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Carbon is the Main Ingredient of Organic Molecules It is a carbon based molecule. Examples: Carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids. These are non-carbon based compounds. Examples: Water and Hydrogen Peroxide These are organic molecules that are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Examples: Methane and Butane A group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules. These are small molecular units. These are large chains of monomers. Dehydration Synthesis (Building): Involves removing water from the two molecules being joined. Hydrolysis (Breaking): Involves adding water to the molecules so they separate. Carbohydrates Provide Fuel and Building Material These are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a ratio of (1 Carbon: 2 Hydrogen: 1 Oxygen) Energy: 4 Calories per gram Simple sugars that contain just one sugar unit. Examples: Glucose and Fructose These are 2 sugar units that have been put together through dehydration synthesis. Examples: Sucrose: (Glucose and Fructose) Lactose: (Milk Sugar) Maltose: (Malt Sugar) These are long polymer chains made up of many simple sugar monomers, or also known as a complex carbohydrate. Starch: Food Storage for Plants Glycogen: Energy that is stored in the muscles of animals for quick energy. (Liver Replenishes it) Cellulose: Makes up the cell walls in plant cells. (Humans can not digest it) Lipids include Fats and Steroids These are organic molecules that have a large proportion of carbon and hydrogen atoms and less oxygen than carbohydrates. Lipids: 9 Calories per gram Cholesterol Bees Wax Phospholipids (Cell Membranes) Saturated: Contains the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. All single bonds (Usually solid at room temperature) Unsaturated: It contains less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Contains double bonds. Usually a liquid at room temperature. Triglyceride: Composed of (Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids) This is a typical fat. Phospholipid: Found in Cell Membranes. Hydrophilic Heads: Water Loving Hydrophobic Tails: Water Hating Steroid Hormones: (Chemical signals in the body) Composed of 4 Fused Rings Testosterone: Male Hormone Estrogen: Female Hormone They are building materials for the body. Proteins are large complex polymers composed of amino acids. Proteins: 4 Calories per gram Meat Eggs Beans Used in making muscle fibers. Enzymes: (Molecules that allow reactions to occur in the body. They are the building blocks of proteins. 20 amino acids are available for protein synthesis. Occurs when amino acids are linked together. It involves the removal of water just like in carbohydrate synthesis. These are the main catalyst of chemical reactions in organisms. It is a compound that speeds up chemical reactions. It is the energy necessary to start or initiate a chemical reaction. See Example. A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme. It is a particular region on the enzyme that the substrate fits into for a reaction to occur. It is like a lock and key. They are very specific to what they do. Let’s do a few labs.