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Chapter 4 Mesopotamia Lesson 1: The Sumerians I. The First Civilizations in Mesopotamia A. The Two Rivers 1. The first known ________________ started in ________________. 2. A civilization is a group of people who have a high level of_____________ and _____________. 3. Mesopotamia is the land located between the _________and ____________Rivers. 4. Mesopotamia is located in _______________________. 5. People first stayed in Mesopotamia around __________B.C. 6. These people _____________and raised ______________ for food. 7. People started to __________around 4000 B.C. 8. They farmed in the valley between the _____________________. B. Irrigation 1. To grow crops, farmers need water for the soil. 2. Farmers in Mesopotamia got ___________ from the _______________________________. 3. Sometimes it rained too much causing the rivers to ______________. 4. Floods could destroy_________, but they also left the land covered with _______. 5. Silt is a _______________ and good for farming. 6. To control the floods, the people of Mesopotamia built ____________. 7. A dam is a ________that _________ the flow of water. 8. Mesopotamians also dug ____________. 9. A canal is a _________ that lets water _________ to the fields. Watering crops using canals is called _____________. 10. By using _____________, farmers could grow large amounts of food. The people of Mesopotamia had extra food, or a _______________. C. Cities Grow 1. Because of a _____________of food, not everyone needed to farm. 2. Some people could become _______________. An artisan is a person who ___________________, such as cloth, tools, or weapons. 3. People began to live together in places that helped them ____________ goods. 4. Before long, small villages grew into ____________. By 3000 B.C., many cities had started and grown in __________. Sumer is the region in ________________ Mesopotamia. D. Sumer’s Civilization 1. The people of Sumer were called _______________. 2. They built many ______________. The cities of Sumer had ____________ around them, which were hard to travel across so each city stood ____________. 3. As cities grew, they gained _____________ of the ____________around them. 4. They formed __________________. 5. Each city-state had its own __________________. It was not part of a larger nation. 6. Sometimes Sumerian city-states ____________ each other, but during times of peace, they ____________with each other. E. Polytheism 1. The Sumerian people worshiped many ___________. 2. Worshipping many gods is called _________________. 3. Each _____________ though, claimed one god as its own. 4. To honor this god, the city-state built a large temple called a ______________. 5. A __________is a building used to worship _________ or ________________. F. Social Classes in Sumer 1. People in Sumer were divided into ____________________. 2. The __________ ____________ included ____________, ___________, _____________ and __________________workers. People in this class were______________ and ______________. 3. The ____________ ___________ had _________________, ___________, and ____________. It was the _______________ group. 4. ____________people made up the ________________. They had______ money and no power. 5. The basic unit of Sumerian life was the ___________. 6. _____ were the ________ of the family.__________ ran the __________ and cared for the _____________. G. Sumerian Contributions 1. Sumerians created a way of writing called ________________. 2. Cuneiform was written by using ____________________ cut into damp _________. Only a few people learned to read and write cuneiform. 3. Some of these people became ____________. A scribe is a person who __________ business dealings and important events. 4. The oldest known story in the world comes from Sumer. This story is called the ____________ ____ __________. 5. An ________ is a long poem that tells the story of a hero. 6. The Sumerians were the first people to use the ___________. They were also the first to use ____________and ________________________. 7. Sumerians were the first to make ____________ out of copper and tin. 8. Sumerians studied _________________and ________________. Astronomy is the study of planets, stars, and other objects in space. 9. Sumerians learned the best times to plant _________ by observing the positions of the __________.