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Br uno Demichelis Ph.d. Principles of Developmental Management in Football clubs And Psychology and Psychophysiology Principles of Developmental Management • • • • • • • The systemic approach The global approach The proactive approach Promoting wellness and wellness profiling Training confidence and positive affect “Organisational hygiene” Psychology and Psychophysiology Systemic approach ρ=ρ1*ρ2*ρ3*ρ4….. ρn The Triangle of Health Structural functional 16 gennaio 2011 EVALUATION Characteristic Tests Lab Circuit Structural functional Performance Tests JJ J L LL THE WELL-BEING GRADING SYSTEM PATHOLOGY - DISEASE WELLNESS 1st Birth and Wellness 3rd Step: Recovery and maintenance of the wellness Prevention: Measures to Prevent, Preservation and Increase of health status Maintaining Health Recovery of health 2nd : Deterioration of Health and Illness The Triangle of Health Structural functional 16 gennaio 2011 THE STRESS stress is the mental and physical response to a number of tasks (cognitive, emotional or social) perceived as excessive. Two ideas for a introductory approach to the concept of Stress. . . THe STRESS Stress is a normal response, adaptive, that mobilizes the reserves of the human organism, facilitates the uptake of energy for the muscles, raises the cardiovascular tone and beat rate to transport oxygen faster, and commands the temporary suspension of non-core activities, such as growth. (Selye, 1975a,1975b). Stress reaction Stimuli: - Real - Alleged Real - Fictitious Response: Fight or Flight Hazardou s stimuli Feeling SCARED! Response First Step The perception through the Sensorial Channels VISUAL CHANNEL OLFACTORY CHANNEL AUDITORY CHANNEL PERCEPTION AND RECOGNITION OF STIMULI AS STRESSFUL KINESTESIC CHANNEL Second Step:“THEATER” OF OUR MIND... 2nd NOT Dangerous stimulus, but lived as a"threat" 3rd Threats that we create in the screen of our mind ... In the theater of our mind, we represent "our reality ...", we live the associated emotions, we make decisions and we behave according to this representation. 1st "Real" threat, experienced as such 1 Corporeal Electro chemical Language 1 The alarm reaction is activated Third Step: The Physiological Change by the cholinergic Neurotransmitters (serotonin) 2 3 Hypothalamus: CRH 4 Corticotropine and Argine Vasopresine 4 Locus Coeruleus 5 Sympathetic nervous system Adrenal Glands Cortisol Dopamine 2 7 5 Reaction of Generalized STRESS 6 6 Pituitary: ACTH Adrenaline Noradrenaline Third Step: PHYSICAL, BIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND OTHER STRESSORS STRESS RESPONSE CEREBRAL CORTEX HYPOTHALAMUS EMOTIONS SENSORY NERVES SKIN NEURO-PEPTIDE P OTHER CHEMICAL MEDIATORS PITUITARY GLAND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ADRENERGIC CHOLINERGIC Heart Rate Respiration Sweating Blood Pressure Gastric Acidity Digestion Intestinal Movements Bronchial Spasm Emotional Changes Body Metabolism Other Changes OTHER ENDOCRINES ADRENAL GLANDS ALPHA, BETA RECEPTORS THYMUS GLAND T CELLS REDUCED IMMUNE STATUS Fourth Step: Different Stages of Stress 1.The first stage, of alarm, is characterized by changes in the sympathetic nervous system and simultaneously will result in changes in the various sub-systems (cardiovascular, hormonal, muscular and gastrointestinal) and prepares the body for action. 2.The second phase, of resistance, begins after the first critical stage, when the body adapts to the new situation, restoring normal levels of defense. Its duration may depend on the intensity of stress agents the context and available personal resources. 3.The third stage, of exhaustion, in which the level of general defenses of the organism are again very low and, if are not involved adequate mechanisms for recovery or if the stress agent continues to interfere, the body can fall into conditions of fatigue and tension, of illness or, eventually, death. Fifth Step : Stress and Performance D I F F E R E N T P E R F O R M A N C E Element in common: an exaggerated perception of ANXIETY "I can not go wrong !" "I must not feel ashamed!" "I must avoid mistakes!" "I can not kick out!" Fifth Step: Stress INTERFERENCES Final Action: A MISTAKE! and Performance FLOW WITHOUT INTERFERENCES Action Muscles Muscles Glands Glands Brain Brain Thoughts: I do not have to make mistakes! Thoughts EXAGGERATED ANXIETY MODERATE ANXIETY Fifth Step: Stress and Performance BREAKDOWN Sixth Step: Overview - NO STRESS - QUALITY - QUANTITY - INTENSITY - DURATION - INTERNAL OR AVAILABLE -Positive Stress RESOURCES (Eustress) - STRESS - Emotional pressure (Distress) From ... ... to. QUESTIONS?