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Muscular System
Learning Targets:
Describe parts of the muscular
system and explain how they work
Name the three kinds of muscle tissue
List and explain some disorders that affect
the muscular system
• Muscle is one of our 4 tissue types and
muscle tissue combines with nerves, blood
vessels, and various connective tissues to
perform movement.
• The human body has more than 600
Muscle Functions
1. Movement
– Movement of body parts
– Movement of blood
through the heart
– Movement of food
– Movement of the air in
and out of the lungs
Muscle Functions
2. Body Temperature
– Generation of heat
– Occurs by shivering (an
involuntary contraction
of skeletal muscle).
Muscle Functions
3. Stabilization
of joints
Muscles keep the tendons
that cross the joint nice
and tight.
How Muscles Work
Skeletal muscles work in pairs to move your bones.
•They contract, or shorten and they extend, or lengthen.
To bend the arm the biceps
contract, or shorten, pulling
the bone of the forearm
At the same time, the
triceps —on the opposite
side of the arm—must relax
and extend, or lengthen.
Biceps brachii
Biceps brachii
To straighten the arm again, the biceps brachii relax. The
triceps brachii now contract, pulling the arm into a straight line.
3 Types of Muscle Tissue
3 Types of Muscle Tissue
Muscle tissue responds to messages from the brain and
contracts, or shortens, to cause movement.
Involuntary muscles move without your being aware of them.
There are two types:
– Smooth muscles,: the muscles of organs & blood vessels (ex.
Diaphragm, stomach, arteries, throat, eyes)
– Cardiac muscles, found only in the heart
Voluntary muscles are under your control
- Skeletal muscles are voluntary or under your control.
(ex. Face muscles, tendons, biceps, triceps)
Skeletal Muscle
• Attached to
bones by the
• Work with the
bones of the
skeleton to
allow you to
Skeletal Muscle
• You control
skeletal muscles.
• Skeletal muscles
make up about 40
percent of your
body weight.
Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscle
• Found in various organs in the
body, such as the stomach and
• You do not control these muscles.
For example, once you have
swallowed your food, smooth
muscles move it through the
digestive system.
Smooth Muscle
Smooth Muscle can be found in
many body systems:
Integumentary system
Respiratory system
Urinary system
Digestive system
Reproductive system
Smooth Muscle
• Special type of muscle
that is found only in
the walls of the heart.
• Controlled by your brain, cardiac muscle
constantly contracts and relaxes, causing
your heart to pump blood
• Involuntary muscle