Download Middle Colonies

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Colonial American bastardy laws wikipedia , lookup

History of the Jews in Colonial America wikipedia , lookup

Plymouth Colony wikipedia , lookup

History of Jamestown, Virginia (1607–99) wikipedia , lookup

Colonial period of South Carolina wikipedia , lookup

Colony of Virginia wikipedia , lookup

Colonial South and the Chesapeake wikipedia , lookup

Province of Maryland wikipedia , lookup

Colonial American military history wikipedia , lookup

New Castle Court House Museum wikipedia , lookup

New Netherland wikipedia , lookup

Roanoke Colony wikipedia , lookup

Dominion of New England wikipedia , lookup

Province of Massachusetts Bay wikipedia , lookup

Jamestown supply missions wikipedia , lookup

Massachusetts Bay Colony wikipedia , lookup

Thirteen Colonies wikipedia , lookup

Province of New York wikipedia , lookup

London Company wikipedia , lookup

List of colonial governors of New Jersey wikipedia , lookup

Catholic Church in the Thirteen Colonies wikipedia , lookup

English overseas possessions in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms wikipedia , lookup

Middle Colonies
Chapter 3, Lesson 3
England and the Colonies
► In
England, the Puritans in Parliament were having
a power struggle with Charles I.
► In 1642, civil war will break out.
 Oliver Cromwell led the Parliamentary forces
and forced the King to surrender.
► In 1649, King Charles I is beheaded after a
parliamentary court finds him guilty of treason.
 A new government is then established with
Cromwell as its protector.
► Many from New England returned to England to
fight with the Parliamentary forces and eventually
returned to Royal Colonies like Virginia.
England and the Colonies
► After
Cromwell dies in 1658, Parliament
reestablishes the monarchy with limits on the
► Charles II, son Charles I, takes the thrown in
 His reign is known as the restoration because
the monarchy had been restored.
► At this time England had two clusters of colonies
in America.
 Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut,
and Rhode Island in the north.
 Maryland and Virginia in the south.
England and the Colonies
► The
Dutch were settled between these two groups
of colonies.
 A few Dutch merchants created the Dutch West
India Company to trade in the Americas in
► There posts along the Hudson would eventually
become the colony of New Netherland.
 There main settlement was New Amsterdam
located on Manhattan Island.
 The island was purchased from the Manhates
for small quantities of beads and other goods.
England and the Colonies
Having a great seaport it became the center of
shipping to and from the Americas.
► In order to populate the colony the Dutch West India
 Brought over families from the Netherlands,
Finland, Germany, and Sweden.
 Gave out land to those who brought at least 50
settlers to work it.
► Those who owned these riverfront lands were known
as patroons.
 Ruled like kings and had their own courts and laws.
 Settlers owed their patroons a share of their crops
and labor.
England Takes Over
► The
Dutch had thriving river trade as well as had an
excellent harbor
 It’s no surprise the English want this.
► England sends its fleet to attack New Amsterdam.
► Peter Stuyvesant was governor of the colony.
 Had strict rules and heavy taxes resulting in many
of the people in New Netherland to turn on him.
► When the English arrived he surrendered since he
was not prepared for a battle against the English.
 King Charles II would give it to his brother, the
Duke of York, who renames the colony New York.
England Takes Over
► King
Charles II would give it to his brother, the
Duke of York, who renames the colony New York.
► New York was a proprietary colony.
 The owner known as a proprietor, owned all the
land and ran the government.
► It was different from the New England colonies
who could elect the governor and the assembly.
► Most of the colonists in New York lived in the
Hudson River valley.
► The Duke of York promised freedom of religion to
the diverse colonists.
 In 1654, 23 Brazilian Jews settled in New Amersterdam.
England Takes Over
► They
were the first Jews to settle in North
► By 1664, New York had about 8,000 inhabitants.
 It was a diversified population including Dutch,
Germans, Swedes, Native Americans, and
Puritans from New England, and 300 enslaved
► New Amsterdam, later New York, would be one of
the fastest growing areas in the colony.
 By 1683, its population rose to about 12,000.
England Takes Over
► The
Duke of York appointed a governor and
council to deal with colonial affairs.
 The colonists wanted to have a representative
government like the other English colonies.
 The Duke resisted but the people of New York
would not give up.
 In 1691, the English government finally allowed
New York to elect a legislature.
Oliver Cromwell
King Charles II
Peter Stuyvesant
New Jersey
► The
Duke of York would eventually give the
southern part of his colony to Lord John Berkeley
and Sir George Carteret.
 The land was located between the Hudson and
Delaware River.
 They named the colony New Jersey, after the
island of Jersey in the English Channel, where
Carteret was born.
► To attract settlers to the colony, they offered large
tracts (area of land) and generous terms.
 They were promised freedom of religion, trial by jury,
and a representative assembly.
 The assembly would make local laws and set taxes.
New Jersey
► Like
New York, New Jersey was diverse ethnically
and religiously.
 A lack of a natural harbor prevented it from
developing a port like New York.
► As such, The proprietors did not make as much
money as they had hoped.
 Berkeley sold his share (West Jersey) in 1674.
 Carteret’s sold his share (East Jersey) in 1682.
► By 1702, the colony belonged to the King, making
it a royal colony.
 However, the colonists continued to make local
► In
1680, William Penn approached King Charles
with a plan.
 Penn’s father had loaned the King a lot of
money and he inherited the King’s promise of
 Penn didn’t want the money though, and
instead asked for land in America.
 The King was happy to rid himself of debt and
gave him land stretching inland from the
Delaware River.
► The new colony, Pennsylvania was almost as large
as England.
► William
Penn belonged to a group of dissenters
known as the Society of Friends, also known as
 Believed individuals had an “inner light” that
could guide him or her to salvation.
 Everyone could experience religious truth
directly, so church officials were unnecessary.
 Everyone was equal before God.
 Though they had firm beliefs they tolerated
others beliefs.
► Many
saw Quakers as a threat to established
 They would not bow or take off their hats to
lord or ladies because they believed everyone
was equal.
 They were also pacifists (people who refuse to
use violence or fight in wars)
► Quakers were fined, jailed, and even executed for
their beliefs.
► William
Penn saw Pennsylvania as a “holy
 It was a chance to test out Quaker ideals of
toleration and equality into practice.
► In 1682, he came to America to supervise the
building of Philadelphia, “the city of brotherly
 Penn designed the city himself, making him America’s
first town planner.
 Penn also wrote Pennsylvania’s first constitution.
► Penn
believed the land belonged the Native
American and people should pay for it.
► In
1682, he would negotiate the first of several
treaties with the Native Americans.
► To encourage more settlers to come he had
pamphlets passed out in various languages.
 By 1683 more than 3,000 English, Welsh, Irish,
Dutch, and German settlers had arrived.
► In 1701, Penn granted colonists the right to elect
representatives to the legislative assembly through
the Charter of Liberties.
► The
southern most portion of Pennsylvania was
known as the Three Lower Counties.
 Settled by Swedes in 1638
 The area has been taken over by the Dutch and the
English before becoming part of Pennsylvania.
 The Charter of Privileges allowed the lower counties to
form their own legislature in 1704.
 From that point on the counties functioned as a
separate colony known as Delaware, supervised by
Pennsylvania’s governor.