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Causes of the Civil War-Review
Chapter 14 pages 410-429 in text book
North vs. South
 The North was busy building FACTORIES workers in the North
were FREE.
 The South has few factories and most people lived on farms or
large PLANTATIONS. African slaves planted and harvested crops,
especially COTTON.
 The North built CANALS and RAILROADS to travel and move
goods over long distances.
 Large numbers of workers came from IRELAND and GERMANY.
These IMMIGRANTS were paid for their labor and were free to
take jobs of their choice.
 The South had few cities and FACTORIES. The economy in the
South was based on FARMING and SLAVE labor.
 By 1860, 2/3rds of the world’s COTTON was being grown on
southern PLANTATIONS, and most people used the phrase “Cotton
is KING.”
 The South favored STATES rights and the North favored federal
rights. They also disagreed over SLAVERY.
The Missouri Compromise
 Missouri asked to join the Union as a SLAVE state.
 At that time there were 11 slave states and
free states.
Northerners did not want to upset this balance by letting in
another slave state.
 Henry Clay of KENTUCKY proposed a compromise. Let Missouri join
as a SLAVE state and then let Maine join as a FREE state.
 They also drew an imaginary line across the map an agreed that no
new slave states would be allowed north of that line, except for
 Clay’s idea kept the peace for
30 years.
Abolitionists and the Underground Railroad
 ABOLITIONISTS wanted to abolish (end) slavery in America.
 Fredrick DOUGLAS, a former slave who has escaped, spoke out
against slavery.
 Opponents of slavery also organized the UNDERGROUND RR
 A runaway slave could rest and get food and clothing at a
STATION, safe house. People called CONDUCTORS guided the
slaves to the next safe house.
 The most famous conductor was a former female slave, HARRIET
 She risked her life by going back 19 times. Her nickname was
The Compromise of 1850
 Senator Henry CLAY proposed another compromise that also
included several laws.
 To please the North - California could join the Union as a FREE
 To please the South, New Mexico and UTAH could vote for
themselves whether or not to allow SLAVERY .
 Congress passed The Fugitive SLAVE Law which meant runaway
slaves were not safe until they had left the United States and were
 Lincoln said, “A house DIVIDED cannot stand.”
Bleeding Kansas
 Tensions between the North and the South increased when the
territories of Kansas and NEBRASKA prepared to become states.
 According to the Missouri Compromise, both these states should
have been admitted to the Union as FREE states.
 In 1854, Congress changed the rules by passing the KansasNebraska Act which allowed each state to decide for themselves
whether to be free or SLAVE states.
 Fights broke out and for the first time, Americans were killing each
other over SLAVERY.
 Abolisionists called the conflict BLEEDING KANSAS.
 By the time FEDERAL troops restored order, 200 people had died.
Dred Scott Decision
 In 1857, the Supreme Court added to the tension between the
North and the South when it made it’s Dred SCOTT Decision.
 Dred Scott, an ENSLAVED man had asked the Court for his
FREEDOM because he lived with his owner in a free state.
 The Supreme Court ruled Dred Scott was PROPERTY and
therefore, the Constitution protected the rights of citizens to
take their property anywhere.
 The Supreme Court also ruled that the MISSOURI
COMPROMISE was unconstitutional.
 The ruling by the Supreme Court ANGERED abolitionists.
The Election of Abraham Lincoln
 By the time Americans voted for the president in 1860, the
Union was close to splitting apart over SLAVERY.
 Lincoln promised to leave slavery in the South, but he was
firmly against letting it spread into NEW TERRITORIES.
 Lincoln won the election with out winning a single SOUTHERN
OR SLAVE state.
 Lincoln’s election alarmed southern states and seven slave
states chose to SUCEEDE from the Union.
 To protect the right to own slaves, they formed the
 In 1861, the Confederacy elected JEFFERSON DAVIS to be
President of the Confederate States of AMERICA.
 The Confederacy moved quickly to take over federal forts on
April 12, 1861 the Confederates attacked FORT SUMTER.
 FOUR more states joined the Confederacy.
 The CIVIL War had begun.