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1
Essential components of
communication
■ Source /Sender
■ Message
■ Channels
■ Noise/interference
■ Receiver
■ Feedback
■ Environment
■ Context
2
Keep in view of the Principles of
Communication…….
■ Communication is a process
■ Communication is a system
■ Communication is both interactional and
transactional
■ Communication can be intentional and
unintentional
3
Source /Sender
■ It is the creator of the message
■ More than one source can exist at one time
■ Both persons ( as in the diagram) function as a
source; sending messages simultaneously to
one another
4
Source / Sender : Roles
■ Determines the meaning of what is to be
communicated
■ Encodes the meanings into a message
■ Sends the message
■ Perceives and reacts to the response from the
receiver
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What does each person bring to the
system?
■ Knowledge
■ Attitudes
■ Sociocultural background.
■ “Everything”
■ The greater the difference between Person A and B, the greater the
effort and skill needed to communicate between them.
■ Respecting each others’ view is a good starting point
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Source/sender : Meanings of message
■ The meaning behind the message determines
how you create will create the message. Your
tone of voice, your choice of words and other
non-verbal behaviours will help indicate the
meanings.
■
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Source/sender :Encoding
■ Once a source has chosen a meaning, s/he
encodes it.
■ Encoding is a process by which the source
translates thoughts or feelings into words,
sounds and physical expressions, which
together make up the actual message that is
meant to be sent.
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Source /sender : Sending
■ The source then sends the message, which involves the
■
source’s ability to communicate overtly, that it to use
voice and body to express the intended message
accurately
Reacting : Since communication is a process and a
system, the source/ sender must interpret the receicver’s
response to the message. A source’s perception of a
receiver’s response in most communication situations is
simultaneous with the response.
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Message
■ The message is the stimulus produced by the source.
■ Messages are comprised of words, grammar,
■
■
organization of thoughts, physical appearance, body
movement, voice, aspects of the person’s personality
and self-concept, personal style etc.
Environment and noise can also shape the message
Each message is unique, even if the same message is
created over and over again. It would differ in each
instance because messages cannot be repeated of
received exactly the same way or in the same context.
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Channels
■ A channel is the route by which message flow between
■
■
■
sources and receivers.
The channels can differ, such as the light waves and
sound waves, which allow us to hear and see each
other, or by writing, or by or kinds of media ( films,
videotapes, etc) .
We also receive communication by smelling, touching
and tasting.
All five senses contributed to communication.
11
Noise / Interference
■ Anything that changes the meaning of the intended
■
■
■
message is called interference.
Interference is present in all communication process.
Interference can be external and physical, such as noise
caused by people talking.
Interference can be non physical such as unpleasant
environment: eg. A room which is too hot or too cold, a
smoke-filled room, distracting characteristics of a person,
talking too fast or too slow etc
12
Receiver
■ In the model of the communication, both persons
■
■
■
function as receivers.
A receiver analyses and interprets messages, translating
them into meaning ( this process is called decoding).
In a communication dyad, both people are
simultaneously a receiver and a source.
Just like the source, the receiver has many roles.
13
Feedbacks
■ A feedback is the response to a message, that a receiver
■
■
sends back to a source
Feedback enables a sender to determine whether the
communication has been received and understood as
intended.
To share meaning accurately, the sender must correct
faulty messages, misconceptions, repeat missed
meanings and correct responses as necessary.
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Feedbacks
■ Served as a control mechanism in the communication
■
■
process.
Miscommunications happen because of not utilising the
feedback mechanism.
Another advantage of feedback is the increased
reception of information. As the amount of feedback
increases, so does the accuracy of communication and
the does the recipient’s confidence in performance.
15
Environment
■ The environment refers to the psychological and physical
■
■
■
■
surroundings in which communication occurs.
Environment encompasses the attitudes, feelings,
perceptions and everything else in the physical world and
the psychological world.
The environment affects the nature and quality of the
communication.
Effective communication can occur anywhere.
Pleasing and comfortable environments are more likely to
produce positive exchanges.
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Context
■ Context means: the broad circumstances or
situation in which communication occur.
■ Communication does not occur in a vacuum.
■ Each context affects what we say and how we
say it.
■ Context also determines the type of
communication used.
17
Ethics in Communication
■
■
■
■
■
■
Honesty
Respect
Concern for others
Open mindedness
Clarity
No manipulation or coercion
■ Would there be times when there is conflict in terms of
ethics?
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References:
■ Seiler, W. J (2008). Communication. Making
■
■
■
Connections (7th ed). Boston: Pearson
Verderber . R.F and Verderber , K. S. (2005).
Communicate ( 11th ed). Belmont : Thomson.
Tyler, S, Kossen, C and Ryan, C (2002).
Communication. A Foundation Course. Revised edition.
NSW, AU: Prentice Hall
Hybels, S. and Weaver II, R. L (2004). Communicating
Effectively ( 7th ed) .Boston: Mc Graw Hill
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A VERY IMPORTANT COMMUNICATION:
THE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN US AND
GOD, OUR CREATOR
Have we checked if our
communication with God
is effective? If not, what
can we do? If yes, what can
be improved?
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