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EMS 353 questions and answers sheet 1. What's activated charcoal? Activated charcoal is a powder, usually premixed with water that will absorb some poisons and help prevent them from being absorbed by the body. 2. Define "oral glucose.”? Form of glucose (a kind of sugar) given by mouth to treat an awake patient (who is able to swallow) with an altered mental status and a history of diabetes. 3. In what cases might activated charcoal be administered? Cases of poisoning and overdose 4. How do you administer oral glucose? Generally oral glucose comes as a gel that can be applied to a tongue depressor and placed between the patient's cheek and gum or directly under the tongue. 5. Define "oxygen." A gas commonly found in the atmosphere. Pure oxygen is used as a drug to treat any patient whose medical or traumatic condition may cause him to be hypoxic, or low in oxygen. 6. What do prescribed inhalers, nitroglycerin, and epinephrine auto-injectors have in common? 7. Define "bronchodilator." A medication designed to enlarge constricted bronchial tubes, making breathing easier. 8. What conditions would result in the prescription of a bronchodilator? Asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis. 9. What are the most commonly found common bronchodilator drugs? Albuterol Ventolin Page Increased heart rate, jitteriness 1 10. What are some common side effects of bronchodilator drugs? 11. Name some common drugs prescribed to diabetic patients to control hyperglycemia (Antidiabetic Agents). Glipizide (Glucotrol) Insulin (Humulin, Novolin, NPH, Humalog) Metformin (Glucophage) 12. Define "nitroglycerin." A drug that helps to dilate the coronary vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood. 13. What do many people use as a short name for nitroglycerin? "nitro." 14.. before administering any drug to any patient, what must you do? First, confirm the order and write it down. Then, check the four rights: 1) Do I have the right patient? 2) Is this the right medication? 3) Is this the right dose? 4) Am I giving this medication by the right route of administration? 15. What's a common trade name of nitroglycerin? Nitrostat. 16. What common drugs can interact dangerously with nitroglycerin? Sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra or Staxyn) and tadalafil (Cialis) The mechanism of action of these medications is increase the production of nitric oxide Page Never take Viagra, Levitra or Cialis if you take nitrate drugs to treat heart pain (angina). Like Viagra, Levitra and Cialis, nitrate drugs dilate blood vessels. Their combined effects 2 The same of nitroglycerin. can cause dangerously low blood pressure and loss of consciousness. Medications that contain nitrates include: •Nitroglycerin (Nitro-Bid, Minitran, others) •Isosorbide (Dilatrate-SR, Isordil, Monoket, others) • amyl nitrite 17. What is a common side effect of nitroglycerin? A drop in blood pressure. 18. What do you do in the case of a drop in blood pressure after administering nitroglycerin? Have the patient lie down and raise his legs, and contact medical direction for advice. 19. What is an epinephrine auto-injector used for? It's used to reverse life-threatening changes in airway and circulation due to allergic reactions. 20. Why must epinephrine be administered very quickly? Because severe allergic reactions may reach a life-threatening stage in a very short time. 21. What is an epinephrine auto-injector? It's a syringe with a spring-loaded needle that will release and inject epinephrine into the muscle when the auto injector is pushed against the thigh. 22. What's a common trade name for a one-dose epinephrine auto-injector? How about a trade name for a two-dose epinephrine auto-injector? Epi-Pen Twinject 23. What are common side effects of administering an epinephrine auto-injector? Increased heart rate and increased blood pressure. Page U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP) 3 24. What comprehensive US government publication lists every drug and/or medication by its generic name? 25. What must you do after administering medication to a patient? Reassess the patient to see how the drug has affected him. 26. Name some common analgesics used for pain relief. Morphine (Astramorph PF, Duramorph, MS Contin, Roxanol) Acetaminophen (Anacin-3, Panadol, Tempra, Tylenol) Ibuprofen (Actiprofen, Advil, Excedrin IS, Motrin, Novoprofen, Nuprin) Aspirin (Ecotrin, Emprin) Codeine Indomethacin (Indocin) 27. Name some common drugs prescribed for prevention and control of seizures (Anticonvulsants) Carbamazepine (Epitol, Tegretol) Phenytoin (Dilantin) Phenobarbital (Phenobarbital, Phenobarbital Sodium, Solfoton) Valproic acid (Depakene) Ethnosuximide (Zarontin) Gabapentin (Neurontin 28. Name 6 drugs that are carried on the ambulance and may be administered by the Page 1. activated charcoal 2. Oral glucose 3.Oxygen 4.prescribed inhalers 5. Nitroglycerin 6. Epinephrine auto-injectors 4 EMT under certain circumstances? 29. When is nitroglycerin indicated? When a patient has chest pain or squeezing, dull pressure. 30. When is nitroglycerin contraindicated (when should it NOT be given)? Page 5 When the patient has low blood pressure.