Download Morphology

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Latin syntax wikipedia, lookup

Lithuanian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Word-sense disambiguation wikipedia, lookup

Old Norse morphology wikipedia, lookup

Inflection wikipedia, lookup

Symbol grounding problem wikipedia, lookup

Polish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ojibwe grammar wikipedia, lookup

Pipil grammar wikipedia, lookup

Compound (linguistics) wikipedia, lookup

Untranslatability wikipedia, lookup

Comparison (grammar) wikipedia, lookup

Contraction (grammar) wikipedia, lookup

Pleonasm wikipedia, lookup

Esperanto grammar wikipedia, lookup

Classical compound wikipedia, lookup

Agglutination wikipedia, lookup

Stemming wikipedia, lookup

Distributed morphology wikipedia, lookup

Morphology (linguistics) wikipedia, lookup

Malay grammar wikipedia, lookup

Part 1
What is morphology?
• The study of morpheme, the unit that
constitute words.
• The study of internal structure of words and of
the rules by which words are formed.
• We study morphology to know about the
meaning of words, hence we can construct
and understand a language.
• We also learn about content words and
function words.
Content words
• A kind of words that denotes concepts such as
subjects, objects, actions, attributes, and
• It consists of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and
• Sometimes, content words are called openclass words, because the kind of word can be
added, improved, or vanished.
Function words
• A kind of words which do not have clear
meaning or concept.
• It consists of pronoun, conjunction,
preposition, and articles.
• It is also called as closed-class words because
we cannot easily add or improve any of them.
• The minimal units of meaning.
• There are 2 kinds of morpheme in every
language, those are free morpheme and
bound morpheme.
• If a word consists only one morpheme, it is
called monomorphemic word.
• The decomposition of words into morphemes
is called discreteness.
Free and Bound Morpheme
• Free morphemes may constitute words by
themselves. Ex: boy, sing, fast, gentle, man
• Bound morphemes cannot constitute words
by themselves, they must be attached to
another morpheme or to free morpheme. Ex:
-ish, -ment, un-, -im, -ous, etc.
• Bound morpheme is also called as affixes.
Kinds of affixes include
• Prefixes: affixes located before other morphemes,
ex: un- (undo), ir- (irregular), etc.
• Suffixes: affixes following other morphemes, ex: ment (derpartment), -ous (famous), etc.
• Infixes: affixes inserted in other morphemes, ex: el- (lelaki), -em- (temurun), -er- (rerata), etc.
• Circumfixes: affixes located before and after
other morphemes, ex: re-able (removable), inous (infamous), etc.
Affixes and their class word
-ship, -ity, -ize, -ate, dom, -ite, en
age, -ine, -n,
-arian, mono, dis-, ex-,
-ish, -ous, an,
-esque, ate, -ful, -ic
-al, -ance, - Un-, re-,
ation, -er, - dis-, autoist, -ion
-ness, -ity, ism, -dom
-able, -ive, ory, -y
-ish, -like,
a-, il-, in-,
un-, semi-,
dis-, sub-
• Zapotec language in Mexico
• Turkish
• Bontoc language in Philiphines
• Karuk language in Pacific Northwest
Root, Stem, Base
• A morphologically complex word consists of
root, stem, and base.
• A root is a morpheme of when it is not
attached by any affixes.
• When a root has been attached by an affix, it
is called stem.
• Any root and any stem to which an affix is
attached is called base.
Root  access
Stem  accessible
Stem  accessibility / inaccessible
Stem  inaccessibility
Word  inaccessibilities
• A root may or may not stand alone as a word
• So, there is free root and bound root.
Example of free root: access  inaccessibility
• Bound root does not have any meaning until it
is attached to a morpheme.
Example of bound root –ceive in “perceive”,
“receive”, “conceive”, “deceive”
Exercise 1
• Logical
• Changeable
• Formations
• Impossible
• Humanitarians
• Departments
• Healers
• Humorlessness
• Antisocial
Exercise 2
• Illogicalness
• Interchangabilities
• Informational
• Incredibleness
• Unemotional
• Abnormalities
• Irregularities
• Imperfections
• Combinations