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Transcript
Wildlife Management
By
Brandon Bowman
Littlefield High School
1
Competencies:
define wildlife terms
 identify characteristics of wildlife
 describe relationships between wildlife and
humans
 understand relationships with humans
 describe classifications of wildlife
 identify approved practices
 discuss future of wildlife in the U.S.

2
Terms to Know
Wildlife
 Habitat
 Vertebrate
 Predators
 Prey
 Parasitism

3
Terms to Know
Warm-blooded animals
 Mutualism
 Predation
 Commensalism
 Competition
 Wetlands

4
In the early years....



Wildlife provided the
bulk of food available
Supplies seemed
exhaustible
Humans destroyed
wildlife habitat
5
Characteristics of Wildlife

All vertebrate animals are wildlife
 Vertebrates-animals

with backbones
Have many of the same characteristics as
humans:
 growth
processes
 laws of heredity
 general cell structure
6
Environment without control



Must adapt or perish
Possess senses for
protection from
predators
Avoid overpopulation
7
Wildlife Relationships
Parasitism
 Mutualism
 Predation
 Commensalism
 Competition

8
Parasitism
Relationship between two organisms, either
plants or animals, in which one feeds on the
other without killing it.
 Parasites can be internal or external

9
Mutualism


Two types of animals
that live together for
mutual benefit
There are many
examples of
mutualism in the
wildlife community
10
Predation


When one animal eats
another animal
Is important in
controlling
populations of wildlife
11
Commensalism


A Plant or animal that
lives in, on, or with
another, sharing its
food, but not helping
or harming it
One species is helped,
but the other is neither
helped or harmed
12
Competition

When different species
of wildlife compete for
the same:




food supply
nesting sites
breeding sites
One species may
increase in numbers
while the other
declines
13
Relationships Between Wildlife
and Humans
Biological
 Ecological
 Economic

 food
 clothing
 shelter
14
Six Positive Values
Commercial
 Recreational
 Biological
 Aesthetic
 Scientific
 Social

15
Commercial


Sale of wildlife or
wildlife products
Raising of animals for:


hunting
fishing
16
Recreational



Hunting and Fishing
Watching
Photographing
17
Biological


Value of the biological
relationship between
humans and wildlife is
difficult to measure
Examples




Pollination of crops
Soil Improvement
Water conservation
Control of parasites
18
Aesthetic



Refers to beauty
Is not measurable in
economic terms
Can contribute to the
mental well-being of
the human race
19
Scientific



Often benefits humans
Has existed since the
beginning of time
Early humans watched
wild animals to
determine which
plants and berries were
safe to eat
20
Social



Difficult to measure
Wildlife has the ability
to enhance the value
of their surroundings
just by their presence
Provide humans the
opportunity for variety
in outdoor recreation,
hobbies, and adventure
21
Classifications of Wildlife
Management
Farm
 Forest
 Wetlands
 Stream
 Lakes and Ponds

22
Farm Wildlife


Probably the most
visible wildlife
management
classification
Includes:




development of fence
rows
minimum tillage
improvement of
woodlots
controlled hunting
23
Forest Wildlife



More difficult to
manage
Planned so that timber
and wildlife can exist
at desired populations
and possibly be
harvested
Includes population
controls to prevent
habitat destruction
24
Wetlands Wildlife



Most productive
wildlife management
area
Includes all areas
between dry upland
and open water
Includes



marshes
swamps
bogs
25
Stream Wildlife


Often a difficult task
Water pollution and
the need for clean
water for a growing
human population
continue to increase at
a rapid pace
26
Lake and Pond Wildlife


Normally easier than
in streams
Concerns include:




population levels
oxygen levels
pollutants
availability of food
resources
27
Approved Practices - Farm
Wildlife
Usually a by-product of farming
 Little attention usually given by the farmer
except when cause crop damage or financial
loss
 Management involves providing habitat
 Timing of operations is important
 Planting crops attractive to wildlife
 Providing water during dry periods

28
Approved Practices - Forest
Wildlife

Types and numbers of wildlife differs with:
 type
and age of the trees
 natural forest openings
 types of vegetation on the forest floor
 presence of natural predators
Management is geared towards increases
numbers of desired species of wildlife
 If desired populations are present the goal is
to maintain those populations

29
Approved Practices - Wetland
Wildlife
No area of American land is more important
 Are constantly changing
 Provide food, nesting sites, and cover
 Ducks and geese are the most economically
important types of wildlife that need
wetlands
 Other types include woodcock, pheasants,
deer, bears, milk, muskrats, and raccoons

30
Approved Practices - Stream
Wildlife

Two general categories:
 warm
water
 cold water
Based on water temperature at which the
wildlife, primarily fish, can best grow and
thrive
 Little difference in managing the two types
 In general, fish are the type of stream
wildlife that is managed

31
Approved Practices - Stream
Wildlife
Maintenance of population levels is
important
 Removal of unwanted species by:

 netting
 poisoning
 electric
shocking
Artificial rearing and stocking
 Regulations of sport fishing

32
Approved Practices - Lake and
Pond Wildlife
Very similar to managing stream wildlife
 Pollution must be controlled
 Populations must be monitored and
harvesting controlled
 Differences include:

 oxygen
levels are critical in the summer
 water temperatures are more variable
 may have to drain to remove unwanted species
33
Future of Wildlife in the U.S.
A bright future is not ensured for all species
 Human population continues to compete
 Outlook is not bleak, however
 Humans have recognized the ability to
coexist
 Humans are working to clean-up the
environment
 Parks and wildlife refuges are increasing in
numbers

34