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Chapter 26
(Ian Barnes and Pamela Barnes)
by Andi Demo
Presentation Plan
 Introduction
 Definition of Enlargement
Rationalist view
 Constructivist view
History of Enlargement
The accession process
 Membership criteria – Article 49 of TEU
 The Copenhagen Criteria
 Implementation mechanism
Conditionality framework
 The Czech and Bulgarian cases
The impact of Enlargement
The prospective of Enlargement
 Turkey, The Western Balkans and beyond…
Understanding Enlargement
 Nominal - the increasing of the size of the Union by
incorporation additional members
 Alternative – the widening of EU influence beyond the
borders of the member states and deepening relations
within the organization
 Unions’ rationale - maintain and spread liberal democratic
ideals and the market economy principles
 States’ rationale – changing domestic and political and
economic circumstances (for the better)
Rationalist view
 Assumption – EU in not autonomous in decision making but interacts
with member states ; EU poses a driving sense of purpose
 Enables the analyses of the self-interest of the actors concerned, which
judge on a [financial] cost and benefit model
 EU provides the legal authority and technical expertise
 Fails to explain the reason why existing members would want to accept
new members, with …
 Justification for not engaging in non-enlargement : The potential of
new members for undermining the coherence of the decision making
process and other established economic and political realities.
Constructivist view
 SHARED norm-and-values-driven enlargement between the EU,
Member countries and candidate countries.
 Potential countries will seek institutional ties because they identify
with the aims and policies of the Union
 Candidacy of Iceland – FAVORABLE
 Candidacy of Turkey – CONTROVERSIAL
 Enlargement of the CEE - PROBLEMATIC
UPDATE - Croatia became the 28th member of the EU on 1 July, 2013
“practically completing the central European block accession”
- Director-General of Enlargement at the European Commission, Stefano Sannino
The Accession Process
 Initiated as an unsophisticated structure-less process
 Starts with a successful Application
 Improved and institutionalized via the Article 49 of TEU and
the Copenhagen Criteria
Commission’s approval
Parliament’s support
Council’ unanimity
Ratification by parliament or referendum of the aspiring
Ratification by individual member countries
Constantly changing on sui generis cases : Croatia, Western
Article 49 of TEU
 The Union is founded on the principles of liberty,
democracy, respect for human rights, fundamental
freedoms and rule of law
 The Union shall respect fundamental rights, as guaranteed
by the European Convention for the Protection of Human
Rights and Fundamental Freedoms – Rome 1950
 The Union shall respect national identities of Member
 The Union shall provide itself with the means necessary to
attain its objectives
Copenhagen Criteria - 1993
 Stable institutions guaranteeing democracy
 The rule of law
 Respect for human rights
 Protection of minorities
 Functioning market economy – capable to
withstand competitive pressures
 Ability to take and respect political, economic and
monetary union obligations
Implementation mechanisms
 With increased membership it was necessary to adopt additional
mechanism in order to insure smooth transitions of peripherical
(Western Balkans)
 Stabilization and Association Process (SAA) – road to membership
through legislation modification, training of bureaucracy and
 Safeguard clauses – Croatia border dispute with Slovenia
 In the interim, it benefits from special arrangements, such as being
able to comment on draft EU proposals, communications,
recommendations or initiatives, and “active observer status” on EU
bodies and agencies (it is entitled to speak, but not vote )
Conditionality framework
 A tool to encourage and persuade candidate states to
reform in line with the model of the EU
 An instrument of power and influence towards
candidates, albeit the most enthusiastic ones
 On top of formal criteria, it exerts pressure and
effectively causes structural domestic change
 Carrots – funds in the short term
 Sticks – delay and/or suspension of the process
 Protects against enlargement fatigue
The Czech and Bulgarian cases
2008 Czech Republic
official complaint from the Commission and the
prospective of financial sanctions for failure to
introduce a anti-discriminatory law
2008 Bulgaria
500 million Euros of withheld given-funds because of
prior mismanagement, with the promise of restoration
of funds if corrective actions were taken
The impact of Enlargement
Increased global importance
Increased internal market
Widening of the euro zone
Convergence of living
Intensification of intrarelations
A more culturally,
linguistically diverse Union
Consensus, more difficult to
Competition from cheap
labor from new Members
Structural funds issue
Extra-pressure on CAP
The prospective of Enlargement
 In the words of Olli Rehn:
“Enlargement does not continue at the pace of a
shinkansen, but rather that of a local train...yet, being
one of the EU’s most important security guarantees”
Enlargement with continue , HOWEVER
Despite the existing commitments, prospective
candidates will faces increasingly complicated and
rigorous requirements.
The European Continent
The Battle of Turkey
 Special case
 1963 - Association Agreement :
Custom Union, Freedom of Movement
for Workers and Services
 1987 – Application for membership
 1999- Candidate Status
 2005- Accession negotiations started
Lack of support and enthusiasm from EU
citizens based on :
 human rights records(Kurds, religious
 Large population
 Huge agricultural sector
Candidates - Western Balkans
 Albania (formally applied for membership)
 Broadly stable and enthusiastic; sporadic cases of
corruption and organized crime , judiciary reforms
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Ethnic divisions
 Montenegro (formally applied for membership)
 Serbia
 Historical baggage - ICTY
 Resolution of the name-controversy with Greece
 Republic of Kosovo^(Resolution 1244/99 of UNSC)
 Status
The unknown frontier
Potential Issues and Subjective view
 Enlargement will continue with a slower path – a moment
of consolidation, 5-10 years
 Turkey’s entrance will be determined by the way EU will
engineer itself globally :
a global player (?)– Turkey will be Europe's military branch
in the Middle East ( very unlikely given the conservative
Christian club mindset )
 Serbia and Kosovo will be the last members of the EU,
given the improbability on status agreement
 EU enlargement will stop with Ukraine
Reactionary subjective views
 The hope of EU membership is a major incentive for
reform amongst prospective members
There is a large development and income gap between
Western/Central and South Western countries
EUROSCEPTISM versus Enlargement
Imperative of inward looking consolidation policies
A more divers Europe will be more vibrant but more
difficult to manage
Enlargement will stop with/at the moment of
consolidation of a common vision and purpose
Federative Europe – it’s far!
…for your attention
Chapter 26 – Nugent, Government and Politics of the EU, Palgrave, 7th
Edition, 2010
Euro Barometer -