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Principle Of Learning and Education Course NUR 315 Chapter 13 Technology in Education The information age The information age A period in history characterized by A change in focus from industry to information Growth of technology Information explosion Health education in the information age The use of technology in education is a reflection of what is happening on a much larger scale in our communities We are in a period of history often referred to as the information age , the the information age is characterized by a change in focus from industry to information The impact of technology on the teacher and the learner The information age technology has had a significant influence on educators and learners for a number of reasons. Most importantly , Learning has become a shared responsibility. Teacher has taken on the role of facilitator as the access to information bridge the gap between teacher and learner. When information is widely available ,it is no longer necessary for the teacher to find’, filter and deliver the content . Therefore , the teacher is no longer the person who holds all of the answers or the individual who is solely responsible for imparting the information Educators in the information age are becoming facilitators of learning rather than providers of information. The need for memorization of the information becomes less important than the ability to think critically. They are helping individuals to learn how to refine a problem, to find the information they need, and to critically evaluate the information they find. Nurses must structure their approach to healthcare education to be consistent with the needs of the information age clients. The nurse must be prepared to be a facilitator of learning by healping clients to access, evaluate and use the wide range of information that is available. The nurse must also learn how and when to use technology and remain current as new technology –based tools become available in order to optimize each learning experience. Like consumer, health professional in the information age can use the Internet and the World Wide Web as vehicles for sharing resources and for gaining access to the most current information in their field Computer have made it possible to provide anytime, anywhere accesses to job training and continuing education. Viritual reality and computer simulation can open up opportunities to learn hands-on skills and develop competencies in areas such as diagnostic reasoning and problem solving Information Literacy The ability to: Access needed information Evaluate information found Organize information Use information from a variety of sources Computer Literacy The ability to use the computer hardware and software necessary to accomplish routine tasks Information literacy Computer literacy A client who is information literate knows how to find the information needed and can evaluate the information founded for accuracy, currency and bias. A client who is computer literate has the technical skills and knowledge of computers necessary to use contemporary hardware and software and can adapt to new technologies that emerge. Consumer Informatics A field of study that are directed to find ways to use technology to strengthen the relationship between client and health care providers as well as to teach and empower clients dealing with issues related to health and wellness Models/integrates consumer preferences into medical information systems Strategies for using technology in health care education • A pre-teaching assessment of a client in the information age must begin with questions about computer use. I. On-line Healthcare Education 1. World Wide Web (WWW) World Wide Web (WWW): A technical definition of the World Wide Web is all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that provides access to images, videos , sound and text the world wide web is the most familiar technologybased educational recourses Internet As it is provides unlimited resources for nurses to use in practice and in professional education and development. Web sites provide access to bibliographic databases, continuing education, online journals and resources for patient teaching and professional practice. Because the web can be so influential, it is important to determine that the information a client has found is accurate, complete and fully understood. It is important for nurses to establish early in their relationship with clients that they are interested in talking with them about the information they have gathered from the web or other resources they have available to them. Client need to feel that nurses are open to discussing whatever information they find. They need to understand that nurses are a partner in seeking the best information available. It is important to conduct a teaching session with health consumers about computer access in order to to : provide the nurse educator with the opportunity to review web-based information with the client. determine the type and amount of information to which the client has been exposed and assess the clients knowledge and identify areas in which the client may have need for further teaching. find information that needs further discussion. 2. Internet The World Wide Web (WWW) is merely a small component of the much larger computer net work called internet. The internet service most likely to be of interest to nurse educators includes those that allow computer-facilitated communication such as E-mail Mailing lists Electronic discussion group Online chats Steps to develop website information literacy skills Healthcare consumers may not have the background knowledge to evaluate information to the same extent as a professional, they can be taught some simple steps to develop their information literacy skills and to help them begin to identify which web sites are useful and which are problematic. These steps are: Reduce a problem to a searchable command Categorize a Web page according to its purpose Identify sources of potential bias Make judgments about the accuracy and reliability of information found Make decisions about the comprehensiveness of information found Determine currency Identify resources to answer questions or verify assumptions about content of a webpage The nurse can teach clients who access the web to use it more effectively and can be proactive in encouraging others to give it a try. Sample of websites appropriate to the needs of different client populations Sample of websites for health care professional Criteria for Evaluating Web Sites 1. Accuracy . Make sure that ; • Supportive data provided, current and from reputable source • Can you find the same information on other website • Is the information provided comprehensive ? • Is there more than point of view presented? 2. Design •Is the site well organized and easy to navigate? • Can I find the information I am looking for within a few clicks? •Are there typographical error ? •Do graphics serve a purpose other than decoration ? 3. Authority Are the sponsor / author(s) credible, governments ,educational institution , health carte organization ….. ? Are the author credential appropriate for the purpose of the site ? 4. Authors/Sponsors Who is the author/publisher? Is that source clearly identified on the site? Can I contact the author through an e-mail, phone number, or a mailing address? What are the author's credentials? Is he or she an expert in the subject I am researching? Is the site created or sponsored by a reputable organization? If so, can Can I confirm that the organization is a credible, authoritative source of information? 5. Currency Are the links current or updated regularly? Is the information on the page outdated? Internet-based Communication The internet services most likely to be of interest to nurse educators include those that allow computer facilitated communication that have been used to communicate with people about health and healthcare such as ; E-mail Electronic discussion groups Mailing lists Blogs, online forums, message boards, bulletin boards Online chats Discussion Boards E-Health Code of Ethics Candor ;disclose the information about the creators nl purpose of the site that will help users make judgment about the creditability and trustworthiness of information or service provided Honesty ;truthful in describing products and present information that is not likely to mislead the user Quality; ensure that information is accurate, easy to understood and provide background information Informed Consent; inform the user if personal information is collected and allow them to choose whether the information can be used or shared Privacy ;ensure that the user’s rights to privacy is protected Professionalism in online health care ;A bide by the ethical code of your profession (nursing ,medicine), provide the users with the information about who you are, what you can do online and which limitations may apply to the online interaction Responsible Partnering ; ensure that sponsors ,partners and others who works with you are trustworthy Accountability ; Implement procedure for collecting ,reviewing and responding to user feedback . Develop and share procedures for self-monitoring compliance with the eHealth Codes of Ethics II. Social Media The health care industry has begun to recognize the potential of social media to educate and empower people ,to quickly send messages t a worldwide audience and to gather information about public perceptions of health issues. Blogs, Wikis Consumers may turn to these for health-related information to share knowledge and experience in a specific topic. Many of the blogs found on the web are health related and the creators tell a story about their experience in a given disease or treatment. Wiki are more social in their construction as multiple users come together on a wiki to collaboratively write the content of collections of webpages Facebook, Twitter, YouTube All are other social media tools that can be employed by nurse for educational purposes With these media , users create their own profile pages where information, pictures, and other forms of media such as blogs for comments can be posted. Webcasts Are live broadcasts over the Internet that growing in popularity as a training device that permit audio\video to be transmitted to participants in multiple locations . Although webcast do not allow for interaction , they are growing in popularity as a training device for sharing lecture and demonstrations Webinars Are web-based conferencing that allow for interaction and when well run, can be an effective teaching \ learning strategy with group of people at distance Mobile Learning (m-Learning) The word mobile referes to both to the use of portable technologies such as MP3 player to the end user –the mobile adult who can truly learn any where ,any time ,any place . Mobile devices can be used for a wide range o activities and with both clients in the clinical area and students in the academic area. These activities include accessing websites, listening to the lectures, or broadcasts, recording experience, and assignments and participating in learning focused games (peters,2007) Distance Education Distance education for nurses is flourishing in the 21st century where degree programs are offered at all levels (Billings 2007). Distance education means different things to different people , the Internet is primary vehicle for delivering distance education . Online courses, correspondence courses, independent study and videoconferencing are just a few of the techniques that can be used to deliver education to students studying at a distance When distance education programs introduced , they quite controversial . For example when Regents External Degree program was first created in 1974,many people believed that a distance model was inappropriate for nursing education. Today , Regents External Degree program ,now known as Excelsior College, ,is one of the largest nursing program in the world ,with more than 1,6000nursing students enrolled in associate, baccelora and master degree program (Excelsior College, 2007) In 1994, ,another milestone was reached in nursing education when Duquesne University in Pennsylvania opened the first online distance education program leading to a PhD in nursing Excelsior College& Duquesne University are just a few examples of distance education in nursing in USA . Standards and guidelines for quality in distance education have been developed by several education organizations to main effective educational programs (Billings 2007, Institutes for Higher Education Policy 2000) State of the Evidence Large body of research investigating effect of distance education technologies on student outcomes. Growing body of research on use of technology in patient education. Summary Technology is a powerful tool to enhance learning. However, technology is a means to an end, not an end in and of itself. It must be used with thought, careful planning, and thorough evaluation. Reference Bastable, S. (2014): Nurse As Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning For Nursing Practice. 3rd ed Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury.