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And the Greek Gods of Oedipus Greek Tragedy Nearly all surviving tragedies were based on myth Greek tragedies dealt with the big theme of love, loss, pride, the abuse of power and the relationships between men and gods. The protagonist commits a terrible crime without realizing how foolish and arrogant he has been Then slowly as the world is “crumbling around him”, recognizes his error. Hubris and Hamartia Hamartia is defined as a tragic human flaw; the mistake or error that a tragic character commits and which accounts in part for his misfortunes Hubris is defined as exaggerated self-pride or overconfidence. In ancient Greece, to have hubris or to commit an ‘act of hubris’ was a crime punishable by death. In a Greek tragedy, hubris leads the protagonist to break a moral law; he will attempt vainly to transcend normal limitations or ignore divine warning with calamitous results; placing one's self equal to the gods Three Three Great Playwrights Aeschylus Most famous for Oresteia Introduced concept of second actor Expanded possibilities for plot Sophocles Innovation of the third actor Most famous for Oedipus Rex Sophocles SOPHOCLES, one of the most influential writers of Ancient Greece, was most likely born in 497/6 B.C. Probably, his place of birth is in Attica. Coming from not an aristocratic, but still a wealthy family, Sophocles had the opportunity to study all of the arts, starting with his early years. So, by the time he was sixteen, he was already known by the community for his knowledge and talents. Due to this, he was chosen to lead a choir of boys at a celebration of the victory of Salamis. He completed his studies twelve years later, when he was ready to show his fresh dramatic vision. So, during the City Dionysia, a festival held every year at the Theatre of Dionysus, dedicated to new plays, he acquired his first success. Sophocles took first prize, after defeating no other than Aeschylus himself, the indisputable master of Athenian drama. And this was just to be the beginning, as Sophocles would go on winning eighteen first prizes. He wrote more than 120 plays. Euripides Created the ultimate form of drama Far more naturalistic or human approach in his works Showed interest in psychology through portraits of women Euripides (continued) Medea is most famous work Describes how a mother kills her children to gain revenge against their father Gods of Mount Olympus to Whom the People of Thebes Prayed “Like children, they need to be reminded of the order of things!” Apollo Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto. His twin sister is Artemis. He is the god of music, playing a golden lyre. The Archer, far shooting with a silver bow. The god of healing who taught man medicine. The god of light. The god of truth, who can not speak a lie. He is famous for his oracle at Delphi. People travled to it from all over the greek world to devine the future. His tree was the laurel. The crow his bird. The dolphin his animal. Oracle at Delphi Dating back to 1400 BC, the Oracle of Delphi was the most important shrine in all Greece. Built around a sacred spring, Delphi was considered to be the omphalos - the center (literally navel) of the world. People came from all over Greece and beyond to have their questions about the future answered by the Pythia, the priestess of Apollo. And her answers, usually cryptic, could determine the course of everything from when a farmer planted his seedlings, to when an empire declared war. Arguments over the correct interpretation of an oracle were common, but the oracle was always happy to give another prophecy if more gold was provided. Zeus Zeus was the supreme ruler of the gods. He is lord of the sky, the rain god. His weapon is a thunderbolt which he hurls at those who displease him. He is married to Hera but, is famous for his many affairs. He is also known to punish those that lie or break oaths. Artemis Artemis is the daughter of Zeus and Leto. Her twin brother is Apollo. She is the lady of the wild things. She is the huntsman of the gods. She is the protector of the young. She is a virgin goddess, and the goddess of chastity. She also presides over childbirth. The cypress is her tree. All wild animals are scared to her, especially the deer. Athena Athena is the daughter of Zeus. She is the goddess of the city, handicrafts, and agriculture. She is the embodiment of wisdom, reason, and purity.. Her favorite city is Athens. Her tree is the olive. The owl is her bird. She is a virgin goddess. The Theaters Theater of Dionysos Athens Main theater for tragedy 4th century remains c. 20,000 seats Located on side of Acropolis Theater of Dionysos Theater of Dionysos The Theaters Theater of Epidauros The best-preserved Largest surviving theater Located near Argos in the Peloponnesus Sanctuary of Aesclepius Still in use today Theater of Epidauros Theater of Epidauros The Theaters Theater of Pergamon In Asia Minor (Turkey) Extremely steep seating Fit to the terrain Pergamon one of the most wealthy Asian cities Theater of Pergamon Discovery Channel: Ancient Greek Theatre Click on title to open video The Staging of Tragedy “Classical theater resembled today’s rock concerts: the audience knew every number by heart, performers wore high heels, loud costumes and heavy make-up, and they relied on background singers, known as the Chorus.” -Howard Tomb Actors wore highly stylized masks The Chorus The Chorus’ role was to express the ideas of the playwright — to praise the gods and explain their will.