Athens. After only a few months, the Spartans abandoned their efforts to attack Athens directly. Athens was known for its superior naval fleet; it was the most formidable of the ancient world at the beginning of the war. Over the next two years, Pericles ordered naval raids of various Spartan cities and colonies to maximize the Athenian advantage of the sea. These assaults were usually very swift and effective; they resulted in many small victories for Athens. Pericles, his generals, other nobles, and many common people remained primarily within the city walls of Athens to protect themselves from potential invaders. Unfortunately, the threat came from within their protective barrier. A plague (perhaps typhus) struck Athens and decimated its population – as many as a third of all Athenians within the wall perished from the disease. Pericles fell ill and died in 429 B.C.E. Athens lost its strongest leader and advantage in the war. Pericles successor was named Cleon. Cleon was a competent general, but a foolish one. Athens won a great battle at Sphacteria under the guidance of Cleon. Sparta offered Cleon a peace treaty, which he immediately rejected; he wanted to crush the Spartans. A Spartan general by the name of Brasidas realized that his forces were overmatched at sea, so he decided to lead his forces farther north to Athenian cities of Olynthus and Amphipolis, which he conquered easily. However Athens continued to fight for Amphipolis through 422 B.C.E. The fight for this city eventually ended in a decisive victory for Sparta. However, both Brasida and Cleon were killed during the bloody battle, marking the end of the phase we call the Archidamian War. The Peace of Nicias Key Segments: The treaty is to be in force between the Athenians, with their allies, and the Spartans, with their allies, for fifty years without fraud or damage by land or sea. It shall not be lawful to take up arms with the intent to do injury either for the Spartans and their allies against the Athenians and their allies, or for the Athenians and their allies against the Spartans and their allies, in any way or by any means whatever. If any dispute should arise between them, they are to deal with it by law and by oath, as may be agreed between them. The Spartans and their allies are to give back Amphipolis to the Athenians. In the case of all cities given back by the Spartans to the Athenians, the inhabitants shall have the right to go where they please taking their property with them. The Mecyberneans, the Sanaeans, and Singaeans shall inhabit their own cities, as shall the Olynthians and Acanthians. The Spartans and their allies shall give back Panactum to the Athenians. The Athenians shall give back Sphacteria, Cythera, Methana, Ptelium, and Atalanta to the Spartans; also all Spartans who are in prison in Athens or in any other prison in the Athenian dominions. The Athenians shall take an oath to the Spartans and their allies, city by city. The oath shall be the most binding one that exists in each city, and seventeen representatives on each side are to swear it. The words of the oath shall be these: "I shall abide by the terms of the treaty honestly and sincerely." In the same way, the Spartans and their allies shall take an oath to the Athenians. This oath is to be renewed annually by both sides. If any point connected with any subject at all has been overlooked, alterations may be made, without any breach of oath, by mutual agreement and on due consideration by the two parties, the Athenians and the Spartans. Those who took the oath and poured the libations were as follows: o For the Spartans: Pleistoanax, Agis, Pleistolas, Damagetus, Chionis, Metagenes, Acanthus, Daithus, Ischagoras, Philocharidas, Zeuxidas, Antiphus, Tellis, Alcindas, Empedias, Menas, and Laphilus. o For the Athenians: Lampon, Isthmonicus, Nicias, Laches, Euthydemus, Procles, Pythodorus, Hagnon, Myrtilus, Thrasycles, Theagenes, Aristocrates, Iolcius, Timocrates, Leon, Lamachus, and Demosthenes. All Good Things Come to an End The Ionian War and the Defeat of Athens Please read the following passage with a critical eye on the important people and events. Pay more attention to the sequence of events rather than actual dates. Our last reading concluded with Athenian forces at Syracuse being completely decimated by Sparta and her allies in the year 413 B.C.E. The period from 413 B.C.E. to the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 B.C.E. is referred to as the Ionian War or the Decelean War. We will use the term Ionian War because it is more fun to say. Ionian War Following Athens defeat at Syracuse, many Spartans and their allies wanted to pursue another conquest of Athenian cities. However, the nobles did not want to overextend Spartan forces. It was again Alcibiades who would make have moves to reignite the conflict. It is said that Alcibiades was a major agitator in the Spartan decision to resume war with Athens. In addition, Alcibiades had supported some politicians in Persia. When Persian Empire recognized that the Spartans and Athenians were again going to be at odd, they sided with the Spartans. This was partially due to Alcibiades influence and partially due to lingering bitterness from the Greco-Persian was in which Athens defeated Persia. Ironically, Alcibiades returned to Athens. His previous charges were dismissed mostly because he promised that he could secure an alliance with Persian, which obviously was not to be. Now the Athenians were at war with two world powers; it turned out to be too much. The new admiral of the Spartan army was Lysander. Lysander led his forces to Athens and had the Persians take care of the naval assault. In 405 B.C.E. the battle of Aegspotamos finally ended Athens’ naval supremacy; their fleet was completely wiped out. With the Athenian navy out of the picture, Lysander and his Persian allies laid siege to the city of Athens. In 404 B.C.E. Athens surrendered and the Peloponnesian War came to an end. Alcibiades was executed almost immediately. Consequences of War The Times are A’Changin 1) In Athens, the democratic system survived. Even without the income generated by the empire, democracy proved to be a well-functioning political system. 2) This can partly be explained from the fact that during the war, the economy of Athens changed. Once, most Athenians had been peasants; after the outbreak of the Ionian War, trade and commerce became increasingly important. These activities were almost as profitable as the old empire. 3) Sparta, on the other hand, only temporarily benefited from its victory. Its social structure was unsuited for a world larger than the Peloponnese. In the fifth century, Greece had been a bipolar political system, but changed into a multi-polar system. 4) The great victor was Persia. Not only did it regain the Greek towns in Asia, but it greatly increased its diplomatic influence among the Greeks. 5) Many people had been exiled and had become mercenaries to make a living. Others had become professional soldiers because they could no longer return to their farms. Warfare became a specialized profession. Peloponnesian War Timeline Arrange the following event in chronological order: - Peace of Nicias - Alcibiades is executed. - Sparta attacks Attica - Alcibiades returns to Athens - Pericles dies - Persians become allies with Sparta - Nicias attacks Syracuse - Battle at Amphipolis – Cleon and Brasidas die Period: - Plague hits Athens - Lysander lays siege to Athens - Athens surrenders - Greco-Persian War ends. - Athenians get destroyed in Sicily - Conflict at Corcyra and Potidaea - Nicias comes to power - Alcibiades flees to Sparta Event: 1.______________________________________________ 2.______________________________________________ Archidamian War 3.______________________________________________ 4.______________________________________________ 5.______________________________________________ 6.______________________________________________ 7.______________________________________________ 8.______________________________________________ Peace & Sicilian Campaign 9.___ Peace of Nicias ______________________________ 10.______________________________________________ 11.______________________________________________ Ionian/Decelean War 12.______________________________________________ 13.______________________________________________ 14.______________________________________________ 15.______________________________________________ 16.______________________________________________ Peloponnesian War Timeline Answers 1) Greco-Persian War ends. 2) Conflict at Corcyra and Potidaea 3) Sparta attacks Attica 4) Plague hits Athens 5) Pericles dies 6) Battle at Amphipolis – Cleon and Brasidas die 7) Nicias comes to power 8) Peace of Nicias 9) Alcibiades flees to Sparta 10) Nicias attacks Syracuse 11) Athenians get destroyed in Sicily 12) Alcibiades returns to Athens 13) Persians become allies with Sparta 14) Lysander lays siege to Athens 15) Athens surrenders 16) Alcibiades is executed. Name _____________________________ Date _________ Period _____ Peloponnesian War Quiz (40 points) Read the following directions and questions carefully. Relax, take your time, and good luck! +1 point for putting your name on your test, don’t forget. True/False (1 point each). Read the following question carefully and determine if each statement is true or false. If the statement is true place a capital ‘A’ in the blank; if it is false place a capital ‘B’ in the blank. _____ 1. The Peloponnesian War was a conflict primarily between Athens and Sparta. _____ 2. Nicias was a Spartan general. _____ 3. This war took place over a span of 127 years. _____ 4. Sparta won the Peloponnesian War. _____ 5. There are no known ancient writings about the war. Matching (1 point each). Match the correct description from the column on the right with the term from the column on the right. Each letter will be used only once. _____ 6. Pericles _____ 7. Attica A. Location of first theSpartan invasion of the war. B. Synonymous with Ionian _____ 8. Lysander C. Greek historian _____ 9. Thucydides D. Athenian General _____ 10. Decelean E. Spartan General Fill in the Blank (1 point each). The following questions require one word or a short phrase. Do our best with spelling; if I can tell what it says, it counts. 11. A government that rests its power in a small group of the wealthy elite is called a(n) ________________________. 12. The first phase of the Peloponnesian War is called the ______________________. 13. The acronym B.C.E. stands for _______________________. 14. Historians believe that the disease responsible for the plague of Athens was actually ________________________. 15. The city-state known for its superior ground forces is _____________________. Multiple Choice (1 point each) For the following section questions, select the best response for each question and place the appropriate letter in the blank. _____ 16. The term for the large southern peninsula of Greece is: a. Mycenae b. Peloponnese c. Lacedaemon d. Byzantium _____ 17. How did Pericles die? a. a plague b. assassination c. killed in battle d. old age _____ 18. Which of these events came first? a. Peace of Nicias b. Greco-Persian War c. Execution of Alcibiades d. Battle of Amphipolis _____ 19. Athens was known for what kind of government? a. oligarchy b. theocracy c. monarchy d. democracy _____ 20. Who was the successor to Pericles? a. Brasidas b. Lysander c. Cleon d. Carlos _____ 21. Who wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War? a. Thucydides b. Socrates c. Alcibiades d. Nicias _____ 22. Which of the following is a consequence of the Peloponnesian War? a. Sparta is destroyed b. Persia incurs great economic loses c. The rise of a mercenary class d. Athens remains under an oligarchy for 30 years _____ 23. What technique was used to get Athens to eventually surrender? a. embargo b. diplomacy c. surprise attacks d. siege _____ 24. What crime did Athens accuse Alcibiades of? a. treason b. sacrilege c. murder d. adultery _____ 25. What is the name given to the final phase of the Peloponnesian War? a. Archidamian b. Delian c. Ionian d. Persian Short Answer (2 points each). These questions can be answered with a short description. One or two complete sentences will suffice. 27. What effect did the alliance between Sparta and Persia have on the war? 28. Why did Nicias fail terribly in his expedition to Syracuse? Essay (10 points). Choose one of the following essay topics. Answer the question in as much detail as possible. Make sure to address all parts of the question. Write in complete sentences. Use the back of the page if necessary. Describe in detail two causes and two consequences of the Peloponnesian War. Be sure to include exactly how your causes directly resulted in the war. For your consequences, make sure you draw on the events of the war to conclude why these were the consequences. Do not limit your response to the period of the war itself. OR Relive the story of Alcibiades. Be sure to include his background, his exploits, his allegiances, his motives, and his fate. To what extent did Alcibiades have an effect on the ultimate outcome fate of the war?