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Mr. B: Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 7 Lesson 2 Notes Today’s Objectives: 1. Describe the major anatomical structures of the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. 2. Explain the process by which hearing occurs, from the transmission of sound waves to the perception and interpretation of sound. 3. Explain the role of the inner ear in helping your body to maintain equilibrium, or balance. 4. Describe some common causes of deafness. 5. Describe some common ear infections. Lesson 7.2 The Ear What We’re Covering Today: • ____________________________ of the ear • ____________________________ of the ear • ____________________________ and infections of the ear Anatomy of the Ear External ear o The ____________________________ shaped, outer portion of the ear is called the ____________________________. o The ____________________________ ear helps to move sounds ____________________________ into the ear. o Auditory canal o ____________________________, tube-like ____________________________ about one inch long and one-quarter in diameter. Contains ____________________________ glands Secrete ____________________________, also known as ____________________________. Helps to _________________________, __________________________, and _________________________ the ear. Tympanic membrane ____________________________ at the ____________________________ of the ____________________________ canal Also known as the ____________________________ Middle Ear (Tympanic Cavity) o Small open ____________________________ in the ____________________________ lobe of the skull. o The ____________________________ membrane is on the ____________________________ side of the cavity. o ____________________________ Three ____________________________ bones in the ____________________________Ossicles are named for their shape. o ____________________________ (malleus), Anvil (Incus), ____________________________ (Stapes) These three bones ____________________ the tympanic membrane to the membrane of the ________________ window. All three bones ____________________________ sound ____________________________. Eustachian Tube Connects the ____________________________ ear to the ____________________________. Pharynx connects the ____________________________ and nasal cavity to the ____________________________. Serves to ____________________________ pressure on ____________________________ side of the tympanic membrane. When your ears “____________________________”,____________________________ widely helps bring in pressure to the same level as the ____________________________ outside of the ear. Internal ear o The oval window connects the ____________________________ ear with the inner ear. o 3 Components of the inner ear: ____________________________ Vestibule Snail-shaped structure in the inner ear that ________________________ one to _________________________. A _________________________ in the inner ear that contains the ____________________________ semicircular canals Semicircular canals Mr. B: Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 7 Lesson 2 Notes ____________________________ ear channels containing ____________________________ hair cells that play an important role in ____________________________. Functions of the Ear ____________________________ is to detect ____________________________ in your environment. Also help with ____________________________ and ____________________________. Hearing o When sound waves enter the ear, they are transmitted through the auditory canal, causing the tympanic membrane to vibrate. o This ____________________________ stimulates the ____________________________ (inner ear bones) o hair cells o ____________________________ stiff hairs are stimulated by high-____________________________ sounds Longer more ____________________________ hairs are stimulated by _____________-pitched sounds. cochlear duct Causes the ____________________________ membrane to move which causes the ____________________________ nerve to transmit ____________________________ impulses to the auditory region in the temporal lobe. Equilibrium (Balance) o Our ability to ____________________________ comes from specialized ____________________________ in the inner ear. semicircular canal o Contain ____________________________ cells that stimulate the ____________________________ nerve o Sends ____________________________ to the cerebellum to provide information about the orientation and motion of the head. Disorders and Infections of the Ear Deafness o Term _______________________ to any loss of hearing ranging from a ________________________ to a complete inability to hear. o ____________________________ to the middle ear or inner ear can cause ____________________________. o Regular ____________________________ to extremely loud sounds can damage the _______________________ receptor cells. o ____________________________ – age related hearing loss. Can be ____________________________ from through the use of hearing aids. Hearing aids ____________________________ and ____________________________ sounds. Tinnitus o Condition that causes a sound like ____________________________ to be heard in the ear. o _______________________ cells are ____________________________ and will often times move randomly, generating the ringing sound. external otitis (swimmer’s ear) o ____________________________ or ____________________________ infection of the auditory canal. o Caused by ____________________________ water. o Symptoms include ____________________________, fever, and in extreme cases, temporary hearing loss. otitis media (middle ear infection) o Infection of the ____________________________ ear caused by ____________________________ or virus. o Usually associated with upper ____________________________ tract infection. o Common in ____________________________ and toddlers because their Eustachian tubes are not fully developed. o Symptoms include pain, swelling and production of pus. o Can be treated with ____________________________. labyrinthitis (inner ear infection) o Infection of the inner ear that produces ____________________________. o Affects ____________________________ canals o Can cause ____________________________, nausea, and ____________________________.