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Chapter 3
Regular Biology
Cell Structure and Functions
____________________ In 1665 he looked at a thin slice of cork from the bark of an oak tree
using a compound microscope. He saw that cork was made of tiny hollow boxes similar to
honeycomb. He called them cells because they reminded him of the small rooms in a
____________________ 1674 – became the one of the first people to describe living cells when
he observed numerous single-celled organisms swimming in a drop of pond water. He was
studying new methods for making lenses to examine cloth. He also looked at tooth tarter
____________________ 1838- German Scientists; observed plant cells and stated that all plants
are composed of cells.
____________________ 1839 - German Scientists; observed animal cells and stated that all
animals are made of cells.
_____________________ 1855- German scientists reported that all cells come from pre-existing
cells. These ideas lead to the development of the Cell Theory
The Cell Theory is made of 3 Ideas:
7. As Scientists studied cells, they discovered 2 basic types:
1. ________________________________
No true nucleus
2. ________________________________
True nucleus
8. All Cells share certain characteristics:
1. Cells tend to be _____________________
2. All cells are enclosed by a membrane called _______________________
3. Cells are filled with a jellylike substance that contains organelles called
4. All cells contain tiny organs within the cells called _______________
9. Prokaryotic Cells: cells lack internal structures that are surrounded by membranes, and do not
have a _______________________. Most are single-celled and microscopic
Example: _______________
10. Basic organelles found in a prokaryotic cell are:
11. Eukaryotic Cells:
Cells contain a _________________ that acts as the control center of the cell and is the largest
organelle in the cell.
12. Can be ________________ or _________________, and can single celled or multi-celled
13. _______________________: A flexible network of proteins that provide structural support for
cells. Made of small protein subunits that form long threads or fibers that crisscross the entire
cell. (Structure former of the cell)
14. 3 main types of fibers that serve a range of functions
1. _________________________ : long hollow tubes that gives the cell its shape and acts like
tracks for organelle movement.
2. _________________________: smaller than microtubules and gives the cell strength
3. ________________________: smallest and are tiny threads that enable the cell to move and
15. _________________________: Is the storehouse for most of the genetic information or DNA in
your cell. Is the Brain of the cell-controls all cell functions. Is the largest organelle in the cell
(Control Center)
16. Two major demands of the Nucleus:
17. Parts of the Nucleus:
_______________________: makes DNA; makes proteins from ribosomes
_______________________: Turns into chromosomes before Cell Division
_______________________: Allows RNA to pass out of the nucleus
_______________________: Nuclear Pore: allows Proteins into & out of the nucleus, and allows
RNA out of the nucleus
18. _______________________: Is an interconnected network of thin folded membranes that
transport Proteins to the Nucleus. Numerous processes take place inside the lumen and on the
surface: production of proteins and lipids. (Highway)
19. ER membranes for a maze called _________________
20. Two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum
21. __________________: link amino acids together to form proteins. They are made of proteins
and RNA. After assembly in the nucleolus they pass through the ____________ into the
______________; this is where most protein synthesis occurs. (Likes teenagers; Protein maker)
22. ___________________: Consist of closely stacked layers of membranes that processes,
packages, and delivers proteins. Some proteins are stored for later use, some transported to
other organelles, some are carried to the membrane and secreted outside the cell. (Packaging
23. ___________________: Small membrane bound sacs that divide some material from the rest of
the cytoplasm and transfer them throughout the cell. They are usually short lived and are
formed and recycled as needed. (Transporters)
24. ___________________: Energy maker; are bean shaped membrane-bound organelles in plant
and animal cells that transform energy for the cell. **Mitochondria have their own ribosomes,
DNA & can divide (Powerhouse of the Cell)
25. Parts of the Mitochondria:
Mitochondria have an inner and outer membrane
The outer one is smooth while the inner one is shaped into folds called ______________
26. The ______________ (fluid) is inside the inner membrane
27. ____________________: A fluid filled sac used for storage such as water, food molecules,
inorganic ions, and enzymes. (Storage Facility)
Vacuole size is important to the cells:
Animal cells have ______________vacuoles; Why? __________________________________
Plant cells have a single _____________ vacuole; Why? _______________________________
28. ___________________: Membrane bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes; They
defend cells from invading bacteria and viruses; break down damaged or worn-out cells
Animal cells-numerous; Plant cells-none
29. ___________________: Barrel- shaped organelles found in animals & protists usually occur in
pairs at right angles to one another. Found near the nucleus
Replicate and move to opposite ends of the cell during mitosis (cell division)
Centrosomes make spindle fibers and are important in cell division
30. ___________________: Is a fairly ridged structure located outside the plasma membrane that
provides additional support and protection
31. The only cells with a cell wall are:
32. ____________________: are cell organelles that capture light energy and produce food to store
for a later time. Carry out photosynthesis, has a double membrane, and their own DNA &
33. Structures of the Chloroplast:
________________: trap energy from sunlight. Coin-like structure
________________: The inner membranes are arranged in stacks; resembles stacks of coins
________________: The fluid that surrounds the stacks of granum
34. The chloroplasts belong to a group of plant organelles called ________________, which are
used for storage. Some store starch or lipids, some contain pigments that give plants their color
35. Plastids are named according to their color or ______________________________________
Chlorophyll traps light energy and gives the leaves and stems their green color
Cell Movement:
_________________are short, numerous, hair-like projections that move in a wavelike motion
_________________ are long projections that move in a whip-like motion.
_________________: One celled organisms
_________________: Organisms with many cells
41. __________________: is the boundary between the cell and its environment that controls the
passage of materials into and out of a cell in a process of maintaining the cell’s environment is
called homeostasis. AKA Plasma Membrane.
42. The Cell Membrane’s job is to
1. Allow a steady supply of _______________, ________________, and ___________ to come
into the cell no matter what the external conditions are.
2. Remove excess amounts of these nutrients when levels get so high that they are harmful
3. Allow waste and other products to leave the cell.
43. A phospholipid is a molecule composed of 3 parts (also sketch an image of the phospholipid)
44. The plasma membrane is composed of two layers of ________________________.
45. ________________________: Describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell
46. Fluid Mosaic Model that the phospholipid bilayer behaves like a fluid more than it behaves like a
47. _____________________________ is a process used to maintain homeostasis in which the
plasma membrane allows some molecules into the cell while keeping others out
48. Chemical signals are transmitted across the cell membrane by a receptor which is a protein that
detects the chemical change. There are 2 types of receptors:
1. ___________________________: within or inside a cell (hormones)
2. ___________________________: cannot cross the membrane
49. The ______________________ is the boundary between the cell and its environment. It allows
water and other molecules to pass into and out of the cell
Molecules need to be transported across the cell membrane: They do it in two methods:
50. Two types of transport:
__________________________: the movement of particles across a membrane from high
concentration to low concentration without ENERGY.
__________________________: The movement of particles across a membrane from low
concentration to high concentration with ENERGY
51. ______________________: is when molecules move from an area of high concentration (there
are many) to an area of low concentration (there are few)
Example of where this happens: __________________________
This is a form of __________________
52. Difference in the concentration between two different areas. Particles slide along the
________________________ to help the cell reach equilibrium.
53. __________________________ is equal portions of solute inside and outside the cell
54. 3 Types of Passive Transport
55. ________________________ is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration
to an area of lower concentration.
56. _______________________ helps molecules passing through the membrane that may not be
soluble in lipids or too large to pass through the pores in the cell. Assistance is given by specific
proteins called __________________
57. The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher
concentration to an area of lower concentration is called ________________________
58. 3 Types of Osmosis
59. _______________________: the concentration gradient outside the cell is lower than inside the
cell. This movement causes cells to _______________
60. Sketch a picture:
61. Examples:
62. ________________________: the concentration gradient of dissolved substances outside the
cell is higher than inside the cell. This movement causes cells to _____________
63. Sketch a picture:
64. Examples:
65. ________________________: the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the
same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell. Water moves into and out at
the same rate and cells obtain their ______________________
66. Sketch a picture:
67. Examples:
68. ___________________________: Movement of materials through a membrane against a
concentration gradient is called active transport and requires energy from the cell.
69. 2 Types of Active Transport:
70. ___________________ is a process by which a cell surrounds and takes in material from its
71. ___________________: a type of endocytosis that means Cell Eating
72. ___________________: a type of endocytosis that means Cell Drinking
73. __________________: is the release or secretion of materials from a cell.