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Transcript
Morphology
Part 1
What is morphology?
• The study of morpheme, the unit that
constitute words.
• The study of internal structure of words and of
the rules by which words are formed.
• We study morphology to know about the
meaning of words, hence we can construct
and understand a language.
• We also learn about content words and
function words.
Content words
• A kind of words that denotes concepts such as
subjects, objects, actions, attributes, and
ideas.
• It consists of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and
adverbs.
• Sometimes, content words are called openclass words, because the kind of word can be
added, improved, or vanished.
Function words
• A kind of words which do not have clear
meaning or concept.
• It consists of pronoun, conjunction,
preposition, and articles.
• It is also called as closed-class words because
we cannot easily add or improve any of them.
Morpheme
• The minimal units of meaning.
• There are 2 kinds of morpheme in every
language, those are free morpheme and
bound morpheme.
• If a word consists only one morpheme, it is
called monomorphemic word.
• The decomposition of words into morphemes
is called discreteness.
Free and Bound Morpheme
• Free morphemes may constitute words by
themselves. Ex: boy, sing, fast, gentle, man
• Bound morphemes cannot constitute words
by themselves, they must be attached to
another morpheme or to free morpheme. Ex:
-ish, -ment, un-, -im, -ous, etc.
• Bound morpheme is also called as affixes.
Affixes
Kinds of affixes include
• Prefixes: affixes located before other morphemes,
ex: un- (undo), ir- (irregular), etc.
• Suffixes: affixes following other morphemes, ex: ment (derpartment), -ous (famous), etc.
• Infixes: affixes inserted in other morphemes, ex: el- (lelaki), -em- (temurun), -er- (rerata), etc.
• Circumfixes: affixes located before and after
other morphemes, ex: re-able (removable), inous (infamous), etc.
Affixes and their class word
Noun
Verb
Adverb
Adjective
Noun
-ship, -ity, -ize, -ate, dom, -ite, en
age, -ine, -n,
-arian, mono, dis-, ex-,
auto-
-ish, -ous, an,
-esque, ate, -ful, -ic
Verb
-al, -ance, - Un-, re-,
ation, -er, - dis-, autoist, -ion
-ness, -ity, ism, -dom
-able, -ive, ory, -y
Adjective
-ly
-ish, -like,
a-, il-, in-,
un-, semi-,
dis-, sub-
Exercise
• Zapotec language in Mexico
• Turkish
Exercise
• Bontoc language in Philiphines
• Karuk language in Pacific Northwest
Root, Stem, Base
• A morphologically complex word consists of
root, stem, and base.
• A root is a morpheme of when it is not
attached by any affixes.
• When a root has been attached by an affix, it
is called stem.
• Any root and any stem to which an affix is
attached is called base.
Example
Inaccessibilities
•
•
•
•
•
Root  access
Stem  accessible
Stem  accessibility / inaccessible
Stem  inaccessibility
Word  inaccessibilities
Base
Root
• A root may or may not stand alone as a word
• So, there is free root and bound root.
Example of free root: access  inaccessibility
• Bound root does not have any meaning until it
is attached to a morpheme.
Example of bound root –ceive in “perceive”,
“receive”, “conceive”, “deceive”
Exercise
Exercise 1
• Logical
• Changeable
• Formations
• Impossible
• Humanitarians
• Departments
• Healers
• Humorlessness
• Antisocial
Exercise 2
• Illogicalness
• Interchangabilities
• Informational
• Incredibleness
• Unemotional
• Abnormalities
• Irregularities
• Imperfections
• Combinations