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CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER
The Skeletal System
3
The Skeletal System
Overview: Skeletal System
CHECK
We are born with 270 bones in our bodies, and
even more bones form during childhood. By
the time we reach adulthood though, several
separate bones have fused together so that the
number of our bones has decreased to around
2061, which make up the adult skeletal system.
An example of this reduction occurs in each
half of our pelvis, where three separate bones—
the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis—fuse into
one single bone called the os coxa.
The skeletal system is further divided into the
axial skeleton, consisting of the bones of the
skull, vertebral column, and the thoracic cage;
and the appendicular skeleton, which consists of the bones of the upper and lower extremities along with their associated girdles (Table 3.1).
Overview: Skeletal System
1
Around 206—some people develop varying numbers of miscellaneous bones, either sesamoid bones, which form within
some tendons as a response to stress (such as the patella) or
sutural bones, which develop within the sutures of the skull.
Table 3.1
POINT:
1. The average human adult has ___________
bones in their body, while the average newborn has ___________ bones in theirs.
2. Explain the difference.
Naming Bony Processes
and Other Landmarks
Bony landmarks are various ridges, spines, depressions, pores, bumps, grooves, and articulating structures on the surface of bones. These structures allow
for the passage of blood vessels and nerves; for joints
between bones; and for the attachment of ligaments, muscles, and tendons. Therefore, a working
knowledge of the names of these structures will be a
valuable asset when considering the structure and
function of these surface features.
Some of the most commonly encountered bony
landmarks are listed in Table 3.2.
Summary of the Bones of the Adult Skeletal System
Axial Skeleton—80 Bones
Skull and Hyoid
Inner Ear Ossicles
Vertebral Column
Sternum and Ribs
23 bones
6 bones
26 bones
25 bones
Appendicular Skeleton—126 Bones
Pectoral Girdle
Upper Extremities
Pelvic Girdle
Lower Extremities
4 bones
60 bones
2 bones
60 bones
Total – 206 Bones
Bonus Question: Using this information as a reference, how would this table
appear if it was a list of the bones for a newborn?
49
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Table 3.2
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The Skeletal System
Common Bony Landmarks
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Landmarks of Articulation:
Condyle:
Smooth, rounded knob
occipital condyle of skull
Facet:
Smooth, flat, slightly concave or convex
articular surface
articular facets of vertebrae
Head:
Prominent expanded end of a bone,
sometimes rounded
head of the femur
Process:
Any bony prominence
mastoid process of the skull
Spine:
Sharp, slender, or narrow process
spine of the scapula
Crest:
Narrow ridge
iliac crest of the pelvis
Elevated Landmarks:
Line:
Slightly raised, elongated ridge
nuchal lines of the skull
Tuberosity:
Rough surface
tibial tuberosity
Tubercle:
Small, rounded process
greater tubercle of the humerus
Trochanter:
Massive processes unique to the femur
greater trochanter of the femur
Epicondyle:
Projection superior to a condyle
medial epicondyle of the femur
Depressions or Flat Surfaces:
Alveolus:
Pit or socket
tooth socket
Fossa:
Shallow; broad, or elongated basin
mandibular fossa
Fovea:
Small pit
fovea capitis of the femur
Sulcus:
Groove for a tendon, nerve, or blood vessel
intertubercular sulcus of the Humerus
Foramen:
Hole through a bone, usually round
foramen magnum of the skull
Fissure:
Slit through a bone
orbital fissure behind the eye
Meatus or canal:
Tubular passage or tunnel through a bone
auditory meatus of the ear
Sinus:
Space or cavity within a bone
frontal sinus of the skull
Spaces or openings:
Bonus Question: Alveolus is a common term in human anatomy. How many other examples of alveoli can
you find in Anatomy & Physiology Revealed (APR)?
Au/Ed: ital okay?
CHECK
POINT:
Naming Bone Processes and Other Landmarks
Lines
Crest
1. Explain the difference between a crest and
a line.
2. Explain the difference between a condyle and
an epicondyle.
3. Explain the difference between a foramen
and a fissure.
EXERCISE 3.1:
Coloring Exercise
Color in the structures with colored pens or
pencils.
50
Sinuses
Canal
(meatus)
Process
Condyle
Spine
Foramen
Alveolus
Foramen
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CHAPTER 3
A Few Notes About Naming Processes
Process
Spine
Fossae
Fovea
Head
A process is any bony prominence—that is, a piece
of bone that sticks out from the rest of the bone.
When it comes to naming these processes, there are
a few rules that need to be followed to minimize
confusion. For example, let’s consider when a
process articulates with another bone, such as the
zygomatic process of the temporal bone. This
process is a structure on the temporal bone that
articulates with the zygomatic bone. The formula
for naming one of these processes is:
the x process of the y bone
Crest
Trochanters
Line
Eplcondyles
Condyles
Head
Tubercle
where x ⫽ the name of bone articulated with
and y ⫽ the name of the bone it is part of
So, with the ZYGOMATIC process of the TEMPORAL bone, x ⫽ ZYGOMATIC (the bone articulated
with) and y ⫽ TEMPORAL (the bone it is part of).
Now, how does the zygomatic process of the temporal
bone compare to the temporal process of the zygomatic bone? If you are not sure, don’t worry, we will
cover these structures shortly.
Let’s look at the styloid process of the temporal
bone. This styloid process does not articulate with any
other bone, but it shares its name with the styloid
processes of both the ulna and radius bones of the
forearm. Therefore, it must be named in reference to
the bone that it is part of to prevent confusion—
hence the name the styloid process of the temporal
bone. What problems would you predict could occur
if this distinction is not made in an emergency room
scenario?
Some processes, the mastoid process for example, are unique in name and do not articulate with
any other bones. These require no further clarification when naming them.
CHECK
Tuberosity
Epicondyles
The Skeletal System
Fossae
POINT:
A Few Notes About Naming Processes
1. Consider the temporal process of the
zygomatic bone
a) This process articulates with which bone?
b) This process is part of which bone?
2. What is the correct way to say the two styloid
processes of the forearm?
3. Why is it correct to refer to the mastoid
process as the mastoid process and not the
mastoid process of the temporal bone?
Condyles
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The Skeletal System
• From the Home screen, click
the drop-down box on the Select
system menu.
• From the systems listed, click on
Skeletal, and you will see the
image to the right:
• This is the opening screen for
the Skeletal System.
Animation: Joint Movements
We cannot discuss the bones of the skeleton without
first understanding their movements in reference to
each other and with the rest of the body. The location of this movement or articulation between
bones is the joint. In the ANIMATIONS section of
the Skeletal System, several of these joint movements are listed for you. By selecting a specific joint
movement, a definition and short animated example will explain each one.
EXERCISE 3.2:
Extension:
Abduction:
Adduction:
Pronation:
Joint Movements
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal System click the ANIMATIONS button at the top
of the screen.
• From the Select animation menu, select each
of the movements listed under the Joint movements heading.
Supination:
Elevation:
• Click the Play button, and view the animation.
• After viewing the animation and reading the definition, define the following joint movements. Click the
Select animation menu in the ANIMATION
LIST window to select the next term:
Flexion:
52
Depression:
Circumduction:
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CHAPTER 3
Rotation:
The Skeletal System
1. Define appositional bone growth.
Dorsiflexion:
2. Which cells produce bone material?
Plantar flexion:
3. How is a tunnel formed around a blood vessel?
Eversion:
4. How is the tunnel filled in to produce a new
osteon?
Inversion:
5. What is the name for the concentric rings that
form the osteon?
Protraction:
Retraction:
CHECK
• When you are finished with the animation, click
on the Dissection button at the top of the screen
to begin the following exercises, or click on the
Exit button at the top right of the screen to exit
Anatomy & Physiology | Revealed ®.
POINT:
Joint Movements
HEADS
1. A movement that raises a body part is . . . .
2. A movement of a body part away from the
main axis of the body or structure is . . . .
3. A movement at the ankle so that the dorsum
of the foot is elevated is . . . .
4. A movement that decreases the angle
between two bones at a joint is . . . .
5. A movement that increases the angle
between two bones at a joint is . . . .
Anatomy & Physiology | Revealed ® has several
UP!
animations available to aid your study of different
systems. Watch for the Animation button at the
bottom of the screen to be highlighted green,
which indicates that an animation is available for
the specific structure(s) you are viewing.
Skeleton (Regions)
Animation: Appositional
Bone Growth
• Return to the ANIMATION LIST, and select
Appositional bone growth.
• Click the Play button, and view the animation.
• After viewing the animation, answer the following
questions:
EXERCISE 3.3:
Skeleton, Anterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal
System, or from the Skeletal System
Animations Screen, click the DISSECTION
button on the menu at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Skeletal
under the Skeletal (Regions) heading.
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The Skeletal System
• From the Select view menu, select Anterior.
R. ___________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
S. ___________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
T. ___________________________________________
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
A
L
R
V
Y
B
E
DH
M
O
S
U
W. ___________________________________________
C
F
G
K
J I
N
P
Q
T
W
X
X. ___________________________________________
Y. ___________________________________________
Z. ___________________________________________
AA. ___________________________________________
AB. ___________________________________________
AC. ___________________________________________
AD. ___________________________________________
Z
AA
AC
AB
AE
AD
AE. ___________________________________________
AF. ___________________________________________
AG. ___________________________________________
AH. ___________________________________________
AF
AH
AG
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Skeleton, Anterior View
1. Name the bones that make up the cranial
group. How many of each bone are in this
group?
2. Name the bones that make up the facial
group. How many of each bone are in this
group?
3. Name the bones that form the pelvic girdle.
4. Name the bones that form the wrist.
5. The vertebral column is composed of
__________ vertebrae. How many of each
group of vertebrae are there?
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.4:
Skeleton, Posterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
P. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Skeleton,
if it is not already selected.
Q. ____________________________________________
• From the Select view menu, select Posterior.
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CHAPTER 3
The Skeletal System
• Click the flashing GO button.
R. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
U. ____________________________________________
A
B
D
W. ____________________________________________
C
E
H
M
Q
V. ____________________________________________
J
O
R
S
V
X
G
K
N
P
X. ____________________________________________
F
I
Y. ____________________________________________
Z. ____________________________________________
L
T
U
W
Y
Z
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Skeleton, Posterior View
1. Name the group of bones that form the palm
of the hand. What structures form the knuckles?
2. Name the group of bones that form the foot.
How many are there?
3. Name the group of bones that form the fingers. How many compose each finger?
4. Name the lateral bone of the forearm. Name
the medial bone of the forearm.
5. What is another name for the tailbone?
EEXERCISE 3.5:
Locating Structures of the Head and Neck
There are 30 bones in the human adult head and
neck, which can present a daunting task when it
comes to learning each bone. With this in mind, the
following tables are designed to allow you to discover which bones are visible in each view of
Anatomy & Physiology | Revealed®. These tables are
not meant to be tedious, but rather to help you
become more familiar with each bone.
On the left of the following tables are names of
structures found on the head and neck. The names
of specific bones are aligned to the left, and the
structures found on those bones are listed under
them indented to the right. Using the Anatomy &
Physiology | Revealed ®, open each dissection view
listed across the top right of the table and put an “X”
in the columns under the views where you find the
structures listed in the left column. Not all bones or
structures will be visible in all views.
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
55
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Table 3.3
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The Skeletal System
Structures of the Head and Neck—Cranial Bones
Structures
Dissection Views
Individual
Bone
Anterior
Inferior
Skull
Lateral
Midsagittal
Posterior
Frontal bone
Frontal sinus
Supraorbital notch
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
External occipital
protuberance
Foramen magnum
Occipital condyle
Temporal bone
Carotid canal
External acoustic meatus
Internal acoustic meatus
Mastoid process
Squamous part of
temporal bone
Styloid process of
temporal bone
Zygomatic process of
temporal bone
Sphenoid bone
Body
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Greater wing
Sella turcica
Sphenoidal sinus
Ethmoid bone
Crista galli
Ethmoid air cells
Nasal concha—middle
Nasal concha—superior
Perpendicular plate of the
ethmoid bone
Bonus Question: What is the name for the bone shaped like a “butterfly”?
56
Superior
Skull
Cranial
Cavity
Orbit
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Structures of the Head and Neck—Facial Bones
Structures
Dissection Views
Individual
Bone
Anterior
Inferior
Skull
Lateral
Midsagittal
Posterior
Superior
Skull
Cranial
Cavity
Orbit
Maxilla
Alveolar process of maxilla
Infraorbital foramen
Palatine bone
Zygomatic bone
Temporal process of
zygomatic bone
Nasal bone
Vomer bone
Mandible
Alveolar process of
mandible
Angle of mandible
Body of mandible
Condylar process of mandible
Coronoid process of mandible
Mandibular foramen
Mental foramen
Ramus of mandible
Bonus Question: What is the anatomical term that refers to the chin area? How do you suppose it received
this name?
Table 3.5
Structures of the Head and Neck—Other Skull Structures
Structures
Dissection Views
Individual
Bone
Anterior
Inferior
Skull
Lateral
Coronal suture
Cranial fossa—anterior
Cranial fossa—middle
Cranial fossa—posterior
Foramen lacerum
Hard palate
Hyoid bone
Jugular foramen
Lambda
Lambdoid suture
Nasal concha (inferior)
Pterion
Sagittal suture
Septal cartilage
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
Articular disk of the TMJ
Zygomatic arch
Bonus Question: What is the name for the “cheekbone”?
Midsagittal
Posterior
Superior
Skull
Cranial
Cavity
Orbit
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The Skeletal System
Table 3.6
Structures of the Head and Neck—Cervical Vertebrae
Structures
Dissection Views
Individual
Bone
Anterior
Inferior
Skull
Lateral
Midsagittal
Posterior
Superior
Skull
Cranial
Cavity
Orbit
Atlas (C1 vertebra)
Axis (C2 vertebra)
Cervical vertebrae
Spinous process (cervical)
Transverse process (cervical)
Vertebral body (cervical)
Intervertebral disk
Bonus Question: Which bones are characterized by the presence of “transverse foramina”?
EXERCISE 3.6:
Head and Neck, Anterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Head and
neck.
• From the Select view menu, select Anterior.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
A
M. ____________________________________________
B
C
E
G
D
H
J
N. ____________________________________________
F
I
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
K
Q. ____________________________________________
L
R. ____________________________________________
M
S. ____________________________________________
N
R
O
P
S
58
Q
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CHAPTER 3
CHECK
The Skeletal System
A. ___________________________________________
POINT:
B. ___________________________________________
Head and Neck, Anterior View
C. ___________________________________________
1. Name the bones contributing to the orbit.
2. Name the bone known as the “collar bone.”
3. What structures are formed by the frontal
bone?
4. Which is the shortest rib?
5. Name the superior part of the sternum.
D. ___________________________________________
E. ___________________________________________
F. ___________________________________________
G. ___________________________________________
H. ___________________________________________
I. ___________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.7:
J. ___________________________________________
Head and Neck, Lateral View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
K. ___________________________________________
L. ___________________________________________
M. ___________________________________________
N. ___________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Head and
neck, if it is not already selected.
O. ___________________________________________
• From the Select view menu, select Lateral.
Q. ___________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
R. ___________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
S. ___________________________________________
P. ___________________________________________
T. ___________________________________________
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
A
B
C
W. ___________________________________________
X. ___________________________________________
D
F
H
I
E
L J
O
K
N
R
G
M
Q
P
S U
V
T
AA
Z
W Y
X
AD
AC
AE AB
Y. ___________________________________________
Z. ___________________________________________
AA. ___________________________________________
AB. ___________________________________________
AC. ___________________________________________
AD. ___________________________________________
AE. ___________________________________________
AF. ___________________________________________
AF
AG
AH
AI
AG. ___________________________________________
AH. ___________________________________________
AI. ___________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
59
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CHECK
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The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
POINT:
Head and Neck, Lateral View
A. ____________________________________________
1. Name the only bone in the body that does
not articulate with any other bone.
2. Name the two bone processes that make up
the zygomatic arch.
3. Name the “sockets” for the teeth.
4. Describe the pterion.
5. What structures of which bones form the
temporomandibular joint?
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.8:
I. ____________________________________________
Thorax, Anterior View
J. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Thorax.
O. ____________________________________________
• Anterior will be visible in the Select view
menu.
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
CHECK
POINT:
Thorax, Anterior View
B
A
D
H
C
E
G
F
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
Q
P
1. Name the three parts of the sternum.
2. Name a landmark for intramuscular injections.
3. Name the structures that attach the ribs to
the sternum.
4. Name the two bones that form the glenohumeral joint.
5. Name the structure found between the bodies
of all but two vertebrae. This structure is lacking between which two vertebrae?
EXERCISE 3.9:
Abdomen, Anterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Abdomen.
• Anterior will be visible in the Select view menu.
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CHAPTER 3
The Skeletal System
• Click the flashing GO button.
N. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
A
R. ____________________________________________
B
D
E
S. ____________________________________________
C
T. ____________________________________________
U. ____________________________________________
V. ____________________________________________
W. ____________________________________________
X. ____________________________________________
F
G
I
J M
K
N
O
W
X
U
L
Y. ____________________________________________
H
T P R
Q
V S
Y
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Abdomen, Anterior View
1. What process occurs to the pubic symphysis
during late pregnancy?
2. What Latin term means “wing”? Where is
a structure with this name located?
3. Name a landmark for intramuscular injections.
4. What term refers to the hip joint socket?
Which bones contribute to this structure?
5. Name the structure formed by five fused
vertebrae.
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.10:
E. ____________________________________________
Back, Posterior View
F. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Back.
K. ____________________________________________
• Posterior will be visible in the Select view
menu.
L. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
M. ____________________________________________
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
G
K
B
D
I
V.____________________________________________
W.____________________________________________
E
H
F
X.____________________________________________
J
M
L
P
O
AA
CHECK
S
U
V
AB
Z
Z.____________________________________________
AB.____________________________________________
R
T
X
Y.____________________________________________
AA.____________________________________________
N
Q
W
T.____________________________________________
U.____________________________________________
A
C
S.____________________________________________
Y
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
POINT:
Back, Posterior View
1. Name the large, triangular flat bone of the
superior back.
2. Name the three coxal bones.
3. Name the vertebrae of the lower back. How
many are there?
4. Which intervertebral discs most commonly
herniate?
5. Name the structure marked by a “dimple” on
the lower back.
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
Skull and Associated Bones
Animation: The Skull
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION section,
click the ANIMATIONS button at the top of the
screen.
• From the Select animation menu, select
Skull.
I. ____________________________________________
• Click the Play button, and view the animation.
J. ____________________________________________
• After viewing the animation, answer these
questions:
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
1. The bones that surround and protect the brain
are referred to as the __________ bones.
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
62
2. The bones that form the underlying structure
of the face are referred to as the __________
bones.
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3. With one exception, the bones of the skull
articulate with each other through joints
known as __________. The exception is the
__________.
The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
4. There are numerous holes in the skull called
__________.
A
B
5. What are the functions of these holes?
C
D
E
F
H
I
EXERCISE 3.11:
Skull, Anterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, or, from the Skeletal System Animations Screen, click the DISSECTION button
on the menu at the top of the screen.
L
G
K
J
M
N
O
S
R
Q
P
• You may need to click the CHANGE TOPIC/
VIEW button to continue.
• From the Select topic menu, select Skull under
the Skull and associated bones heading.
• From the Select view menu, select Anterior.
• Click the flashing GO button.
HEADS UP!
Many of the views we will see of the Skeletal
System will indicate the locations of muscle
attachments. These attachments are of two types –
• These are MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS, which
theoretically are not a part of the Skeletal
System. Your instructor may refer you back to
this part of the chapter when you study the
Muscular System.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
Origins and Insertions. Origins, as indicated by
C. ____________________________________________
red shading, are the relatively stationary or
D. ____________________________________________
immobile points of skeletal muscle attachment. The
E. ____________________________________________
Insertions, indicated by blue shading, are the
F. ____________________________________________
points where a muscle attaches to a bone and
G. ____________________________________________
produces movement. One way to remember the
distinction between the two is to consider your life.
Your Origin, or location of your birth, never
changes or moves as you go about your life. But,
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
your Insertion, where you are inserted on the earth
K. ____________________________________________
at this time may be different than your origin.
L. ____________________________________________
Thus, your Origin never moves, but when you
M. ____________________________________________
move, your Insertion moves to another location.
N. ____________________________________________
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O. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
U. ____________________________________________
A
C
V. ____________________________________________
B
E
I F
K
O
M
D
J
L
P
G
H
N
Q
R
S
T
U
V
CHECK
POINT:
Skull, Anterior View
1. Name the structures transmitted through the
mental foramen.
2. Name a feature of the skull that can be either
a notch or a foramen.
3. What two bones contain teeth?
4. What is the name for the sockets of the
teeth? (You may have to revisit this chapter
to answer this one)
5. The nasal septum consists of what specific
bones or structures of bones?
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.12:
B. ____________________________________________
Skull, Superior View
C. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Skull, if it
is not already selected.
H. ____________________________________________
• From the Select view menu, select Superior.
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
64
• Click the flashing GO button.
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• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
The Skeletal System
EXERCISE 3.13:
Skull, Lateral View
A
B
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Skull, if it
is not already selected.
• From the Select view menu, select Lateral.
C
D
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
F
E
G
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
L
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
A
C
B
H F
I
P
S
Q
TK
U
V
D
E
G
O M J N
R
W
Z
X
AA
Y
G. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Skull, Superior View
1. Name the joint between the parietal bones.
2. Name the joint between the frontal and the
parietal bones.
3. Name the bone type found in or near the
sutures of the skull.
4. Where are these bones most often found?
5. Name the skull bone that articulates with the
vertebral column.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
65
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G.____________________________________________
H.____________________________________________
I.____________________________________________
J.____________________________________________
K.____________________________________________
L.____________________________________________
M.____________________________________________
N.____________________________________________
O.____________________________________________
P.____________________________________________
Q.____________________________________________
R.____________________________________________
S.____________________________________________
T.____________________________________________
U.____________________________________________
V.____________________________________________
W.____________________________________________
X.____________________________________________
Y.____________________________________________
Z.____________________________________________
AA.____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ___________________________________________
B. ___________________________________________
C. ___________________________________________
D. ___________________________________________
E. ___________________________________________
F. ___________________________________________
G. ___________________________________________
H. ___________________________________________
I. ___________________________________________
J. ___________________________________________
K. ___________________________________________
L. ___________________________________________
M. ___________________________________________
N. ___________________________________________
O. ___________________________________________
P. ___________________________________________
Q. ___________________________________________
R. ___________________________________________
S. ___________________________________________
T. ___________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
W. ___________________________________________
X. ___________________________________________
Y. ___________________________________________
A
C
Z. ___________________________________________
B
AA. ___________________________________________
E
N
V
M
U
I
R
T
AB
D
F
G
J
P O
K
Q S
X Y W
AC AD AF
AG
H
L
Z
AA
AE
AH AI
AB. ___________________________________________
AC. ___________________________________________
AD. ___________________________________________
AE. ___________________________________________
AF. ___________________________________________
AG. ___________________________________________
AH. ___________________________________________
AI. ___________________________________________
66
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CHECK
The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
POINT:
Skull, Lateral View
A. ____________________________________________
1. Name the specific bony structures that form
the temporomandibular joint.
2. What two bones make up most of the lateral
skull (one on each side)?
3. What suture is their point of articulation?
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.14:
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
Skull, Posterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
A
• From the Select topic menu, select Skull, if it
is not already selected.
B
• From the Select view menu, select Posterior.
C
D
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
E
G
F
H
I
A
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B
F
D
B. ____________________________________________
C
E
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
67
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The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
POINT:
Skull, Posterior View
1. What suture forms the joint between the
parietal and occipital bones?
2. What bone forms most of the posterior skull?
3. What is the attachment site for the nuchal
ligament on the skull?
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.15:
G. ____________________________________________
Skull, Mid-sagittal View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Skull, if it
is not already selected.
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• From the Select view menu, select
Mid-sagittal.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
K
W
A
C
E
D
F
B
G
H
I
L
C
B
D
G E F
J
L
H
I
P
O
M
R
S
V
N
AA
Q U
X
Y T
AE
Z AD AG AB AC
AF
AI
AK
AJ AH
AN
AM AL
AO
J
K
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
68
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E. ___________________________________________
F. ___________________________________________
CHECK
The Skeletal System
POINT:
Skull, Mid-sagittal View
G. ___________________________________________
H. ___________________________________________
I. ___________________________________________
J. ___________________________________________
K. ___________________________________________
L. ___________________________________________
M. ___________________________________________
N. ___________________________________________
O. ___________________________________________
1. When your dentist wants to numb your
lower jaw by anesthetizing the nerves that
serve the teeth and skin, what “hole” in what
bone would be used to access those nerves?
2. Name the paranasal sinuses.
3. Name the structure that increases the surface
area of the nasal cavity and plays an important role in warming inhaled air.
4. Name the structure that contains the sublingual salivary gland.
5. Name the muscles that attach to the styloid
process of the temporal bone.
P. ___________________________________________
Q. ___________________________________________
R. ___________________________________________
S. ___________________________________________
T. ___________________________________________
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
W. ___________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.16:
Skull, Inferior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
X. ___________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Skull, if it
is not already selected.
Y. ___________________________________________
• From the Select view menu, select Inferior.
Z. ___________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
AA. ___________________________________________
AB. ___________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
AC. ___________________________________________
AD. ___________________________________________
AE. ___________________________________________
AF. ___________________________________________
A
AG. ___________________________________________
AH. ___________________________________________
AI. ___________________________________________
AJ. ___________________________________________
AM. ___________________________________________
AN. ___________________________________________
D
G
H
F
K
E
I
L
J
AK. ___________________________________________
AL. ___________________________________________
B
C
M
N
O
P
Q
AO. ___________________________________________
69
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• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A. ___________________________________________
B. ___________________________________________
C. ___________________________________________
D. ___________________________________________
E. ___________________________________________
F. ___________________________________________
G. ___________________________________________
H. ___________________________________________
I. ___________________________________________
J. ___________________________________________
K. ___________________________________________
L. ___________________________________________
M. ___________________________________________
N. ___________________________________________
O. ___________________________________________
P. ___________________________________________
Q. ___________________________________________
R. ___________________________________________
S. ___________________________________________
T. ___________________________________________
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
W. ___________________________________________
A
X. ___________________________________________
B
I
C
I
Y. ___________________________________________
D
H
L
P
E
G
K
N
J U
R
O Q
Y
V AA X S T
Z
F
M
W
Z. ___________________________________________
AA. ___________________________________________
AB. ___________________________________________
AC. ___________________________________________
AD. ___________________________________________
AB
AC
AD
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
70
CHECK
POINT:
Skull, Inferior View
1. The zygomatic arch is made up of what two
specific structures of what two bones?
2. What is the name for the large foramen on
the inferior side of the occipital bone?
3. Name the irregular-shaped opening formed by
the sphenoid, temporal, and occipital bones.
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E. ___________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.17:
Skull—Cranial Cavity, Superior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select
Skull-cranial cavity under the Skull and
associated bones heading.
F. ___________________________________________
G. ___________________________________________
H. ___________________________________________
I. ___________________________________________
J. ___________________________________________
K. ___________________________________________
L. ___________________________________________
M. ___________________________________________
• Superior will be visible in the Select
view menu.
N. ___________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
O. ___________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
P. ___________________________________________
Q. ___________________________________________
R. ___________________________________________
S. ___________________________________________
A
B
D
F
W
T. ___________________________________________
C
E
G
K
H
J
L
I
M
N
O
U
Q
T
AB
P
R
V
Z
S
X
AE
Y
AA
AD AF AC
AG
AI
AL
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
W. ___________________________________________
X. ___________________________________________
Y. ___________________________________________
Z. ___________________________________________
AA. ___________________________________________
AB. ___________________________________________
AH
AK
AJ
AM
AC. ___________________________________________
AD. ___________________________________________
AE. ___________________________________________
AF. ___________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
AG. ___________________________________________
AH. ___________________________________________
AI. ___________________________________________
AJ. ___________________________________________
AK. ___________________________________________
AL. ___________________________________________
AM. ___________________________________________
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POINT:
Skull—Cranial Cavity, Superior View
1. Describe the cribriform plate.
2. Name the structures that traverse through the
jugular foramen.
3. Name the structure that passes through the
foramen ovale.
4. Name the structure contained in the
hypophyseal fossa.
5. What structure is transmitted by the foramen
rotundum?
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.18:
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
Orbit
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
A
• From the Select topic menu, select Orbit.
B
C
• Anterolateral will be visible in the Select
view menu.
D
F
G
• Click the flashing GO button.
H
K
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
R
P
V
N
U
L
E
J
O
S
I
M
Q
T
W
X
A
B
D
F
C
E
G
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
H
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
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H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
The Skeletal System
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
A
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
B
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
C
D
T. ____________________________________________
E
U. ____________________________________________
V. ____________________________________________
F
G
W. ____________________________________________
X. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Orbit
1. Name the seven bones that constitute the
orbit.
2. Name the structure that transmits the optic
nerve (CN II) and the ophthalmic artery.
3. Name the nerves and blood vessels transmitted by the superior orbital fissure.
4. Name the nerves and blood vessels transmitted by the inferior orbital fissure.
5. Name the nerves and blood vessels transmitted by the anterior ethmoidal foramen.
EXERCISE 3.19:
Ethmoid Bone
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Ethmoid
bone.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Ethmoid Bone
1. Name the characteristic features of the
ethmoid bone.
2. Describe the cribriform plate of the ethmoid
bone.
3. Name the structure that forms the superior
part of the nasal septum.
• Superior and posterior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
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EXERCISE 3.20:
CHECK
Frontal Bone
Frontal Bone
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Frontal
bone.
POINT:
1. Name the structures that traverse the supraorbital notch.
2. Describe the supraorbital margin.
3. Name the sutures associated with the frontal
bone. What bones does the frontal bone
articulate with for each suture?
• Anterior will be visible in the Select view
menu.
EXERCISE 3.21:
Mandible
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Mandible.
• Lateral will be visible in the Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
D
C
B
A
C
B
D
F
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
74
E
G
I
K
J
H
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• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
A
E. ____________________________________________
B
F. ____________________________________________
C
G. ____________________________________________
D
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
E
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
G
CHECK
F
POINT:
Mandible
1. Name the bone structures that constitute the
temporomandibular joint.
2. What structure is also known as the
mandibular incisure?
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.22:
Maxilla
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on
the menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are
in the DISSECTION section, click the
CHANGE TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of
the screen.
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Maxilla.
CHECK
• Medial and lateral will be visible in the
Select view menu.
Maxilla
• Click the flashing GO button.
POINT:
1. Name a structure of the maxilla bone that
contributes to voice resonance.
2. Name the function of the incisive canal.
3. Name the structure that forms the anterior
three-quarters of the hard palate.
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H. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.23:
I. ____________________________________________
Occipital Bone
J. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Occipital
bone.
• Superior and inferior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
CHECK
POINT:
Occipital Bone
1. Name the structures that pass through the
foramen magnum.
2. What is the function of the occipital condyles?
3. What structures are contained within the
cerebellar fossa?
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
EXERCISE 3.24:
Parietal Bone
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
A
B
D
• From the Select topic menu, select Parietal
bone.
• Lateral will be visible in the Select view menu.
E
F
G
I
C
H
J
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
76
• Click the flashing GO button.
• There are no TAGS for this bone, but be sure to
read the information in the STRUCTURE
INFORMATION window.
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CHAPTER 3
CHECK
The Skeletal System
C. ____________________________________________
POINT:
D. ____________________________________________
Parietal Bone
E. ____________________________________________
1. Name the bones that articulate with the parietal bone.
2. Name the sutures involved with each articulation listed in question 1.
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.25:
J. ____________________________________________
Sphenoid Bone
K. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
L. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Sphenoid
bone.
• Superior and posterior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
CHECK
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
Sphenoid Bone
A
C
E
G
D
P
B
H
O
Temporal Bone
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on
the menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are
in the DISSECTION section, click the
CHANGE TOPIC/VIEW button at the top
of the screen.
J
K
M
1. What structure is contained in the sella
turcica?
2. Name the two structures transmitted through
the optic canal.
3. Name the paired lateral projections of the
sphenoid bone.
EXERCISE 3.26:
F
I
L
POINT:
N
Q
• From the Select topic menu, select Temporal
bone.
• Medial and lateral will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
• Click the flashing GO button.
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
EXERCISE 3.27:
Teeth
A
B
E
C
F
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in
the DISSECTION section, click the
CHANGE TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of
the screen.
D
• From the Select topic menu, select Teeth.
G
• Superior and inferior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
H
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
I
J
K
B
E
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
F
H
I
K
P
A
D
G
C
Q N
A. ____________________________________________
J
M L
R
O
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
S
T
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
U
V
W
AA
Y
Z
X
AB
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Temporal Bone
1. Name the bony canal that ends at the
tympanic membrane.
2. Name the bony canal traversed by the facial
and vestibulocochlear nerves.
3. Name the bony structure containing the
organs of hearing and equilibrium.
78
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
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CHAPTER 3
G.____________________________________________
H.____________________________________________
I.____________________________________________
J.____________________________________________
K.____________________________________________
L.____________________________________________
M.____________________________________________
The Skeletal System
• From the Select topic menu, select Hyoid
bone.
• Anterior and lateral will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following
image:
N.____________________________________________
O.____________________________________________
P.____________________________________________
Q.____________________________________________
R.____________________________________________
A
S.____________________________________________
T.____________________________________________
U.____________________________________________
V.____________________________________________
W.____________________________________________
B
X.____________________________________________
Y.____________________________________________
F
D
H
C
G
E
Z.____________________________________________
AA.____________________________________________
AB.____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Teeth
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
1. What four teeth are also known as “wisdom
teeth”?
2. What structures are transmitted through the
lesser palatine foramen?
3. What structures are transmitted through the
greater palatine foramen?
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.28:
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
Hyoid Bone
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• You may need to click the CHANGE TOPIC
button.
• From the Select topic menu select Head and
neck.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• From the Select view menu in the IMAGE
TYPE/VIEW panel select Anterior–posterior.
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
A
A
B
C
B
C
D
D
E
F
G
H
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
J
I
K
L
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
Hyoid Bone
A. ____________________________________________
1. Name the function of the greater horn of the
hyoid bone.
2. Name the function of the lesser horn of the
hyoid bone.
3. What muscles attach to the body of the
hyoid bone?
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.29:
H. ____________________________________________
Imaging—Head and Neck
I. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal
System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION
section, click the IMAGING button at the top of
the screen.
J. ____________________________________________
80
K. ____________________________________________
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CHAPTER 3
Non-Skeletal System Structure (blue pin)
The Skeletal System
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
• Click the Select view menu drop-down box in
the IMAGE TYPE/VIEW panel.
M. ____________________________________________
• From the Select view menu, select Lateral.
Self Test
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button and you will
see the following image:
Take this opportunity to quiz yourself by taking the
SELF TEST.
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION section,
click the SELF TEST button at the top of the
screen.
• From the Select test topic menu, select
Skeleton.
• From the Select region menu, select Skull
and associated bones.
A
• From the Select test type menu, select Click
to identify.
B
C
D
E
F
H
I
K
M
G
J
L
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• After completing the SELF TEST and saving your
results, click the Select test type menu, select
Multiple choice.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• Return to the Select test topic menu, and select
Animation.
• Click OK on the pop-up box.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
• From the Select animation menu, select
Skull.
• Multiple choice is visible in the Select test
type menu.
• ALL is visible in the Select number of questions menu.
• Complete the SELF TEST and save your results.
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
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The Skeletal System
EXERCISE 3.30:
Coloring Exercise
names of important bones or bone features in the
blank label lines.
Look up the bones of the skull and then color
them in with colored pens or pencils. Write the
1
S
R
L
I
2
2
18
5
1
5
1
19
4
4
5
5
8 9 9 8
20
6
13
15
11
7
14
13
21
11
7
16
22
17
12
S
28
A
1
P
2
I
29
23
5
4
3
9
30
13
7
25
24
26
31
32
33
82
27
12
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CHAPTER 3
The Skeletal System
39
34
13
7
7
7
35
7
40
13
2
36
10
10
41
5
2
5
5
14
4
5
37
42
50
26
4
A
R
43
L
2
P
3
2
19
44
2
45
4
46
5
38
1
5
6
47
5
48
3
5
L
P
49
A
R
Horizontal
section
1
4
2
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The Skeletal System
❑
1.__________________________________________
❑ 26.__________________________________________
❑
2.__________________________________________
❑ 27.__________________________________________
❑
3.__________________________________________
❑ 28.__________________________________________
❑
4.__________________________________________
❑ 29.__________________________________________
❑
5.__________________________________________
❑ 30.__________________________________________
❑
6.__________________________________________
❑ 31.__________________________________________
❑
7.__________________________________________
❑ 32.__________________________________________
❑
8.__________________________________________
❑ 33.__________________________________________
❑
9.__________________________________________
❑ 34.__________________________________________
❑ 10.__________________________________________
❑ 35.__________________________________________
❑ 11.__________________________________________
❑ 36.__________________________________________
❑ 12.__________________________________________
❑ 37.__________________________________________
❑ 13.__________________________________________
❑ 38.__________________________________________
❑ 14.__________________________________________
❑ 39.__________________________________________
❑ 15.__________________________________________
❑ 40.__________________________________________
❑ 16.__________________________________________
❑ 41.__________________________________________
❑ 17.__________________________________________
❑ 42.__________________________________________
❑ 18.__________________________________________
❑ 43.__________________________________________
❑ 19.__________________________________________
❑ 44.__________________________________________
❑ 20.__________________________________________
❑ 45.__________________________________________
❑ 21.__________________________________________
❑ 46.__________________________________________
❑ 22.__________________________________________
❑ 47.__________________________________________
❑ 23.__________________________________________
❑ 48.__________________________________________
❑ 24.__________________________________________
❑ 49.__________________________________________
❑ 25.__________________________________________
❑ 50.__________________________________________
I N
R E V I E W
What Have I Learned?
3. What passes through this foramen?
T
4. Name the two bones that form the bridge of the
he following questions cover the material that you
just read, the introduction to the skeleton and the
skeletal structures of the head and neck. Apply
what you have learned in answering these questions:
1. The hard palate consists of which bones?
2. What is the name for the large foramen on the
nose.
5. At the junction of the temporal and occipital
bones, the internal jugular vein passes through
which foramen?
inferior side of the occipital bone?
Continued
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CHAPTER 3
6. The greater and lesser wings are parts of what
bone?
The Skeletal System
10. What bony landmark is defined as “a pit or
socket”?
7. Name the bony canal of the external ear. What
bone is it a part of?
8. What is the attachment site for the sternocleidomastoid muscle on the skull?
11. What bony landmark is defined as “a hole
through a bone, usually round”?
12. What bony landmark is defined as “a smooth,
rounded knob”?
9. What bony landmark is defined as “any bony
prominence”?
Thoracic Cage and Vertebral
Column
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
EXERCISE 3.31:
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
IMAGING section, click the DISSECTION
button at the top of the screen.
• You may need to click the CHANGE TOPIC/
VIEW button to continue.
• From the Select topic menu, select Thoracic
cage under the Thoracic cage and vertebral column heading.
• Anterior will be visible in the Select view
menu.
A
B
Thoracic Cage
C
E D
F
G
H
I
J
K
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
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The Skeletal System
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
A
D
C
B
CHECK
Thoracic Cage
E
G
K
F
POINT:
H
I
L
M
J
N
1.
2.
3.
4.
Describe the thoracic cage.
Define a true rib. How many are there?
Define a false rib. How many are there?
Define a floating rib. How many are there?
EXERCISE 3.32:
Imaging—Thorax
O
P
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal
System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION
section, click the IMAGING button at the top of
the screen.
• You may need to click the CHANGE TOPIC
button.
• From the Select topic menu select Thorax.
A. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
B. ____________________________________________
• Posterior-anterior will be visible in the
IMAGE TYPE/VIEW panel select.
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
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CHAPTER 3
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
The Skeletal System
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
A
B
B
D
F
H
K
C
E
G
I
J
D
M
L
C
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
B. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structure (blue pin)
D. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.33:
Vertebral Column
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
IMAGING section, click the DISSECTION
button at the top of the screen.
• You may need to click the CHANGE TOPIC/
VIEW button to continue.
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Vertebral
column.
• Anterior, posterior, and lateral will be
visible in the Select view menu.
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
CHECK
POINT:
Vertebral Column
1. Name the different groups of vertebrae. How
many of each in a typical skeleton?
2. What structure passes through each intervertebral foramen?
3. Which vertebra has a dens?
4. Which vertebra has no vertebral body?
C
D
F
E
G
A
H
I
K
M
B
EXERCISE 3.34:
J
L
O
R
Cervical Vertebra
N
P
Q
S
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Cervical
vertebra.
• Superior and lateral will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
A
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
B
C
G. ____________________________________________
H
I. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
J
M. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
88
F
G
I
J. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
D
E
H. ____________________________________________
K
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CHAPTER 3
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
A
E. ____________________________________________
B
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
F
D
E
C
G
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
H
J
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
CHECK
I
POINT:
Cervical Vertebra
1. Name a characteristic unique to the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae.
2. What structure passes through this opening
in C1-C6?
3. What is unique about the spinous process of
most cervical vertebrae?
4. Which vertebra does not have a spinous
process?
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.35:
Atlas (C1 Vertebra)
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on
the menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are
in the DISSECTION section, click the
CHANGE TOPIC/VIEW button at the top
of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Atlas
(C1 vertebra).
• Superior will be visible in the Select view
menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Atlas (C1 Vertebra)
1. What is the most posterior structure of the
Atlas (C1 vertebra)?
2. What is its function?
3. What structure is lacking on the atlas and
coccygeal vertebrae that is present on all
other vertebrae?
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The Skeletal System
H. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.36:
I. ____________________________________________
Axis (C2 Vertebra)
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Axis (C2 Vertebra)
• From the Select topic menu, select Axis
(C2 vertebra).
• Posterosuperior will be visible in the Select
view menu.
1. Name a structure unique to the axis.
2. What is another name for this structure?
3. What does this structure represent?
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
EXERCISE 3.37:
Thoracic Vertebra
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
A
• From the Select topic menu, select Thoracic
vertebra.
B
C
D
E
H
F
I
• Superior and lateral will be visible in the
Select view menu.
G
• Click the flashing GO button.
J
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
K
A
B
D
G
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
90
E
F
H
A. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
C
J
I
K
L
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• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
A
C. ____________________________________________
F
E. ____________________________________________
B
C
D
D. ____________________________________________
E
G
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
H
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
CHECK
I
POINT:
Thoracic Vertebra
1. List the characteristic features of thoracic
vertebrae.
2. How many thoracic vertebrae do you have?
3. Where are they located?
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.38:
Lumbar Vertebra
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on
the menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are
in the DISSECTION section, click the
CHANGE TOPIC/VIEW button at the top
of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Lumbar
vertebra.
• Superior and lateral will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Lumbar Vertebra
1. List the characteristic features of lumbar
vertebrae.
2. How many lumbar vertebrae do you have?
3. Where are they located?
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
EXERCISE 3.39:
Sacrum and Coccyx
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
A
B
• From the Select topic menu, select Sacrum
and coccyx.
• Anterior and posterior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
J
E
K
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
D
C
I
L
F
H
G
M
B
A
D
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
E
C
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
92
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
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CHAPTER 3
CHECK
POINT:
Sacrum and Coccyx
1. Name the landmark for establishing female
pelvic dimensions.
2. Name the route for injection in caudal epidermal anesthesia.
3. Describe the coccyx.
Self Test
Take this opportunity to quiz yourself by taking the
SELF TEST.
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal System,
or, if you are in the DISSECTION section, click the
SELF TEST button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select test topic menu, select
Skeleton.
I N
The Skeletal System
• From the Select region menu, select Thoracic
cage.
• From the Select test type menu, select Click
to identify.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• After completing the SELF TEST and saving your
results, click the Select test type menu, select
Multiple choice.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• Return to the Select region menu, and take the
SELF TEST for Vertebral column and
Au: change to
Axial skeleton.
appendicular?
• Complete each SELF TEST and save your results.
R E V I E W
What Have I Learned?
T
he following questions cover the material that
you just read, the thoracic cage and vertebral column. Apply what you have learned in answering
these questions:
7. Which vertebra has a dens?
8. Which vertebra has no vertebral body?
1. Describe the thoracic cage.
9. Name a characteristic unique to the transverse
processes of the cervical vertebrae.
2. Define a true rib. How many are there?
10. What structure passes through this opening in
3. Define a false rib. How many are there?
4. Define a floating rib. How many are there?
C1-C6?
11. What is unique about the spinous process of
most cervical vertebrae?
5. Name the different groups of vertebrae. How
many of each in a typical skeleton?
12. Which vertebra does not have a spinous
process?
6. What structure passes through each intervertebral foramen?
Continued
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The Skeletal System
Continued
13. What is the most posterior structure of the Atlas
21. Where are they located?
(C1 vertebra)?
22. List the characteristic features of lumbar
14. What is its function?
15. What structure is lacking on the atlas and
vertebrae.
23. How many lumbar vertebrae do you have?
coccygeal vertebrae that is present on all other
vertebrae?
24. Where are they located?
16. Name a structure unique to the axis.
25. Name the landmark for establishing female
pelvic dimensions.
17. What is another name for this structure?
26. Name the route for injection in caudal epidermal
18. What does this structure represent?
19. List the characteristic features of thoracic
anesthesia.
27. Describe the coccyx.
vertebrae.
20. How many thoracic vertebrae do you have?
Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
EXERCISE 3.40:
Shoulder and Arm, Anterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on
the menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are
in the DISSECTION section, click the
CHANGE TOPIC/VIEW button at the top
of the screen.
94
• From the Select topic menu, select Shoulder
and arm under the Pectoral girdle and
upper limb heading.
• From the Select view menu select Anterior.
• Click the flashing GO button.
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CHAPTER 3
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
The Skeletal System
T. ___________________________________________
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
A
F
E
D
I
H
J
K
L
M
B
C
W. ___________________________________________
X. ___________________________________________
G
Y. ___________________________________________
N
Z. ___________________________________________
AA. ___________________________________________
O
R
AB. ___________________________________________
P
Q
AC. ___________________________________________
S
T
AD. ___________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.41:
U
W
Y
AB
Z
AC
Shoulder and Arm, Posterior View
V
X
AA
AD
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Shoulder
and arm, if it is not already selected.
• From the Select view menu select Posterior.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
A
B
F
G
H. ____________________________________________
E
H
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
J
M
L
N
O
Q
N. ____________________________________________
D
I
K
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
C
P
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T
S
95
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The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu select Shoulder
and arm.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Anterior-posterior will be visible in the
IMAGE TYPE/VIEW panel select.
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
A
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
E
B
C
D
F
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
G
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Shoulder and Arm
1. Which bony structures form the glenohumeral joint?
2. How many ribs do you have?
3. Both true and false ribs articulate with ______.
4. Name the characteristic features of the
scapula.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.42:
Imaging—Shoulder and Arm
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION section,
click the IMAGING button at the top of the screen.
• You may need to click the CHANGE TOPIC
button.
96
EXERCISE 3.43:
Clavicle
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
IMAGING section, click the DISSECTION
button at the top of the screen.
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CHAPTER 3
• You may need to click the CHANGE TOPIC/
VIEW button to continue.
The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• From the Select topic menu, select Clavicle.
• Superior and inferior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
B
A
C
A
C
D
B
D
E
F
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
D. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
CHECK
B. ____________________________________________
Clavicle
C. ____________________________________________
1. The medial end of the clavicle articulates . . . .
2. The lateral end of the clavicle articulates . . . .
3. Another name for the clavicle is . . . .
D. ____________________________________________
POINT:
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.44:
Scapula
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
97
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The Skeletal System
• From the Select topic menu, select Scapula.
• Anterior, posterior, and lateral will be visible in the Select view menu.
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
A
D
B
C
B
C
E
D
E
G
K
F
H
L
J
M
G
I
N
O
H
F
N
O
I
J
L
K
P
P
R
Q
M
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
98
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CHAPTER 3
CHECK
The Skeletal System
E. ____________________________________________
POINT:
F. ____________________________________________
Scapula
G. ____________________________________________
1. Name a landmark for intramuscular injections.
2. Name another visible subcutaneous landmark.
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.45:
K. ____________________________________________
Humerus
L. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
M. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Humerus.
• Anterior and posterior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
B
N
C
E
D
M
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
M
A
B
C
N
D
E
O
F
P
F
G
O
G
H
I
K
Q
H
P
I
J
J
K
L
R
Q
R
L
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
99
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The Skeletal System
E. ____________________________________________
A
F. ____________________________________________
D
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
E
I. ____________________________________________
I
J. ____________________________________________
L
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
U
O. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Humerus
O
R
N. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
F
G
H
J
K. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
B
C
AB
W
X
AC
AE
K
P M
N
V
Q
S
Y T
AA
Z
AD
AF
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
1. How many necks are on the proximal end of
the humerus? Where are they located?
2. Which neck is a common site for fractures?
3. Why is your elbow referred to as your “funny
bone”?
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.46:
G. ____________________________________________
Forearm and Hand, Anterior View
H. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
I. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Forearm
and hand.
• From the Select view menu, select Anterior.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
U. ____________________________________________
100
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CHAPTER 3
V. ___________________________________________
W. ___________________________________________
X. ___________________________________________
Y. ___________________________________________
Z. ___________________________________________
AA. ___________________________________________
AB. ___________________________________________
AC. ___________________________________________
AD. ___________________________________________
AE. ___________________________________________
AF. ___________________________________________
The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A.____________________________________________
B.____________________________________________
C.____________________________________________
D.____________________________________________
E.____________________________________________
F.____________________________________________
G.____________________________________________
H.____________________________________________
I.____________________________________________
J.____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.47:
Forearm and Hand, Posterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
K.____________________________________________
L.____________________________________________
M.____________________________________________
N.____________________________________________
O.____________________________________________
P.____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Forearm
and hand, if it is not already selected.
Q.____________________________________________
• From the Select view menu select Posterior.
S.____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
T.____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
U.____________________________________________
R.____________________________________________
V.____________________________________________
W.____________________________________________
A
C
X.____________________________________________
B
D
Y.____________________________________________
Z.____________________________________________
AA.____________________________________________
AB.____________________________________________
E
H
F
G
NI
K
J L
M
P
O
Q R
S
T
U
W
V
X
Y
Z
AA
AB
CHECK
POINT:
Forearm and Hand
1. List the proximal carpal bones from lateral to
medial.
2. List the distal carpal bones from lateral to medial.
3. List the phalanges of fingers II through V
from proximal to distal.
4. List the phalanges of finger I from proximal
to distal.
101
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The Skeletal System
J. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.48:
K. ____________________________________________
Radius and Ulna
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Radius
and ulna.
• Anterior and posterior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
L
A
M
B
N
C
D
O
A
C
E
G
D
P
E
F
G
H
J
F
Q
R
T
B
H
I
S
J
I
K
L
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
K
A. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
B. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
102
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CHAPTER 3
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
D. ____________________________________________
Radius and Ulna
E. ____________________________________________
1. Describe the interosseous membrane of the
forearm.
2. What structure holds the radio-ulnar joint in
place?
3. Name the distal pointed projection of the
radius. Of the ulna?
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.49:
L. ____________________________________________
Wrist and Hand, Anterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Wrist and
hand
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
• From the Select view menu, select Anterior.
S. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
T. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window and you will see the following image:
U. ____________________________________________
V. ____________________________________________
W. ____________________________________________
X. ____________________________________________
A
C
E
B
H
F
EXERCISE 3.50:
I
S R
V
• From the Select topic menu, select Wrist and
hand, if it is not already selected.
J
N
P
T
U
Wrist and Hand, Posterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
L
O
G
K
M
D
Q
• From the Select view menu select Posterior.
W
• Click the flashing GO button.
X
103
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
U. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.51:
A
B
C
E
H
J
F
I
K
N
P O
Wrist and Hand, Anterior
and Posterior View
D
G
L
M
Q
R
S
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Wrist and
hand, if it is not already selected.
• From the Select view menu, select Anterior
and posterior.
• Click the flashing GO button.
T
U
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
T
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
A
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
W
C ED
H
I
M
K
N
O
U
V
B
X
Y
F
G
L J
Z
AA
AB
AD
AE
AC
P
Q
AF
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
R
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
S
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
P. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
104
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CHAPTER 3
The Skeletal System
C. ___________________________________________
D. ___________________________________________
P
E. ___________________________________________
B A C
F. ___________________________________________
G. ___________________________________________
H. ___________________________________________
I. ___________________________________________
G
F
E
H
J
M
J. ___________________________________________
N
K
R
L
S
K. ___________________________________________
L. ___________________________________________
I
Q
D
O
T
M. ___________________________________________
N. ___________________________________________
O. ___________________________________________
P. ___________________________________________
Q. ___________________________________________
R. ___________________________________________
S. ___________________________________________
T. ___________________________________________
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
W. ___________________________________________
X. ___________________________________________
Y. ___________________________________________
Z. ___________________________________________
AA. ___________________________________________
AB. ___________________________________________
AC. ___________________________________________
AD. ___________________________________________
AE. ___________________________________________
AF. ___________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
105
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Page 106
The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
POINT:
Wrist and Hand
1. Name the lateral bone of the forearm.
2. Name the medial bone of the forearm.
3. How are the fingers numbered?
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.52:
E. ____________________________________________
Imaging—Wrist and Hand
F. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION section,
click the IMAGING button at the top of the
screen.
G. ____________________________________________
• Click the Select view menu drop-down box in
the IMAGE TYPE/VIEW panel.
• You may need to click the CHANGE TOPIC
button.
• From the Select view menu, select Posterioranterior.
• From the Select topic menu select Wrist and
hand.
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
• Click the flashing GO button.
• From the Select view menu in the IMAGE
TYPE/VIEW panel select Anteriorposterior.
A
B
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
C
D
E
F
J
A
L
M
K
B
P
C
G I
H
N
Q
O
D
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
E
G
F
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
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CHAPTER 3
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
The Skeletal System
click the SELF TEST button at the top of the
screen.
• From the Select test topic menu, select
Skeleton.
• From the Select region menu, select Upper
limb.
• From the Select test type menu, select Click
to identify.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• After completing the SELF TEST and saving your
results, click the Select test type menu, select
Multiple choice.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• Complete the SELF TEST, and save your results.
Self Test
Take this opportunity to quiz yourself by taking the
SELF TEST.
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION section,
I N
R E V I E W
What Have I Learned?
5. Name another visible subcutaneous landmark of
the scapula.
T
he following questions cover the material that
you just learned: the pectoral girdle and upper
limb. Apply what you have learned in answering
these questions:
1. Which bony structures form the glenohumeral
6. How many necks are on the proximal end of the
humerus? Where are they located?
joint?
7. Which neck is a common site for fractures?
2. Name the characteristic features of the scapula.
8. Why is your elbow referred to as your “funny
3. The lateral end of the clavicle articulates ______.
bone”?
4. Name a landmark of the scapula for intramuscular injections.
Continued
107
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Continued
9. List the proximal carpal bones from lateral to
16. Name the lateral bone of the forearm.
medial.
17. Name the medial bone of the forearm.
10. List the distal carpal bones from lateral to
medial.
18. Name the bones and the bony structures that
form the shoulder joint.
11. List the phalanges of fingers II through V from
proximal to distal.
19. Name the wrist bone with a prominent hook
(hamulus).
12. List the phalanges of finger I from proximal to
distal.
20. What term describes a bone embedded in a ten13. Describe the interosseous membrane of the
don? Which wrist bone is embedded in a tendon? Which tendon?
forearm.
21. Name the prominent ridge on the posterior
14. What structure holds the radio-ulnar joint in
scapula.
place?
22. Name the eight wrist bones.
15. Name the distal pointed projection of the radius.
Of the ulna?
Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
EXERCISE 3.53:
Hip and Thigh, Anterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
IMAGING section, click the DISSECTION
button at the top of the screen.
108
• You may need to click the CHANGE TOPIC/
VIEW button to continue.
• From the Select topic menu, select Hip and
thigh under the Pelvic girdle and lower
limb heading.
• From the Select view menu, select Anterior.
• Click the flashing GO button.
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• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
The Skeletal System
S.____________________________________________
T.____________________________________________
U.____________________________________________
A
D
B
E G
H
K L
I
C
F
V.____________________________________________
W.____________________________________________
J
M
O
N
R
P
Q
X.____________________________________________
Y.____________________________________________
Z.____________________________________________
AA.____________________________________________
S
EXERCISE 3.54:
T
Hip and Thigh, Posterior View
U
W
V
AA
X
Y
Z
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Hip and
thigh, if it is not already selected.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
• From the Select view menu, select Posterior.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
A
B
D
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
G
C
E
H
I
J
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
K
L
N
F
M
O
P
J. ____________________________________________
Q
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
R
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
S
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
V
T
U
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
109
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The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Pelvis.
• Superior will be visible in the Select view
menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
A
B
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
E
F
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
C
D
L
H
G
I
J
M
K
N
N. ____________________________________________
P
O. ____________________________________________
O
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R
Q
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
U. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
V. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
D. ____________________________________________
Hip and Thigh
E. ____________________________________________
1. Describe the patella.
2. Describe the sacrum.
3. Name the enlarged distal ends of the femur.
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.55:
J. ____________________________________________
Pelvis
K. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
L. ____________________________________________
110
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
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CHAPTER 3
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
C. ____________________________________________
Pelvis
D. ____________________________________________
1. Name the synovial joint between the sacrum
and the ilium.
2. How much movement does this joint allow?
Why?
3. Name the landmark for administering anesthetic during childbirth.
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.56:
K. ____________________________________________
Pelvic Girdle—Female
L. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
M. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Pelvic
girdle—female.
N. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• Anterior will be visible in the Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
D
B
C
E
I
A
B
C
J
N
P
Q
D
G
F
H
N
X
O
R T
S
V
G
K
L
U
W
E
J
L
F
H
M
I
K
M
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
111
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The Skeletal System
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Pelvic
girdle—male.
• Anterior will be visible in the Select view
menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
A
B
C
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
D
F
E
G
S. ____________________________________________
H
T. ____________________________________________
U. ____________________________________________
V. ____________________________________________
I
M
K
N
J
L
W. ____________________________________________
X. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
Pelvic Girdle—Female
A. ____________________________________________
1. In the pregnant female, what events occur
with the pubic symphysis?
2. Describe the subpubic angle.
3. The subpubic angle in females is usually
_________ degrees.
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.57:
Pelvic Girdle—Male
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
112
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CHAPTER 3
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
The Skeletal System
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
U. ____________________________________________
A
V. ____________________________________________
B
F
E
H
I
J
C
D
K
G
W. ____________________________________________
X. ____________________________________________
L
CHECK
N
Q
O
UT
M
P
S
V W
POINT:
Pelvic Girdle—Male
R
X
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
1. Describe the difference between the male and
female obturator foramena.
2. What structures are found in the right iliac
fossa? The left iliac fossa?
3. The subpubic angle in males is usually
_________ degrees.
EXERCISE 3.58:
Hip Bone
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in
the DISSECTION section, click the
CHANGE TOPIC/VIEW button at the top
of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Hip
bone.
• Medial and lateral will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
113
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
Q
R
V. ____________________________________________
S
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
T
A
B
C
U. ____________________________________________
U
D
E
F
H
L
O
O
V
K J
P
A
G
I
P
M
N
C
I
M
S
V
X
W
F
H
G
T
U
E
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
R
B
D
Q
Z
Y
J
K
L
N
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
114
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
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CHAPTER 3
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
The Skeletal System
H
DC B
A
I
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
E
F
J
L
K
M
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
G
N
T. ____________________________________________
O
U. ____________________________________________
Q
V. ____________________________________________
W. ____________________________________________
X. ____________________________________________
P
T
R
S
Y. ____________________________________________
Z. ____________________________________________
CHECK
POINT:
Hip Bone
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
1. Describe the acetabulum.
2. Name a hip landmark for intramuscular
injections.
3. Name a hip landmark for administering anesthetic during childbirth.
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.59:
H. ____________________________________________
Femur
I. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on
the menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are
in the DISSECTION section, click the
CHANGE TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of
the screen.
J. ____________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Femur.
• Anterior and posterior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
Q. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
115
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
B
U. ____________________________________________
CHECK
H
J
C
T. ____________________________________________
I
K
L
D
M
POINT:
Femur
1. Name a common site of femur fractures, especially in the elderly.
2. What correlation exists between the length of
the femur and body height?
3. Name the central depression of the head of
the femur.
E
EXERCISE 3.60:
F
G
N
P
R
T
Patella
O
S
Q
U
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Patella.
• Anterior and posterior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
C
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
116
A
B
D
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CHAPTER 3
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ___________________________________________
B. ___________________________________________
C. ___________________________________________
D. ___________________________________________
CHECK
E. ___________________________________________
POINT:
F. ___________________________________________
Patella
1. Describe the location of the patella.
2. What structures form the knee joint?
3. What affect does the patella have on the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle?
G. ___________________________________________
H. ___________________________________________
I. ___________________________________________
J. ___________________________________________
K. ___________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.61:
L. ___________________________________________
Leg and Foot, Anterior View
M. ___________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
N. ___________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Leg and foot.
• From the Select view menu, select Anterior.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
O. ___________________________________________
P. ___________________________________________
Q. ___________________________________________
R. ___________________________________________
S. ___________________________________________
T. ___________________________________________
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
W. ___________________________________________
A
B
E
C
D
F
X. ___________________________________________
Y. ___________________________________________
Z. ___________________________________________
AA. ___________________________________________
G
H
J
AB. ___________________________________________
AC. ___________________________________________
I
L M K
N
RO
P
Q
S
T
V
U
X
Z
WY
AB
A A AC
117
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The Skeletal System
EXERCISE 3.62:
Leg and Foot, Posterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Leg and
foot, if it is not already selected.
• From the Select view menu, select Posterior.
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
Q. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
R. ____________________________________________
S. ____________________________________________
T. ____________________________________________
B
A
U. ____________________________________________
C
F
D
E
H
I
L
K
M
N
O
P
Q
RST U
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
118
POINT:
Leg and Foot
G
J
CHECK
1. What bone forms the connecting link
between the foot and the leg?
2. What bone contributes to the knee and ankle
joints?
3. Name the largest tarsal bone. Where is it
located?
EXERCISE 3.63:
Tibia and Fibula
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on
the menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are
in the DISSECTION section, click the
CHANGE TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of
the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Tibia and
fibula.
• Anterior and posterior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
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CHAPTER 3
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A C
B
E
D
G
F
H
I
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
C
L
M
The Skeletal System
A
J
L
E
F
G
P
M
N
Q
K
R
I
K
J
D
N
O
B
H
O
P
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
Q
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
119
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The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
POINT:
Tibia and Fibula
1. What structure on the tibia contributes to the
ankle joint?
2. What structure on the fibula contributes to
the ankle joint?
3. What is unique about the anterior shaft of
the tibia?
A. ___________________________________________
B. ___________________________________________
C. ___________________________________________
D. ___________________________________________
E. ___________________________________________
F. ___________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.64:
G. ___________________________________________
Ankle and Foot
H. ___________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
I. ___________________________________________
J. ___________________________________________
K. ___________________________________________
L. ___________________________________________
• From the Select topic menu, select Ankle and
foot.
M. ___________________________________________
• Superior and inferior will be visible in the
Select view menu.
O. ___________________________________________
N. ___________________________________________
P. ___________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
Q. ___________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
R. ___________________________________________
S. ___________________________________________
T. ___________________________________________
B
A
C
L
E
D
T
F
S
G
H
Y
U
J
V. ___________________________________________
X. ___________________________________________
V
Y. ___________________________________________
X
Z
W
AB
AC
AE
AD
K
U. ___________________________________________
W. ___________________________________________
AA
I
120
M
P
N
O
R Q
Z. ___________________________________________
AA. ___________________________________________
AB. ___________________________________________
AC. ___________________________________________
AD. ___________________________________________
AE. ___________________________________________
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CHAPTER 3
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
The Skeletal System
S. ___________________________________________
T. ___________________________________________
U. ___________________________________________
V. ___________________________________________
A
B
Q
C
F
D
U
E
K
N
P
M
X. ___________________________________________
Y. ___________________________________________
G
H
L
W. ___________________________________________
R
S
T
Z. ___________________________________________
V
I
AA. ___________________________________________
J
AB. ___________________________________________
O
W
X
Y
AB
AA
AC. ___________________________________________
Z
CHECK
AC
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
POINT:
Ankle and Foot
1. Name the structure commonly called the
“ball of the foot”.
2. Name the structures that are the surface contact points on the plantar foot.
3. List three common names for digit I of the
foot.
A. ____________________________________________
Self Test
B. ____________________________________________
Take this opportunity to quiz yourself by taking the
SELF TEST.
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
R. ____________________________________________
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal
System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION
section, click the SELF TEST button at the top of
the screen.
• From the Select test topic menu, select
Skeleton.
• From the Select region menu, select Lower
limb.
• From the Select test type menu, select Click
to identify.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• After completing the SELF TEST and saving your
results, click the Select test type menu, select
Multiple choice.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• After completing the SELF TEST and saving your
results, click the Select region menu, select
Appendicular skeleton.
Au: Correct? (in order of CD)
121
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• From the Select test type menu, select Click
to identify.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• Complete the SELF TEST, and save your results.
• After completing the SELF TEST and saving your
results, click the Select test type menu, select
Multiple choice.
I N
R E V I E W
What Have I Learned?
9. How much movement does this joint allow?
Why?
T
he following questions cover the material that
you have just learned: the pelvic girdle and
lower limb. Apply what you have learned in
answering these questions:
1. Where on the femur does the lateral collateral
10. Name the landmark for administering anesthetic
during childbirth.
ligament attach?
11. In the pregnant female, what events occur with
2. How many tarsal bones are there on each foot?
the pubic symphysis?
Name them.
12. The subpubic angle in females is usually
3. The head of which bone is commonly referred to
_________________ degrees.
as the “ball of the foot”?
13. The subpubic angle in males is usually
4. Name the small bones of the toes. How many of
_________________ degrees.
these bones make up each toe?
14. Describe the difference between the male and
5. Name the two enlargement of the distal femur.
Au: Okay
as set?
female obturator foramena.
What structures do they articulate with?
15. Name a hip landmark for intramuscular injections.
6. Describe the patella.
16. Name a hip landmark for administering anes7. Describe the sacrum.
8. Name the synovial joint between the sacrum and
the ilium.
122
thetic during childbirth.
17. Name a common site of femur fractures, especially in the elderly.
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18. What correlation exists between the length of
the femur and body height?
19. Name the central depression of the head of the
The Skeletal System
22. What bone contributes to the knee and ankle
joints?
23. Name the largest tarsal bone. Where is it located?
femur.
24. What structure on the tibia contributes to the
20. What structures form the knee joint?
21. What bone forms the connecting link between
the foot and the leg?
HEADS
UP!
ankle joint?
25. What structure on the fibula contributes to the
ankle joint?
2. What is the most common type of joint?
With the study of the joints, or articulations, we
can tie together the concepts that you have
learned in the Skeletal System and integrate
them with those you will learn in the next
chapter – the Muscular System. With this in
3. How many types of synovial joints are found
in the body? What distinguishes each one
from the others?
mind, you will want to refer back to this section
of the Skeletal System while you are working on
the Muscular System.
4. Which type of synovial joint allows the most
mobility? Give an example.
Animation: Synovial Joint
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal
System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION
section, click the ANIMATIONS button at the
top of the screen.
5. Which type of synovial joint allows the least
mobility? Give an example.
• From the Select animation menu, select
Synovial joint.
• Click the Play button, and view the animation.
6. A typical synovial joint is characterized by . . . .
• After viewing the animation, answer these
questions:
1. A joint is . . . .
7. Describe the joint capsule.
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The Skeletal System
8. What is synovial fluid? Where is it produced?
9. What tissue covers the surface of adjoining
bones? What is its function?
10. What is the function of the meniscus of the
knee joint?
A
B
11. What is the function of bursae?
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
EXERCISE 3.65:
Temporomandibular Joint
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal
System, or from the Skeletal System
Animations Screen, click the DISSECTION
button on the menu at the top of the screen.
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• From the Select topic menu, select Temporomandibular joint under the Joints heading.
• Lateral will be visible in the Select view
menu.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
B
C
D
E
F
124
G
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• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
The Skeletal System
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 4 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 3 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
H
I
B
C
J
D
M
N
EK
L
A
F
O
G
P
D
E
B
F
H
A
C
G
I
J
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
125
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 5 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
CHECK
POINT:
Temporomandibular Joint
F
G
B C
I
H
N
Q
1. Name the structure that encloses the
temporomandibular joint.
2. What is the function of the synovial
membrane?
3. What is the function of the lateral ligament
of the temporomandibular joint?
4. What is the cause of “jaw clicking”?
5. What is the location of the articular disk of
the temporomandibular joint?
D
A
EXERCISE 3.66:
J
K
L
P M E
Glenohumeral (Shoulder) Joint
O
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint.
• Anterior will be visible in the Select view
menu.
A. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
B. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
Q. ____________________________________________
126
A
B
C
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• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 3 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A. ____________________________________________
B
B. ____________________________________________
C
C. ____________________________________________
A
D
E
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
F
H
A
G
I
B
J
L
K
M
C
D
E
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
F
G
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
H. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
127
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 4 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• Click LAYER 5 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
B
C D
A
B
H
E
C
F
D
H
E
F
G
G
J
I
I
K
L
M
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
H. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
128
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CHAPTER 3
• Click LAYER 6 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
CHECK
The Skeletal System
POINT:
Glenohumeral (Shoulder) Joint
1. Name the structure enclosing the acromioclavicular joint.
2. What is the function of the coracohumeral
ligament?
3. What is the function of the coracoclavicular
ligament?
4. What is the result of a torn coracoclavicular
ligament?
5. Name the tough, fibrous envelope of the
glenohumeral joint.
A
B
C
D
G
E
F
H
J
I
K
EXERCISE 3.67:
L
M
Elbow Joint
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
• From the Select topic menu, select Elbow
joint.
• Anterior will be visible in the Select view menu.
A. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
B. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
A
B
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
129
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The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
• Click LAYER 3 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
B
C
D
A
E
B
C
D
E
H
J
F
G
H
I
K
N
L
M
O
P
F
G
I
J
K
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
130
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
O. ____________________________________________
P. ____________________________________________
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• Click LAYER 4 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 5 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
E
F
G
A
H
B
A
B
C
D
J
C
D
E
F
H
I
I
J
G
K
L
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
CHECK
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
POINT:
Elbow Joint
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Name the structure that encloses the elbow joint.
What is the function of the radial collateral ligament?
What is the function of the ulnar collateral ligament?
What is the function of the anular ligament of the radius?
Name the bones associated with the elbow joint.
131
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The Skeletal System
EXERCISE 3.68:
B
Knee Joint, Anterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Knee
joint.
• From the Select view menu, select Anterior.
A
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• Mouse-over the green pin on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A
A. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pin)
B. ____________________________________________
B
• Click LAYER 3 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
C
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
A
E
B
D
F
C. ____________________________________________
G
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the image at the top
of the next column:
132
C
Au: Plural okay?
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CHAPTER 3
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 5 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A. ____________________________________________
A
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
B
D
E
G. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 4 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
F
C
G
H
I
J
K
A
L
M
N
B
D
F
E
G
H
C
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
I
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
J
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
133
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The Skeletal System
EXERCISE 3.69:
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
Knee Joint, Posterior View
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Knee
joint, if it is not already selected.
A
• From the Select view menu, select Posterior.
B
• Click the flashing GO button.
C
E
D
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
G
F
H
J
I
K
A
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pin on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structure:
A. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
134
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CHAPTER 3
• Click LAYER 3 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
D
A
B
F
E
J
A
B
I
H
K
• Click LAYER 4 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
C
G
The Skeletal System
D
E
C
G
F
L
M
N
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 5 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window and you will see the following image:
CHECK
POINT:
Knee Joint
A
B
C
I
D
E
F G
1. Name the structures that make up the
“unhappy triad.”
2. Why are these structures referred to as the
“unhappy triad”?
3. Name a ligament absent in approximately
40 percent of knees.
4. What is the function of the anterior cruciate
ligament?
5. What is the function of the posterior cruciate
ligament?
H
J
EXERCISE 3.70:
K
Ankle Joint, Lateral View
L
M
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Ankle
joint.
• From the Select view menu, select Lateral.
A. ____________________________________________
• Click the flashing GO button.
B. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
136
A
B
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The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
B
C
D
E
F
C
F
G
E
H
D
B
I
A
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 4 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
B. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
C. ____________________________________________
C
D. ____________________________________________
D
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 3 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the image at the top
of the next column:
E
A
B
F
G
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The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
N. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.71:
F. ____________________________________________
Ankle Joint, Medial View
G. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 5 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• From the opening screen for the Skeleton
System, click the DISSECTION button on the
menu at the top of the screen. Or, if you are in the
DISSECTION section, click the CHANGE
TOPIC/VIEW button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu, select Ankle
joint, if it is not already selected.
• From the Select view menu, select Medial.
A
• Click the flashing GO button.
B
• Click LAYER 1 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
E
C
D
J
G
N
F
H
I
K
M
L
A
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pin on the screen to find the information necessary to identify the following structure:
G. ____________________________________________
A. ____________________________________________
138
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CHAPTER 3
• Click LAYER 2 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
B
F. ____________________________________________
C
• Click LAYER 4 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
A
Au: Plural okay?
• Mouse-over the green pin on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
C
D
A
B
A. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
• Click LAYER 3 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
• Mouse-over the green pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
Non-Skeletal System Structures (blue pins)
A
D
B
E
C
F
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
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The Skeletal System
• Click LAYER 5 in the LAYER CONTROLS
window, and you will see the following image:
CHECK
POINT:
Ankle Joint
1. Name the strongest tendon of the body. Why
is it considered the strongest?
2. What is the extensor retinaculum of the foot?
What is its function?
3. What is the function of the lateral ligament
of the ankle?
4. What is the flexor retinaculum of the foot?
What is its function?
5. What is the function of the medial (deltoid)
ligament of the ankle?
A
C
K
I
B
D
G
E
H
F
J
Self Test
L
M
Take this opportunity to quiz yourself by taking the
SELF TEST.
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal System,
or, if you are in the DISSECTION section, click the
SELF TEST button at the top of the screen.
• From the Select test topic menu, select
Skeleton.
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
G. ____________________________________________
H. ____________________________________________
I. ____________________________________________
J. ____________________________________________
K. ____________________________________________
L. ____________________________________________
M. ____________________________________________
• From the Select region menu, select Joints.
• From the Select test type menu, select Click
to identify.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• After completing the SELF TEST and saving your
results, click the Select test type menu, select
Multiple choice.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• After completing the SELF TEST and saving your
results, click the Select test topic menu, select
Animation.
• From the Select animation menu, select
Synovial joint.
• Multiple choice is visible in the Select test
type menu.
• ALL is visible in the Select number of questions menu.
• Complete the SELF TEST and save your results.
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CHAPTER 3
I N
The Skeletal System
R E V I E W
What Have I Learned?
8. Name the bones associated with the elbow joint.
T
9. Name the structures that make up the “unhappy
he following questions cover the material that
you have just learned: joints. Apply what you
have learned in answering these questions:
1. Name the structure that encloses the temporo-
triad.”
mandibular joint.
10. Name a ligament absent in approximately
2. What is the function of the synovial membrane?
3. What is the cause of “jaw clicking”?
4. Name the structure enclosing the acromioclavicular joint.
40 percent of knees.
11. What is the function of the anterior cruciate
ligament?
12. What is the function of the posterior cruciate
ligament?
5. What is the result of a torn coracoclavicular
ligament?
13. Name the strongest tendon of the body. Why is
it considered the strongest?
6. Name the tough, fibrous envelope of the glenohumeral joint.
14. What is the extensor retinaculum of the foot?
What is its function?
7. Name the structure that encloses the elbow joint.
EXERCISE 3.72:
Histology—Elastic Cartilage
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal
System or, if you are in the DISSECTION
section, click the HISTOLOGY button at the top
of the screen.
• From the Select topic menu select Elastic
cartilage.
• Click the flashing GO button.
A
B
C
D
E
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the image to the right:
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The Skeletal System
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
EXERCISE 3.74:
Histology—Hyaline Cartilage
• Click the CHANGE TOPIC button in the
CURRENT TOPIC window.
• From the Select topic menu select Hyaline
cartilage.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
EXERCISE 3.73:
Histology—Fibrous Cartilage
• Click the CHANGE TOPIC button in the
CURRENT TOPIC window.
• From the Select topic menu select Fibrous
cartilage.
• Click the flashing GO button.
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
B
A
C
D
E
A
B
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
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CHAPTER 3
EXERCISE 3.75:
The Skeletal System
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
Histology—Compact Bone
• Click the CHANGE TOPIC button in the
CURRENT TOPIC window.
• From the Select topic menu select Compact
bone.
• Click the flashing GO button.
A
• From the Select magnification menu select
Low magnification.
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
B
D
C
E
F
C
B
D
A
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
E. ____________________________________________
F. ____________________________________________
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
D. ____________________________________________
• From the Select magnification menu select
High magnification.
EXERCISE 3.76:
Histology—Cancellous Bone
• Click the CHANGE TOPIC button in the
CURRENT TOPIC window.
• From the Select topic menu select Cancellous
bone.
• Click the flashing GO button.
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The Skeletal System
• Click the TURN TAGS ON button, and you will
see the following image:
• Mouse-over the pins on the screen to find the
information necessary to identify the following
structures:
A. ____________________________________________
B. ____________________________________________
C. ____________________________________________
Self Test
A
B
C
Take this opportunity to quiz yourself by taking the
SELF TEST.
• From the opening screen for the Skeletal
System, or, if you are in the DISSECTION
section, click the SELF TEST button at the top of
the screen.
• From the Select test topic menu, select
Histology.
• From the Select number of questions menu,
select ALL.
• Complete the SELF TEST and save your results.
I N
R E V I E W
What Have I Learned?
6. Describe an osteon.
T
7. Describe a perforating canal.
he following questions cover the material that
you have just learned: histology. Apply what you
have learned in answering these questions:
1. Name the outer layer of most cartilage.
8. Interstitial lamellae result from
2. Give four examples of elastic cartilage.
3. What are lacunae? What are contained within
_________________.
9. What component of bone tissue is essential to
bone nutrition, growth, and repair?
the lacunae?
4. Give four examples of fibrous cartilage.
5. What is the function of the chondrogenic layer
of the perichondrium?
144
10. What are trabeculae?