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Transcript
Word Count: 1046
Questions on the origin of life and of the universe must have challenged human
curiosity and imagination as soon as early man had time for activities other than survival.
In 1859, Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species, and since then, people have
debated between the creationism and evolutionism theories. The theory of evolution has
been supported only through various religious writings, particularly the Bible.
Creationists believe in a divine creator, God. Creationism has a broad range of
beliefs involving a reliance on God’s miraculous work to explain the origin of the
universe, of life, and of the different kinds of plants and animals on Earth. According to
the creationist view, God willed everything into existence, and this is how humans came
onto the Earth. Creationists say that the evolution theory is biased and incomplete. They
believe that the fossil records fail to provide a link between diverse groups. To find out
how old fossils are, scientists use a method called radioisotope dating, which measures
the amount of uranium or lead lost over the years. Creationists deny evidence from this
testing because they assume no uranium or lead has been lost over the years.
The process of evolution, which all living things developed from unicellular organisms,
over billions of years Exactly how evolution occurs is still debated but it is a scientific
fact that it does occur. Most biologists believe that the modern theory of evolution arose
from a history of mutations either physically or chemically and it is still occurring. All
organisms can be traced back to a common ancestor from inanimate matter.
The science of paleontology or the study of life provides the most direct proof of
evolution in the past through fossil remains or impressions, usually in rock. Other
evidence comes from comparative studies of living animals and plants, including their
structure and geographical locations. “Mollusks and vascular plants account for more
than 80 percent” (Futuyma 87) of the world’s species, with about “1.4 to 1.8 million
species” (Futuyma 87) in all.
Changes occur in living organisms to help increase their adaptability, or potential for
survival and reproduction, in the face of changing environments. Evolution apparently
has no built-in direction or purpose. A given kind of organism may evolve only when it
occurs in a variety of forms differing in hereditary characteristics, or traits, that are
passed from parent to offspring. By chance, some varieties prove to be poorly adapted to
their current environment and thus disappear, whereas others prove to be adaptive, and
their numbers increase. The elimination of the unfit, or the "survival of the
fittest," is known as natural selection because it is nature that discards or
favors a particular variant. Basically, evolution takes place only when natural selection
operates on a population of organisms containing diverse inheritable forms.
Creationists have gone back to the basic laws of nature to see if evolution is physically
possible given enough time and opportunity. The one major problem that they see is the
2nd Law of Thermodynamics. It states, "All natural systems degenerate when
left to themselves". This is why everything falls apart and decays over time.
Creationists point to death as being the ultimate manifestation of this law. This physics
principle does not allow for something as complex as the human eye to originate from
something simple. The eye must follow the tendency for complete degeneration.
Creationists see a downward spiral for every living and non-living creation. Everything
breaks down into simpler substances; they do not become more complex. Creationists say
that, in the real world the long-term flow is downhill, not uphill. An experimental and
physical observation appears to confirm that the law is indeed universal, affecting all
natural processes in the long run.
The evolutionists do not see the Second Law of
Thermodynamics as a contradiction to evolutionary processes,
because as it “specifically states that the entropy of a closed system cannot decrease. The
law pertains to closed systems. The earth, and therefore evolution, is not a closed system”
(Creation Science FAQ) As we know, there are no closed system on earth, “so in no way
can any living system on Earth directly violate the second law” (Creation Science FAQ)
Therefore, this argument is invalid.
The age of the universe, perhaps billions of years old, shows that life has had lots of time
to evolve from single celled organisms to what we are today. Through fossils, and other
evidences, it shows that humans came from primates, which is not surprising, since we
are almost physically identical to a chimpanzee. In the beginning, very simple life forms
began gradually appearing. These simple life forms gradually changed to complex ones,
and there have been transitional ‘links’ between the different kinds, such as fishes and
primates. They both have the same types of bones, for example, forearms, wrists, elbows,
upper arms, and shoulders. They seem to be related to a common ancestor.
The Bible says that an omnipotent being, created the earth and everything on it in
6 days. He also created everything out of nothing. This is literally impossible, it
challenges all physics laws, so it cannot be done. The only proof that Creationists have of
the origin of life is the Bible. Evolutionists have much more proofs or evidence of how
humans appeared on the earth.
The Bible, whether intended literally or figuratively, is definitely an important piece of
literature. To believe that the age of the earth is only 10,000 years old does not support
the validity of the creationists. To many scholars, the Bible is a figurative book of
parables, not to be taken literally. The use of the Bible may be hindering, instead of
supporting, the validity of the creationist’s arguments. It is clear that evolution is much
clearer to understand and accept than the creationism theory. There will always be people
who will still be curious as to how we appeared on the earth, and some people will
oppose the evolution theory, therefore, the evolutionism/creationism debate will forever
continue.
Works Cited
Creation Science FAQ
http://www.clubs.psu.edu/origins/faqsci.htm
Drew Thinks About Evolutionism vs Creationism.
http://petra.austinc.edu/arayburn/evolve.html
Futuyma, Douglas J. Evolutionary Biology. 3rd ed. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates
inc., 1997. General QH 366.2.F87
Montagu, Ashley, ed. Science and Creationism. New York: Oxford University Press,
1984. General QH 371.S343
Strahler, Arthur N. Science and Earth History. The Evolution/Creation Controversy. New
York: Prometheus Books, 1987. BS 652.S7
Keywords:
word count questions origin life universe must have challenged human curiosity
imagination soon early time activities other than survival charles darwin published origin
species since then people have debated between creationism evolutionism theories theory
evolution been supported only through various religious writings particularly bible
creationists believe divine creator creationism broad range beliefs involving reliance
miraculous work explain origin universe life different kinds plants animals earth
according creationist view willed everything into existence this humans came onto earth
creationists that evolution theory biased incomplete they believe that fossil records fail
provide link between diverse groups find fossils scientists method called radioisotope
dating which measures amount uranium lead lost over years creationists deny evidence
from this testing because they assume uranium lead been lost over years process
evolution which living things developed from unicellular organisms over billions years
exactly occurs still debated scientific fact that does occur most biologists believe modern
theory arose from history mutations either physically chemically still occurring
organisms traced back common ancestor inanimate matter science paleontology study life
provides most direct proof past through fossil remains impressions usually rock other
evidence comes comparative studies living animals plants including their structure
geographical locations mollusks vascular plants account more than percent futuyma
world species with about million species futuyma changes occur living organisms help
increase their adaptability potential survival reproduction face changing environments
apparently built direction purpose given kind organism evolve only when occurs variety
forms differing hereditary characteristics traits passed parent offspring chance some
varieties prove poorly adapted their current environment thus disappear whereas others
prove adaptive numbers increase elimination unfit quot survival fittest quot known
natural selection because nature discards favors particular variant basically takes place
only when natural selection operates population containing diverse inheritable forms have
gone back basic laws nature physically possible given enough time opportunity major
problem they thermodynamics states quot natural systems degenerate when left
themselves this everything falls apart decays time point death being ultimate
manifestation physics principle does allow something complex human originate
something simple must follow tendency complete degeneration downward spiral every
creation everything breaks down into simpler substances become more complex real
world long term flow downhill uphill experimental physical observation appears confirm
indeed universal affecting processes long evolutionists second thermodynamics
contradiction evolutionary processes because specifically states entropy closed system
cannot decrease pertains closed systems earth therefore closed system creation science
know there system directly violate second creation science therefore argument invalid
universe perhaps billions shows lots evolve single celled what today through fossils other
evidences shows humans came primates which surprising since almost physically
identical chimpanzee beginning very simple forms began gradually appearing these
simple gradually changed complex ones there been transitional links between different
kinds such fishes primates both same types bones example forearms wrists elbows upper
arms shoulders seem related common ancestor bible says omnipotent being created days
also created nothing literally impossible challenges physics laws cannot done proof bible
evolutionists much more proofs evidence humans appeared whether intended literally
figuratively definitely important piece literature does support validity many scholars
figurative book parables taken literally hindering instead supporting validity creationist
arguments clear much clearer understand accept than creationism there will always
people will still curious appeared some people will oppose therefore evolutionism debate
forever continue works cited http clubs origins faqsci drew thinks about evolutionism http
petra austinc arayburn evolve html futuyma douglas evolutionary biology massachusetts
sinauer associates general montagu ashley york oxford university press general strahler
arthur history controversy york prometheus books
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