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Midterm Exam • Material Covered – Chapter 1 to 6 • Format of Exam – – – – – Multiple-Choice Questions: 40 to 50 questions Facts Concepts Reasoning Quantitative -- Real Simple Kine! Review for Midterm Important Facts: • What does the universe look like, from the smallest (asteroids, comets, moons, and planets) to the entire universe? • How is everything moving around in the universe? – – – – – – – – – Earth w.r.t. Universe Earth w.r.t. Sun Moon w.r.t. Earth Sun, Moon, Earth system The solar system Our solar system w.r.t. other nearby stars Where are we at in the Milkyway galaxy? How is the solar system moving in our galaxy? How are the galaxies moving w.r.t. each other? Review for Midterm Important Facts • Properties of the solar system – Motion – Composition – Atmosphere – Sizes – Activities – Satellites – Comets and asteroids Review for Midterm • The Big Bang – What leads us to believe that the universe started out with the Big Bang? – What elements are produced in the Big Bang? • How big is the universe? – What is the observable universe? – What’s outside of the observable universe? Review for Midterm Important Astronomical Phenomena: • Day-night cycle • Seasons • Changing phase of the Moon • Constant face of the Moon • Lunar and solar Eclipses • Planetary motion in the sky • Seasonal variation of star patterns • Different sky at different place Move yourself away from Earth! b) Quarter Venus a) Full Venus E V S A Sun V A S V S c) New Venus EV b) Quarter Venus E V Review for Midterm Light – The speed of light is constant! • Speed of light is not affected by the motion of the light source • Speed of light DO CHANGE in different medium. – How do we characterize light? Particles, Waves • Wavelength • Frequency • Energy – What’s the energy of different ‘type’ of light? – How is the energy, wavelength, frequency, and color of light related? – How does light behave in different medium? – How does light behave when the light source is moving? Review for Midterm Important History: • What are the competing theories for the solar system? • What were their arguments? • How do we test and verify the competing theories? • How was the argument settled? Review for Midterm Important Law of Physics • Keppler’s laws of planet motion • Newton’s law of motion • Newton’s law of gravity • Conservation Laws – Conservation of Momentum – Conservation of Energy Review for Midterm Important Concept: • Lightyear • the look back time • Stellar Parallax—angular size and distance of astronomical objects. • Mass and Weight • Speed and velocity • Acceleration • Force and Torque • Linear and Angular Momentum • Fields (gravitational fields, electric fields) Review for Midterm Important Concepts • Escape Speed • Free Fall • Weightlessness • Temperature – relation to the motions of a large collection of particles • Thermal radiation – Relationship between apparent color and temperature – How do we measure temperature of distant objects? • Particle and wave properties of light – Photons: energy per photon – Waves: wavelength, frequency, energy • Doppler effect – how do we measure velocity of distant objects. • Phases of matter, and their relation to temperature Review for Midterm • Structure of Atoms – Protons – Neutrons – Electrons – Chemical Properties of Elements – Isotopes • Atomic Spectra – The discrete nature of atomic energy levels – Difference with orbits in gravitational fields – How do atoms change energy level? Review for Midterm Important Processes • Absorption, emission, reflection, scattering of light • Tidal effect – Gravitational lock – Tidal friction—slowing of Earth’s rotation – Orbital resonance – Tidal heating • Gravitational collapse – Formation of accretion disk – Application of Conservation of Energy – Application of Conservation of Momentum • Condensation and Accretion Review for Midterm Important Measurement Techniques • How do we measure the mass of planet? • How do we measure motion of stars? • How do we measure the temperature of stars? • How do we measure chemical composition of stars? • How do we measure the age of the Earth? • How do we measure weight and mass?