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In computing, virtualization refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including (but not limited to) a virtual computer hardware platform, operating system (OS), storage device, or computer network resources. Virtual Memory Virtualization began in the 1960s, as a method of logically dividing the system resources particularly memory provided between different applications. Virtualization of memory required implementations of different applications in a single operating system. With developments in technology & concepts, Memory Virtualization allows networked, and therefore distributed, servers to share a pool of memory to overcome physical memory limitations, a common bottleneck in software performance. Memory virtualization is also different from storage based on flash memory such as solid-state drives (SSDs) and other similar technologies replace hard-drives, while memory virtualization replaces or complements traditional RAM. As in the figure, it maps memory addresses, into physical addresses in process or task appears as a contiguous segments. The operating the assignment of real memory to virtual addresses used by a program, called virtual computer memory. Main storage as seen by a contiguous address space or collection of system manages virtual address spaces and memory. Address translation hardware in the CPU, unit or MMU, automatically translates Software within the operating system may address space that can exceed the capacity memory than is physically present in the often referred to as a memory management virtual addresses to physical addresses. extend these capabilities to provide a virtual of real memory and thus reference more computer. Benefits of Virtual Machines Improves memory utilization via the sharing of scarce resources. Increases efficiency and decreases run time for data intensive and I/O bound applications Allows applications on multiple servers to share data without replication, decreasing total memory needs Lowers latency and provides faster access than other storage solutions such as SSD (Solid State Drive), SAN (Storage Area Network) or NAS (Network Attached Storage) Virtual Machines A virtual machine (VM) shares physical hardware resources with other users but isolates the operating system or application to avoid changing the end-user experience. Virtual Machine (VM) is a completely separate individual operating system installation on your usual operating system. It is implemented by software emulation and hardware virtualization. Virtual machine is a software implementation of a physical machine - computer - that works and executes analogically to it. Virtual machines are divided in two categories based on their use and correspondence to real machine: System Virtual Machines and Process Virtual Machines. First category provides a complete system platform that executes complete operating system, second one will run a single program. Frequently multiple virtual machines with their own OS's are used in server consolidation, where different services are run in separate virtual environments, but on the same physical machine. A virtual machine (VM) is an operating system OS or application environment that is installed on software which imitates dedicated hardware. The end user has the same experience on a virtual machine as they would have on dedicated hardware. A virtual machine is a software, that lets system in your existing computer system. parent operating system and run just like operating system. you create and run a separate operating You can boot the virtual machine from the another machine-PC with different Here the figure shows that a PC using windows machine can function as if a VMware software can use in this actual LINUX system and SOLARIS system Benefits of Virtual Machines Main benefits of Virtual Machines can be listed as follows: Multiple OS environments can exist simultaneously on the same machine, isolated from each other; Virtual machine can offer an instruction set architecture that differs from real computer's; Easy maintenance, application provisioning, availability and convenient recovery. Server consolidation, increased utilization and faster recovery times after failure are also benefits of virtual machines. Server Virtualization Server virtualization is the masking of server resources, including the number and identity of individual physical servers, processors, and operating systems, from server users. The server administrator uses a software application to divide one physical server into multiple isolated virtual environments. Benefits of Virtual Server Main benefits of Server Virtualization can be listed as follows: Server consolidation helps to create multiple environments. It creates increased utilization of physical resources and It is also faster at recovery times after failure. Virtualization Certifications Virtualization is an excellent development in the technology, which is extensively used in the field today because of its benefits. These days, all new technological developments are supported by providing training and certification by the companies, who are involved in the development of the technology. Main Virtualization Certificates can be listed as follows: VMware Virtualization certifications: VMware Certified Associate VMware Certified Professional VMware Certified Implementation Expert VMware Certified Design Expert Citrix Virtualization certifications: Certified Professional - Virtualization (CCP-V) Red Hat Virtualization Certifications: RHCVA: Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator Cisco Virtual Certifications: Cisco Data Center Unified Computing Support Specialist Microsoft Virtualization Certification: Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert: Private Cloud (MCSE: Private Cloud) The above certifications are among top 5. There are 2 more players in the field. These are IBM and Oracle. Future will depend on the developments done in future by these companies.