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Chapters 23-1 & 29-1
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Bangladesh
Bhutan
India
Maldives
Nepal
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
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Often referred to as a subcontinent
◦ Separated from the rest of Asia by mountains
◦ Mountains have created a physical and cultural
border
◦ Subcontinent: a large distinct landmass that is
joined to a continent
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1.7 million square miles
Bordered by 3 bodies of water
◦ Arabian Sea
◦ Indian Ocean
◦ Bay of Bengal
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Many Islands
◦ Sri Lanka
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Himalayas
◦ Theory: Formed by
continental drift from
Africa
◦ 1000 miles long
◦ 100 miles wide
◦ Mt. Everest
 Highest Peak 29,035 ft.
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Northern Landforms
◦ Khyber pass
 Between Hindu Kush and
Himalayas
◦ Ganges Plain
 Fertile plain
 Watered by 3 rivers
 Indus, Ganges,
Brahmaputra
 Home to 10% of World
Pop.
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Central Landforms
◦ Vindhya Mt. Range
 Divides India north/south
 2 distinct cultures
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Southern Landforms
◦ Eastern Ghats & Western
Ghats
 Eroded mountains
◦ Deccan Plateau
 In the triangle of Ghats and
Vindhya Mts.
 Rich soil
 Rain shadow of Western Ghats
◦ Karnataka Plateau
 Receives rain diverted from
Deccan Plateau
 Known for spice Plantations
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Indus River
◦ Mainly flows through
Pakistan to Arabian Sea
◦ Cradle of ancient India
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Brahmaputra
◦ Flows from Himalayas
through India and
Bangladesh
◦ Joins Ganges to form
Delta
◦ Major inland waterway
 Hydro electricity
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Ganges River
◦ River basin covers
400,000 sq. miles
◦ Considered Sacred by
Hindus
◦ India’s most
agriculturally
productive area
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Water:
◦ Alluvial soil, drinking
water, transportation,
hydro electricity
 Controversy over dams
 Tarbela Dam: soon
unusable due to silt
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Energy resources
◦ Oil in Arabian Sea
 Still dependent on
imports
◦ Natural Gas
◦ Uranium
Minerals
◦ Leading exporter of
iron
◦ 90% of the worlds Mica
◦ Sri Lanka
 Largest producer of
graphite
 Many precious stones
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Timber
◦ Oak, magnolia, beech,
birch, sandal wood, &
teak
◦ Environmental
problems due to over
cutting
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Brunei
Cambodia
East Timor
Indonesia
Laos
Malaysia
Myanmar
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
Vietnam
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Indochina Peninsula
◦ Cordilleras: Parallel
mountain ranges and
plateaus
 Cause by tectonic plate
movement
◦ Considered
“Mainland Southeast
Asia”
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Malay Peninsula
◦ Thailand and
Malaysia
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Malay archipelago
◦ Over 20,000 Islands
◦ Archipelago: series of
islands grouped together
 Formed from volcanic
activity
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Indonesia
◦ 13,500 islands over
3,000 miles
 Fewer than 1000 islands
permanently settled
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Philippines
◦ 7,000 islands
 900 settled
 11 islands contain 95% of
land mass
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Country and an Island
◦ Singapore
 1 large and 50 small
◦ East Timor
 Independent from Indonesia
in 2002
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Mountains
◦ Less than 10,000
◦ Natural barriers
between countries
 Annam Cordillera
 Separates Vietnam,
Laos, and Cambodia
◦ Actually Volcanoes
 Ring of Fire
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Volcanoes
◦ Indonesia
 327 volcanoes
 100 currently active
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People rely on waterways for transportation,
communication, and food
◦ Sediment create fertile land for agriculture
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Major Rivers
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Irrawaddy in Myanmar
Chao Phraya in Thailand
Red or Hong in Vietnam
Mekong: starts in China, flows through Thailand,
Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam
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Energy sources
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Minerals and Gems
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◦ Fossil fuels: coal, oil
and natural gas
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◦ Indonesia- nickel and
iron
◦ Philippines- copper
◦ Mainland: rubies and
sapphires
◦ Pearls
 Largest pearl (14
pounds) found of coast
of Palawan in Philippines
Flora and Fauna
◦ Plants and animals
◦ Rubber, teak, orchids
Fishing
◦ Seafood export is a
major contributor to
economy