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Principle Of Learning and Education Course
NUR 315
Chapter 13
Technology in Education
The information age
The information age
 A period in history characterized by
 A change in focus from industry to information
 Growth of technology
 Information explosion
Health education in the information age
 The use of technology in education is a reflection of
what is happening on a much larger scale in our
 We are in a period of history often referred to as the
information age , the the information age is
characterized by a change in focus from industry to
The impact of technology on the teacher
and the learner
The information age technology has had a significant
influence on educators and learners for a number of
reasons. Most importantly ,
Learning has become a shared responsibility. Teacher has
taken on the role of facilitator as the access to information
bridge the gap between teacher and learner. When
information is widely available ,it is no longer necessary
for the teacher to find’, filter and deliver the content .
Therefore , the teacher is no longer the person who holds
all of the answers or the individual who is solely
responsible for imparting the information
 Educators in the information age are becoming facilitators of
learning rather than providers of information. The need for
memorization of the information becomes less important than
the ability to think critically. They are helping individuals to
learn how to refine a problem, to find the information they
need, and to critically evaluate the information they find.
 Nurses must structure their approach to healthcare
education to be consistent with the needs of the
information age clients. The nurse must be prepared to
be a facilitator of learning by healping clients to access,
evaluate and use the wide range of information that is
available. The nurse must also learn how and when to
use technology and remain current as new technology
–based tools become available in order to optimize
each learning experience.
 Like consumer, health professional in the information
age can use the Internet and the World Wide Web as
vehicles for sharing resources and for gaining access
to the most current information in their field
 Computer have made it possible to provide anytime,
anywhere accesses to job training and continuing
education. Viritual reality and computer simulation can
open up opportunities to learn hands-on skills and
develop competencies in areas such as diagnostic
reasoning and problem solving
Information Literacy
The ability to:
 Access needed information
 Evaluate information found
 Organize information
 Use information from a variety of sources
Computer Literacy
 The ability to use the computer hardware and software
necessary to accomplish routine tasks
Information literacy
Computer literacy
A client who is information
literate knows how to find the
information needed and can
evaluate the information
founded for accuracy,
currency and bias.
A client who is computer
literate has the technical
skills and knowledge of
computers necessary to use
contemporary hardware and
software and can adapt to
new technologies that
Consumer Informatics
 A field of study that are directed to find ways to use
technology to strengthen the relationship between client
and health care providers as well as to teach and
empower clients dealing with issues related to health and
 Models/integrates consumer preferences into medical
information systems
Strategies for using technology in
health care education
• A pre-teaching assessment of a client in the information
age must begin with questions about computer use.
I. On-line Healthcare Education
1. World Wide Web (WWW)
World Wide Web (WWW): A technical definition of the
World Wide Web is all the resources and users on the
Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) that provides access to images, videos , sound
and text
the world wide web is the most familiar technologybased educational recourses Internet
As it is provides unlimited resources for nurses to use in
practice and in professional education and
development. Web sites provide access to bibliographic
databases, continuing education, online journals and
resources for patient teaching and professional practice.
 Because the web can be so influential, it is important to
determine that the information a client has found is
accurate, complete and fully understood.
 It is important for nurses to establish early in their
relationship with clients that they are interested in talking
with them about the information they have gathered from
the web or other resources they have available to them.
Client need to feel that nurses are open to discussing
whatever information they find. They need to understand
that nurses are a partner in seeking the best information
It is important to conduct a teaching session with health
consumers about computer access in order to to :
 provide the nurse educator with the opportunity to
review web-based information with the client.
 determine the type and amount of information to which
the client has been exposed and assess the clients
knowledge and identify areas in which the client may
have need for further teaching.
 find information that needs further discussion.
2. Internet
The World Wide Web (WWW) is merely a small component
of the much larger computer net work called internet.
The internet service most likely to be of interest to nurse
educators includes those that allow computer-facilitated
communication such as
Mailing lists
Electronic discussion group
Online chats
Steps to develop website information literacy
Healthcare consumers may not have the background
knowledge to evaluate information to the same extent as
a professional, they can be taught some simple steps to
develop their information literacy skills and to help them
begin to identify which web sites are useful and which are
problematic. These steps are:
 Reduce a problem to a searchable command
 Categorize a Web page according to its purpose
 Identify sources of potential bias
 Make judgments about the accuracy and reliability of
information found
 Make decisions about the comprehensiveness of information
 Determine currency
 Identify resources to answer questions or verify assumptions
about content of a webpage
 The nurse can teach clients who access the web to use it more
effectively and can be proactive in encouraging others to give it
a try.
Sample of websites appropriate to the
needs of different client populations
Sample of websites for health care professional
Criteria for Evaluating Web Sites
1. Accuracy .
Make sure that ;
• Supportive data provided, current and from reputable
• Can you find the same information on other website
• Is the information provided comprehensive ?
• Is there more than point of view presented?
2. Design
•Is the site well organized and easy to navigate?
• Can I find the information I am looking for within a few clicks?
•Are there typographical error ?
•Do graphics serve a purpose other than decoration ?
3. Authority
Are the sponsor / author(s) credible, governments ,educational
institution , health carte organization ….. ?
Are the author credential appropriate for the purpose of the site ?
4. Authors/Sponsors
 Who is the author/publisher?
 Is that source clearly identified on the site?
 Can I contact the author through an e-mail, phone number, or a
mailing address?
 What are the author's credentials? Is he or she an expert in the
subject I am researching?
 Is the site created or sponsored by a reputable organization? If so,
 Can I confirm that the organization is a credible, authoritative
source of information?
5. Currency
 Are the links current or updated regularly?
 Is the information on the page outdated?
Internet-based Communication
 The internet services most likely to be of interest to nurse
educators include those that allow computer facilitated
communication that have been used to communicate with
people about health and healthcare such as ;
 E-mail
 Electronic discussion groups
 Mailing lists
 Blogs, online forums, message boards, bulletin boards
 Online chats
 Discussion Boards
E-Health Code of Ethics
 Candor ;disclose the information about the creators nl
purpose of the site that will help users make judgment about
the creditability and trustworthiness of information or
service provided
 Honesty ;truthful in describing products and present
information that is not likely to mislead the user
 Quality; ensure that information is accurate, easy to
understood and provide background information
 Informed Consent; inform the user if personal information is
collected and allow them to choose whether the information
can be used or shared
 Privacy ;ensure that the user’s rights to privacy is
 Professionalism in online health care ;A bide by the ethical
code of your profession (nursing ,medicine), provide the
users with the information about who you are, what you can
do online and which limitations may apply to the online
 Responsible Partnering ; ensure that sponsors ,partners
and others who works with you are trustworthy
 Accountability ; Implement procedure for collecting
,reviewing and responding to user feedback . Develop and
share procedures for self-monitoring compliance with the eHealth Codes of Ethics
II. Social Media
 The health care industry has begun to recognize the potential
of social media to educate and empower people ,to quickly
send messages t a worldwide audience and to gather
information about public perceptions of health issues.
 Blogs, Wikis
 Consumers may turn to these for health-related information to
share knowledge and experience in a specific topic.
 Many of the blogs found on the web are health related and the
creators tell a story about their experience in a given disease or
 Wiki are more social in their construction as multiple users come
together on a wiki to collaboratively write the content of
collections of webpages
 Facebook, Twitter, YouTube
All are other social media tools that can be employed by nurse
for educational purposes
With these media , users create their own profile pages where
information, pictures, and other forms of media such as blogs
for comments can be posted.
 Webcasts
Are live broadcasts over the Internet that growing in
popularity as a training device that permit audio\video to be
transmitted to participants in multiple locations .
Although webcast do not allow for interaction , they are
growing in popularity as a training device for sharing lecture
and demonstrations
 Webinars
Are web-based conferencing that allow for interaction and when
well run, can be an effective teaching \ learning strategy with
group of people at distance
 Mobile Learning (m-Learning)
The word mobile referes to both to the use of portable
technologies such as MP3 player to the end user –the mobile
adult who can truly learn any where ,any time ,any place .
Mobile devices can be used for a wide range o activities and
with both clients in the clinical area and students in the
academic area. These activities include accessing websites,
listening to the lectures, or broadcasts, recording experience,
and assignments and participating in learning focused games
Distance Education
 Distance education for nurses is flourishing in the 21st
century where degree programs are offered at all levels
(Billings 2007).
 Distance education means different things to different
people , the Internet is primary vehicle for delivering
distance education . Online courses, correspondence
courses, independent study and videoconferencing
are just a few of the techniques that can be used to
deliver education to students studying at a distance
 When distance education programs introduced , they
quite controversial .
 For example when Regents External Degree program
was first created in 1974,many people believed that a
distance model was inappropriate for nursing education.
Today , Regents External Degree program ,now known as
Excelsior College, ,is one of the largest nursing program in
the world ,with more than 1,6000nursing students
enrolled in associate, baccelora and master degree
program (Excelsior College, 2007)
 In 1994, ,another milestone was reached in nursing
education when Duquesne University in Pennsylvania
opened the first online distance education program
leading to a PhD in nursing
 Excelsior College& Duquesne University are just a few
examples of distance education in nursing in USA .
 Standards and guidelines for quality in distance
education have been developed by several education
organizations to main effective educational programs
(Billings 2007, Institutes for Higher Education Policy
State of the Evidence
 Large body of research investigating effect of distance
education technologies on student outcomes.
 Growing body of research on use of technology in patient
 Technology is a powerful tool to enhance learning.
However, technology is a means to an end, not an end in
and of itself. It must be used with thought, careful
planning, and thorough evaluation.
 Bastable, S. (2014): Nurse As Educator: Principles of
Teaching and Learning For Nursing Practice. 3rd ed
Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury.