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Zip _____________ NAME __________________________ Date_____________ Causes of the Civil War-Review Chapter 14 pages 410-429 in text book North vs. South The North was busy building FACTORIES workers in the North were FREE. The South has few factories and most people lived on farms or large PLANTATIONS. African slaves planted and harvested crops, especially COTTON. The North built CANALS and RAILROADS to travel and move goods over long distances. Large numbers of workers came from IRELAND and GERMANY. These IMMIGRANTS were paid for their labor and were free to take jobs of their choice. The South had few cities and FACTORIES. The economy in the South was based on FARMING and SLAVE labor. By 1860, 2/3rds of the world’s COTTON was being grown on southern PLANTATIONS, and most people used the phrase “Cotton is KING.” The South favored STATES rights and the North favored federal rights. They also disagreed over SLAVERY. The Missouri Compromise Missouri asked to join the Union as a SLAVE state. At that time there were 11 slave states and 11 free states. Northerners did not want to upset this balance by letting in another slave state. Henry Clay of KENTUCKY proposed a compromise. Let Missouri join as a SLAVE state and then let Maine join as a FREE state. They also drew an imaginary line across the map an agreed that no new slave states would be allowed north of that line, except for MISSOURI. Clay’s idea kept the peace for 30 years. Abolitionists and the Underground Railroad ABOLITIONISTS wanted to abolish (end) slavery in America. Fredrick DOUGLAS, a former slave who has escaped, spoke out against slavery. Opponents of slavery also organized the UNDERGROUND RR A runaway slave could rest and get food and clothing at a STATION, safe house. People called CONDUCTORS guided the slaves to the next safe house. The most famous conductor was a former female slave, HARRIET TUBMAN. She risked her life by going back 19 times. Her nickname was MOSES. The Compromise of 1850 Senator Henry CLAY proposed another compromise that also included several laws. To please the North - California could join the Union as a FREE state. To please the South, New Mexico and UTAH could vote for themselves whether or not to allow SLAVERY . Congress passed The Fugitive SLAVE Law which meant runaway slaves were not safe until they had left the United States and were in CANADA. Lincoln said, “A house DIVIDED cannot stand.” Bleeding Kansas Tensions between the North and the South increased when the territories of Kansas and NEBRASKA prepared to become states. According to the Missouri Compromise, both these states should have been admitted to the Union as FREE states. In 1854, Congress changed the rules by passing the KansasNebraska Act which allowed each state to decide for themselves whether to be free or SLAVE states. Fights broke out and for the first time, Americans were killing each other over SLAVERY. Abolisionists called the conflict BLEEDING KANSAS. By the time FEDERAL troops restored order, 200 people had died. Dred Scott Decision In 1857, the Supreme Court added to the tension between the North and the South when it made it’s Dred SCOTT Decision. Dred Scott, an ENSLAVED man had asked the Court for his FREEDOM because he lived with his owner in a free state. The Supreme Court ruled Dred Scott was PROPERTY and therefore, the Constitution protected the rights of citizens to take their property anywhere. The Supreme Court also ruled that the MISSOURI COMPROMISE was unconstitutional. The ruling by the Supreme Court ANGERED abolitionists. The Election of Abraham Lincoln By the time Americans voted for the president in 1860, the Union was close to splitting apart over SLAVERY. Lincoln promised to leave slavery in the South, but he was firmly against letting it spread into NEW TERRITORIES. Lincoln won the election with out winning a single SOUTHERN OR SLAVE state. Lincoln’s election alarmed southern states and seven slave states chose to SUCEEDE from the Union. To protect the right to own slaves, they formed the CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. In 1861, the Confederacy elected JEFFERSON DAVIS to be President of the Confederate States of AMERICA. The Confederacy moved quickly to take over federal forts on April 12, 1861 the Confederates attacked FORT SUMTER. FOUR more states joined the Confederacy. The CIVIL War had begun.