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Peloponnesian War: Practice Test 1. The politician who convinced the his fellow Athenians to reject peace overtures after the defeating the Spartans at Sphacteria in 425 was (A) Pericles (B) Cleon (C) Nicias (D) Demosthenes (E) Phormio 2. In order to get Persian gold to finance the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Spartans agreed (A) to give Persia the gold and silver mines in Thrace (B) to force Athens pay a yearly tribute of 100 talents (C) to selling the population of Athens into slavery and destroying the city (D) to dissolve the Peloponnesian League and enter an alliance with Persia (E) to cede control of the Greek cities of Ionia to Persia 3. The Peace of Nicias in 421 was the result of all of the following except (A) the Spartan desire to recover their captured soldiers being held in Athens (B) the deaths of Cleon and Brasidias at Amphipolis (C) the devastation to agriculture and trade in Attica (D) the cost to both sides of hiring mercenaries (E) the pressure from both Athenian and Spartan allies 4. The Spartan admiral who forced most of Athens’ former allies in the Aegean to replace their democracies with oligarchies beholden to Sparta was (A) Pausanias (B) Mindarus (C) Lysander (D) Agis (E) Agesilaus 5. In 416 the Athenians killed all the men and sold all the women and children of the island of Melos into slavery because (A) they had stopped sending their annual tribute (B) they had conspired with the Persians (C) they refused to join the Athenian alliance (D) they had given refuge to some shipwrecked Spartans (E) they had killed an Athenian emissary 6. The poltitican who negotiated Athens’ surrender to Sparta in 404 was (A) Cleophon (B) Critias (C) Socrates (D) Theramenes (E) Thrasybulus 7. What Athenian general was recalled from the expedition to Sicily to stand trail for sacrilege? (A) Nicias (B) Demosthenes (C) Alcibiades (D) Critias (E) Lamachus 8. The radical leader of the Thirty Tyrants who conducted arrests and executions to eradicate opposition and raise funds by confiscation was (A) Critias (B) Theramenes (C) Thrasybulus (D) Charmides (E) Cleophon 9. What Athenian commander’s indecisiveness was responsible for ignominious defeat of the Sicilian expedition in 413? (A) Demosthenes’ (B) Nicias’ (C) Lamachus’ (D) Alcibiades’ (E) Critias’ 10.. The leader of the exiled Athenians who was trying to retake the city from the Thirty Tyrants when the Spartan king Pausanias intervened was (A) Xenophon (B) Thrasybulus (C) Critias (D) Charmides (E) Theramenes 11. In 411 the government of Athens was seized by a anti­democratic faction which established an oligarchy known as the (A) Thirty (B) Boule (C) Phratriai (D) Four Hundred (E) Diadochi 12. In 399 Anytus, Meletus, and Lycon brought charges of impiety and corruption of youth against (A) Aristotle (B) Plato (C) Socrates (D) Xenophon (E) Anaxagoras 13. The last major battle of the Peloponnesian War was fought in 405 at (A) Aegospotami (B) Cyzicus (C) Mantinea (D) Notium (E) Arginusae 14. The Spartan admiral who blockaded Athens for six months in 404 and forced its surrender was (A) Lysander (B) Agis (C) Pausanias (D) Archidamus (E) Callicratidas 15. Which of these was not one of the conditions of Athens’ surrender to Sparta? (A) the destruction of the Long Walls (B) the recall of all exiles (C) the destruction of the fortifications of Piraeus (D) the surrender of all but a dozen ships (E) the annual payment of 1000 talents to the Peloponnesian League 16. About a third of the population of Athens including Pericles died early in the Peloponnesian War as a result of (A) a plague (B) starvation (C) poisoned water (D) war wounds (E) malaria 17. The Athenian commander who was blamed for the loss of Amphipolis to the Spartans and exiled in 424 was (A) Thucydides (B) Alcibiades (C) Nicias (D) Demosthenes (E) Conon 18. After its defeat by Sparta, the Athenian assembly was forced to ratify a new government composed of a board of ______ Athenians who were anti­democratic and sympathetic to Sparta. (A) 5000 (B) 30 (C) 12 (D) 300 (E) 100 19. Pericles’ strategy for winning the Peloponnesian War was to harass the enemy with the navy (A) and to ravage the fields and orchards of the enemy to starve them into surrender (B) and to blockade the their key cities until they surrendered (C) and to instigate a revolt among the Spartan helots (D) but to avoid infantry combat by staying inside the city fortifications (E) while using his hoplite forces to defend Athens 20. Whose trial and execution in 399 for impiety and the corruption of youth was the result of his association with Alcibiades and Critias? (A) Socrates’ (B) Plato’s (C) Xenophon’s (D) Sophocles’ (E) Thucydides’ 21. Which of the following was not part of Pericles’ strategy for winning the war against Sparta? (A) withdrawing all citizens inside the city walls (B) avoiding land battles with the Spartans (C) inciting Sparta’s allies with favorable trading agreements (D) supplying Athens by sea through Piraeus (E) harassing the enemy with its naval forces 22. What Athenian demagogue successfully argued against accepting the Spartan offer of peace after the first battle of Sphacteria? (A) Nicias (B) Cleon (C) Alcibiades (D) Diodotus (E) Demosthenes 23. What battle, in which both Brasidas and Cleon were killed, set the stage for the Peace of Nicias in 421? (A) Sphacteria (B) Mantinea (C) Naupactus (D) Amphipolis (E) Ambracia 24. In 416 the Athenians killed all the men of _____ and sold their women and children into slavery because they refused to join their alliance. (A) Melos (B) Aegina (C) Chios (D) Thasos (E) Icaria 25. Who, having been charged with sacrilege, defected to Sparta and warned them of Athenian plans to conquer Sicily? (A) Cleon (B) Thucydides (C) Alcibiades (D) Demosthenes (E) Lamachus 26. In 413 Athens suffered a disastrous defeat losing over 40,000 men and crippling its navy at (A) Sphacteria (B) Amphipolis (C) Aegospotami (D) Byzantium (E) Syracuse 27. The oligarchic Four Hundred which briefly seized power in Athens in 411 was led by (A) Thrasybulus (B) Pisander & Antiphon (C) Alcibiades (D) Nicias & Demosthenes (E) Sophocles 28. The Spartan commander who effectively ended the Peloponnesian War with his victory over the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami in 405 was (A) Callicratidas (B) Agis (C) Pausanias (D) Lysander (E) Leonidas II 29. The leader of the Thirty Tyrants empowered by Sparta to rule Athens after the war was (A) Critias (B) Conon (C) Theramenes (D) Cleophon (E) Thrasybulus 30. The final naval battle of the Peloponnesian War was the Spartan defeat of the Athenian navy in 405 BC at a) Arginusae b) Notion c) Aegospotami d) Delos 31. After Athens’ surrender in the Peloponnesian War, the Spartans installed a rule over Athens by the a) Areopagus b) Thirty Tyrants c) Old Oligarch d) Prytany 32. The final Athenian response to the revolt of Mytilene in 428­7 BC, following much debate, was to a) kill all Mytilenean men and enslave all women and children. b) put over a thousand of the revolt’s ringleaders to death. c) declare amnesty for all the citizens of Mytilene. d) execute all Mytilenean men, women, and children. 33. Athens helped what island to defeat Corinth and the Peloponnesian League in a sea battle in 433 BC? a) Aegina b) Sphacteria c) Corcyra d) Delos 34. The short tract by the anonymous author known as the 'Old Oligarch' was written in the late 5th century BC as a bitter criticism of a) autocracy b) plutocracy c) tyranny d) democracy 35. On the night before embarking on the Sicilian Expedition, the Athenian general Alcibiades was involved in a dishonorable incident in Athens known as the a) violation of the Eleusinian Mysteries. b) desecration of Abomination. c) harrowing of Haemon. d) mutilation of the Herms. 36. In 425­24 BC, the Athenians achieved a great coup against Sparta by marooning and taking hostages of a few hundred Spartan hoplites stationed on the island of a) Aegina b) Pylos c) Sphacteria d) Delos 37. The Peace of Nicias was negotiated between Athens and Sparta after both sides’ leading generals were killed fighting a battle at a) Amphipolis b) Melos c) Corinth d) Thasos 38. In Sparta following the Peloponnesian War, redefined social classes included soldiers born of Spartan fathers and helot mothers, who were called a) neodamodeis b) mothakes c) cleomenids d) decarchies 39. Which of the following did not bring charges against Socrates in 399 BC? a) Anytus b) Meletus c) Critias d) Lycon 40. Athens’ last naval victory in the Peloponnesian War occurred south of Lesbos near a) Arginusae b) Potidaea c) Cyzicus d) Notion 41. The greatest triumph for the Athenian general Demosthenes during the Peloponnesian War was his victory at a) Arginusae b) Pylos and Sphacteria c) Syracuse d) Naxos 42. The Athenian demagogue who, in a famouse debate among Athenians, advocated killing all the men of Mytilene in 428­7 BC in response to their revolt was a) Alcibiades b) Pericles c) Cleon d) Diodotus 43. The chief negotiators of the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC were the Athenian general Nicias and the Spartan king a) Aristodemus b) Pleistoanax c) Callinus d) Tisias 44. Socrates was convicted and sentenced to death in Athens under a) the Thirty Tyrants b) the restored democracy c) the Four Hundred d) Spartan rule 45. The Athenian general and demagogue who opposed and prevented peace with Sparta both in 410 and in 405 BC until he was put to death for treason was a) Antiphon b) Cleon c) Cleophon d) Theramenes 46. The Athenian general and historian Thucydides was banished from Athens after the city of Amphipolis had been won by the Spartan general a) Archidamus b) Brasidas c) Cleomenes d) Demosthenes 47. Which of the following Athenians was not an Alcmaeonid? a) Alcibiades b) Megacles c) Cleisthenes d) Theramenes 48. Who was the only important Athenian politician NOT to be ostracized? A. Thucydides B. Hyperbolus C. Pericles D. Cimon 49. What 405 BC victory of Lysander cut off the Athenian grain supply from the Black Sea, forcing surrender? A. Notium B. Arginusae C. Cyzicus D. Aegospotami 50. Who negotiated a 421 BC peace between Athens and Sparta? A. Brasidas B. Cleon C. Demosthenes D. Nicias 51. What Athenian general fled to the aid of Sparta to avoid prosecution on a charge that he had mocked the Eleusinian mysteries? A. Nicias B. Brasidas C. Alcibiades D. Phormio 52. The 424 BC Athenian invasion of Boeotia was ended by this defeat. A. Siphae B. Nisaea C. Delium D. Megara 53. Alcibiades recalled from the Sicilian expedition A. 450 B. 435 C. 430 D.415 54. Socrates A. Athens B. Sparta C. Syracuse D. Corinth 55. I’m sure it’s just a cold, I’ll be back fighting Spartans in no time. A. Pericles B. Nicias C. Alcibiades D. Phormion 56. Theban forces attempted unsuccessfully to occupy this city from the inside out in 431 BC. A. Orchomenus B. Plataea C. Athens D. Corinth 57. Religious statues that Alcibiades was accused of desecrating. A. Ceriatids B. Atlantids C. Hermae D. Pandemoi 58. What Athenian general was killed in a failed night flight from Syracuse? A. Brasidas B. Nicias C. Alcibiades D. Leander 59. Death of Pericles A. 476 B. 474 C. 429 D. 399 60. Trial and suicide of Socrates A. 555 B. 446 C. 411 D. 399 61. Brasidas A. Athens B. Sparta C. Miletus D. Samos 62. “You think I tore WHAT off the statues of Hermes?” A. Sophocles B. Alcibiades C. Hesiod D. Pindar 63. How many "tyrants" ruled Athens in 404: A. 10 B. 20 C. 30 D. 40 64. The six year peace (421­415) in the middle of the Peloponnesian War was named after which of the following: A. Nicias B. Demosthenes C. Callias D. Cleon 65. In 411 an oligarchy called what gained control in Athens? A. The Thirty Tyrants B. The Boule C. The Archons D. The 400 66. Thucydides recounts a dialogue between Athenians and representatives of this city­state on the nature of justice before the Athenians destroyed the city in 416. A. Melos B. Chios C. Samos D. Cos 67. In 406, for what reason did the Athenians execute the commanders who won a major victory off the islands of Arginusae? A. plotting to overthrow the Athenian democracy B. negotiating independently with the Spartans C. not following up the victory and destroying the Spartan fleet D. failing to pick up survivors despite a storm 68. The ineffective leader of the Athenian expedition in Sicily was A. Nicias B. Demosthenes C. Antiphon D. Cleon 69. The former student of Socrates who was a member of the Thirty Tyrants was A. Antiochus B. Critias C. Thrasybulus D. Lamachus 70. The Spartan commander sent to aid Syracuse in 414 was A. Gylippus B. Barsidas C. Xenares D. Lysander 71. Who was the last man to be ostracized? A. Nicias B. Cleon C. Hyperbolus D. Alcibiades 72. Before his political career, Cleon was a successful A. tanner B. sailor C. general D. lawyer 73. Sparta‟s allies in the Peloponnesian War included all of these except A. Megara B. Corinth C. Plataea D. Thebes 74. Which was not a charge against Socrates at his trial? A. He did not believe in the gods of the state. C. He corrupted the young. B. He taught new gods. D. He undermined the war effort against Sparta. 75. In 421 Athens and Sparta agreed to the Peace of Nicias. Which statement is not true about the Peace? A. Athens and Sparta agreed to return to the status quo in 431. B. Delphi was chosen to moderate future disputes between the parties. C. Corinth and Thebes refused to join Sparta in the Peace. D. Alcibiades was a leader of the Athenian opposition to the Peace. 76. In 413 the Spartans established a permanent base in Attica at A. Eleusis B. Megara C. Decelea D. Marathon 77. In 424 the Spartans won a major victory at Amphipolis in Northern Greece. The Spartan commander was A. Lysander B. Agis C. Leonidas D. Barsidas 78. The victorious Spartan commander who won at Aegospotamai was A. Alcibiades B. Agis C. Lysander D. Gylippus 79. The Peloponnesian War lasted from A. 454 – 427 B. 480 – 453 C. 431 – 404 D. 425 – 398 80. In 425 Cleon won a major victory over the Spartans at A. Mantinea B. Sphacteria C. Plataea D. Larisa 81. Following the Athenian defeat at Syracuse, this state began funding the Spartans A. Carthage B. Tyre C. Etruria D. Persia 82. Alcibiades fled to Sparta upon charges that he mocked the Eleusinian Mysteries and desecrated the… A. herms B. Parthenon frieze C. peplos D. Erechtheion 83. Socrates was tried for corrupting the youth and then forced to drink hemlock in… A. 401 B. 410 C. 399 D. 404 84. In 429, what disaster decimated Athens, which was crowded with the population of Attica seeking refuge from Spartan raids? A. earthquake B. plague C. flood D. volcanic ash cloud 85. Which of these was NOT part of the buildup to the Peace of Nicias? A. Nicias’s failure during the Sicilian Expedition B. Mutual exhaustion following the Battle of Amphipolis C. Athens’s failed invasion of Boeotia and debacle at Delium D. Spartan fears that the men who surrendered at Sphacteria would not be returned 86. Both the Athenian Cleon and the Spartan Brasidas died in the same battle at _______ in 422. A. Aegospotami B. Byzantium C. Sphacteria D. Amphipolis 87. The Peloponnesian War found its more immediate roots in an antagonism between Athens and Corinth rather than Sparta. Athens aided what Corinthian colony against Corinth in 433? A. Epidamnos B. Potidaea C. Corcyra D. Syracuse 88. Which Athenian exile led a democratic faction that assailed the pro­Spartan oligarchy, resulting in the restoration of Athenian democracy after the Peloponnesian War? A. Theramenes B. Thrasybulus C. Cleon D. Critias 89. First Battle of Mantinea A. 362 B. 338 C. 418 D. 424 90. Whose attempt to rescue Nicias was foiled by an ominous lunar eclipse? A. Gylippus B. Hermocrates C. Demosthenes D. Alcibiades 91. Which of the following was not supposed to be one of the three Athenian leaders of the Sicilian Expedition? A. Alcibiades B. Nicias C. Lamachus D. Gylippus 92. What student of Socrates could be used as an example of the philosopher’s corrupting the youth, because he was one of the leading Thirty Tyrants? A. Critias B. Thrasybulus C. Theramenes D. Xenophon 93. After being recalled from his shameful exile, in 408 Alcibiades cunningly infiltrated and reclaimed what city for Athens? A. Amphipolis B. Byzantium C. Plataea D. Mytilene 94. Who organized and led the democratic Athenians in their effort to oust the Thirty Tyrants? A. Theramenes B. Critias C. Conon D. Thrasybulus 95. Boeotians recapture Delion with a primitive flamethrower A. 434 B. 424 C. 418 D. 403 96. How many Spartans surrendered at Sphacteria? A. 92 B. 107 C. 121 D. 153 97. Where in 410 did Alcibiades and Thrasybulus destroy an entire Spartan fleet? A. Abydos B. Cyzicus C. Notium D. Byzantium 98. Which of the following cities was the explicit cause of Athens’s expedition to Sicily in 415? A. Messina B. Leontini C. Selinus D. Segesta 99. What moderate oligarch clashed with his more extreme colleagues after the coup of 411 and also as one of the Thirty Tyrants, getting himself executed without trial for his views? A. Thrasylus B. Theramenes C. Thrasybulus D. Critias 100. Battles at Naupactus, Mytilene, Olpae, and Delium were all part of what conflict? A. First Peloponnesian War C. Archidamian War B. Corinthian War D. Lelantine War 101. How did Pericles the Younger meet his end? A. the plague of 430/429 took him B. he was killed off by the Thirty Tyrants C. he was executed with other generals for their failure to rescue sailors D. he was killed during the disastrous Sicilian Expedition 102. What Athenian won incredibly tough battles at Naupactus, making him a contender for the first great admiral? A. Phormio B. Gylippus C. Lysander D. Iphicrates 103. Who, when trying to convince Nicias to flee the disastrous expedition to Sicily, might have said, “Ain’t nobody got time for that,” referring to an ominous lunar eclipse? A. Lamachus B. Demosthenes C. Cleon D. Thrasybulus 104. In 418 the Spartans crushed a coalition of Athens, Argos and other Peloponnesian cities at A. Orchomenus B. Epidaurus C. Nemea D. Mantinea 105. The Athenians’ own praise and appreciation of democracy may best be read in a) The Nemian Odes of Pindar b) Pericles’ Funeral Oration in Thucydides’ Peloponnesian War c) Socrates’ words in Plato’s Republic d) Strepsiades’ dialogue in Aristophanes’ Clouds 106. An Athenian general who gained much popular support through multiple chariotracing victories in the Olympic games was a) Alcibiades b) Brasidas c) Cleon d) Nicias 107. The only known Athenian trial for which all of the six thousand annually­appointed jurymen (dicasts) were summoned was a case against a) Andocides b) Phormio c) Socrates d) Demosthenes 108. At the battle of Delium in 424, Socrates was rescued by A. Cleobulus B. Alcibiades C. Hippodamus D. Lamacus 109. In his Funeral Oration, what does Pericles call Athens? A. the Gem of the Aegean B. the Horn of the Bull C. the Crown of Attica D. the School of Hellas 110. Battle of Notium A. 410 B. 408 C. 424 D. 406 111. Battle of Naupactus A.431 B.429 C.427 D. 423 Answers 1. B 39. C 77. D 2. E 40. A 78. C 3. E 41. B 79. C 4. C 42. C 80. B 5. C 43. B 81. D 6. D 44. B 82. A 7. C 45. C 83. C 8. A 46. B 84. B 9. B 47. D 85. A 10. B 48 C 86. D 11. D 49. D 87. C 12. C 50. D 88. B 13. A 51. C 89. C 14. A 52. C 90. C 15. E 53. D 91. D 16. A 54. A 92. A 17. A 55. A 93. B 18. B 56. B 94. D 19. D 57. C 95. B 20. A 58. B 96. C 21. C 59. C 97. B 22. B 60. D 98. D 23. D 61. B 99. B 24. A 62. B 100. C 25. C 63. C 101. C 26. E 64. A 102. A 27. B 65. D 103. B 28. D 66. A 104. D 29. A 67. D 105. B 30. C 68. A 106. A 31. B 69. B 107. A 32. B 70. A 108. B 33. C 71. C 109. D 34. D 72. A 110. D 35. D 73. C 111. B 36. C 74. D 37. A 75. B 38. B 76. C