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Carbon is the Main Ingredient of Organic
Molecules


It is a carbon based molecule.
Examples: Carbohydrates, Proteins and
Lipids.

These are non-carbon based compounds.

Examples: Water and Hydrogen Peroxide


These are organic molecules that are
composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Examples: Methane and Butane

A group of atoms within a molecule that
interacts in predictable ways with other
molecules.

These are small molecular units.

These are large chains of monomers.


Dehydration Synthesis (Building): Involves
removing water from the two molecules being
joined.
Hydrolysis (Breaking): Involves adding water
to the molecules so they separate.

Carbohydrates Provide Fuel and Building
Material


These are organic molecules composed of
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a
ratio of (1 Carbon: 2 Hydrogen: 1 Oxygen)
Energy: 4 Calories per gram


Simple sugars that contain just one sugar
unit.
Examples: Glucose and Fructose





These are 2 sugar units that have been put
together through dehydration synthesis.
Examples:
Sucrose: (Glucose and Fructose)
Lactose: (Milk Sugar)
Maltose: (Malt Sugar)

These are long polymer chains made up of
many simple sugar monomers, or also known
as a complex carbohydrate.



Starch: Food Storage for Plants
Glycogen: Energy that is stored in the
muscles of animals for quick energy. (Liver
Replenishes it)
Cellulose: Makes up the cell walls in plant
cells. (Humans can not digest it)

Lipids include Fats and Steroids


These are organic molecules that have a large
proportion of carbon and hydrogen atoms
and less oxygen than carbohydrates.
Lipids: 9 Calories per gram



Cholesterol
Bees Wax
Phospholipids (Cell Membranes)

Saturated: Contains the maximum number of
hydrogen atoms.

All single bonds

(Usually solid at room temperature)

Unsaturated: It contains less than the
maximum number of hydrogen atoms.

Contains double bonds.

Usually a liquid at room temperature.


Triglyceride: Composed of (Glycerol + 3 Fatty
Acids)
This is a typical fat.

Phospholipid: Found in Cell Membranes.

Hydrophilic Heads: Water Loving

Hydrophobic Tails: Water Hating

Steroid Hormones: (Chemical signals in the
body)
Composed of 4 Fused Rings

Testosterone: Male Hormone

Estrogen: Female Hormone




They are building materials for the body.
Proteins are large complex polymers
composed of amino acids.
Proteins: 4 Calories per gram

Meat

Eggs

Beans


Used in making muscle fibers.
Enzymes: (Molecules that allow reactions to
occur in the body.


They are the building blocks of proteins.
20 amino acids are available for protein
synthesis.


Occurs when amino acids are linked together.
It involves the removal of water just like in
carbohydrate synthesis.

These are the main catalyst of chemical
reactions in organisms.

It is a compound that speeds up chemical
reactions.


It is the energy necessary to start or initiate a
chemical reaction.
See Example.

A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme.

It is a particular region on the enzyme that
the substrate fits into for a reaction to occur.

It is like a lock and key.

They are very specific to what they do.

Let’s do a few labs.