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Population Genetics
The Study of how
Populations change
over time
Smallest Unit of Evolution
Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
p = frequency of the dominant allele
q = frequency of the recessive allele
p2 = frequency of the homozygous dominant
q2 = frequency of the homozygous recessive
2pq = frequency of the heterozygotes
Large Population
No gene flow
No net mutations
No natural selection
Random Mating
5 Causes of Evolution
5 Causes of Evolution
5 Causes of Evolution
Gene Flow
5 Causes of Evolution
Non Random Mating
5 Causes of Evolution
Small Population Size - Genetic Drift
Bottleneck Effect
Founder’s Effect
5 Causes of Evolution
Natural Selection
Sexual Selection
Sexual Selection
No Perfect Organism
Evolution is limited by historical constraints
Adapations are often compromises
Chance and natural selection interact
Selection can only edit existing variations
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