Download THE Romantic Era 4

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Ostinato wikipedia, lookup

Program music wikipedia, lookup

Music History
The Romantic Era (1820 - 1900)
• The term Romantic refers to the music
being expressive and emotional (rather
than referring specifically to love).
 • Patronage declined and successful
composers became famous – the
equivalent of pop stars in their day.
 • Most of the musical developments
were creative rather than technical.
Musical Characteristics
• Ensembles increased in scale.
– The orchestra increased in size adding more
instruments and numbers of players.
– Chamber music was less popular. There are few
string quartets, etc.
• Programme music rose in importance.
• Harmonies became more dissonant and
• Composers increasingly ignored the formal
structures phrasing typical of the classical
The Virtuoso Performer
• The performer (rather than the composer)
became the star of many pieces.
 • The virtuoso performer would amaze their
audience with their technical ability on their
instrument (most often piano or violin).
 • Many composers wrote virtuosic pieces
often for particular performers.
Instrumental Music
The piano developed technically and became
much more like the powerful and expressive
instrument we know today.
• Solo Piano Music:
– Etudes – studies showing off a performer’s
technical ability
– Character Pieces – short programmatic works
– Variations – virtuoso pieces based on a theme a
variation form
– Stylised Dances – based on popular dances forms
such as the waltz, mazurka, polka and gallop
Instrumental Music (continued)
• Orchestral Music:
– Symphony – less formal and less restrictive than the
Classical symphony.
– Concerto – similar to the Classical concerto. The violin
and piano were the preferred solo instruments.
– Symphonic Poem – Single movement programmatic
– Concert Overture – Similar to the Symphonic Poem but
more formal and less programmatic.
– Symphonic Suite – Programmatic works in several
– Dances – similar to the stylised dances for solo piano.
The Romantic Orchestra
• The percussion section increased in size and
number of instruments.
• The woodwind and brass sections increased in
numbers and several new instruments were added.
• The number of string players was increased to
balance the larger woodwind and brass sections.
• The harp was added to the string section.
• Instruments were often directed to use more
unusual techniques (such as pizzicato and flutter
Programme Music
• Unlike the absolute music of the classical era
Romantic music often reflected a narrative or
extra-musical idea. This meant that
composers would often abandon the formal
structures that were popular in the classical
• The Symphonic Poem (or Tone Poem) is a
single movement orchestral work that
incorporates an extra-musical element.
Composers would often put several of these
pieces together for a larger scale work.
Vocal Music
• Art Song (Lieder)
– Song Cycles
 • Opera
 • Voices (either as soloists or choruses)
were often incorporated into orchestral
Song Cycles
• Song cycles were collections of songs,
arranged for solo voice and piano, that
had a common theme or narrative.
 • They were intended, on the whole, to
be performed in sequence.
 • The term lieder is sometimes used to
refer to the songs in a song cycle.
• Opera took on board many of the trends
of the Romantic Era:
– The distinctive structures of songs,
recitative, aria and chorus, gradually broke
down and merged together.
– The harmony became more chromatic.
– The number and variety of instruments in
the orchestra increased.
• Many romantic composers began to
incorporate features from their home
country into their music.
 • These may have been:
– Folk Stories (as the narrative in opera
or programme music)
– Rhythms and Themes from folk music
Romantic Composers
• Franz Peter Schubert (1797 – 1828)
 • Franz Liszt (1811 – 1886)
 • Richard Wagner (1813 – 1883)
• Music became more expressive.
• Harmony became more dissonant and
• The orchestra increased the number and
variety of instruments.
• Absolute Music gives way to Programme
• Very little chamber music – mostly orchestral
or solo music.
• Music led by lyrical (song like)