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American Language and Culture
Jazz: An American Art Form
Format: seminar, 2 hours; graded
Place: 54
Time: WEN 12-13.40
Tutor: Gabor TURI
Office Hours: WEN 11-12, and by appointment ([email protected])
Description of Course
Jazz originated in the United States through the confrontation of Afro-Americans with European
music. During its hundred years of history, jazz, serving for dance and entertainment in its first
decades, has evolved into an art form characterized by a flow of creative energies and inventiveness.
Music of vital and forward motion, jazz is a symbol of an improvisational process, guided by the
instinct for freedom. Jazz has become a genuine contribution to the cultural history of the United
States and a special component of America’s consciousness as well as a means of artistic expression
that, in various forms incorporating all sorts of elements, is being performed all over the world. The
course, which is based on open ears and minds rather than on pre-existing knowledge of music theory,
examines jazz in a broad cultural and sociological context.
Course Goals
Through weekly lectures, readings, oral presentations, discussion and listening to music samples, the
students will develop a better understanding of the history and the nature of rhythmic improvised
music in the US. Since this is predominantly a seminar course, emphasis will be on analyzing the
characteristics, styles, human conditions and the environment of this indigenous American
phenomenon. Language skills in reading, writing, listening and speaking (including musical terms) are
expected to be improved. Students will be asked to prepare an internet discography on selected
musicians by the end of the course.
Class Attendance and Participation
Students may not miss more than three classes under any circumstances. As sources on jazz are hardly
available from the department’s library, it is of primary interest for everyone to attend classes to gain
all necessary information to pass the in-class written exam at the end of the course, which may not be
missed or rescheduled. Students are expected to keep up with the readings and the music samples to
participate in the discussion.
Oral Presentation
The five to ten-minute oral presentations will supplement the required readings and music samples and
should highlight different aspects of the issue under discussion. These oral presentations will have to
start discussion. Students are asked to hand out a one-page outline of their presentation to each
member of the class before the session starts. In grading, both the content and the presentation
(handout, lecturing skills) will be taken into consideration.
Attendance and participation in class discussion: 20%
Oral presentation: 20%
Internet research: 20%
In-class exam: 40%
A=85-100; B=75-84; C=65-74; D=55-64; F is 54 or below. In case of borderline grades, participation
in class discussion and the individual student’s pattern of work (progress) will be considered. No extra
credits are available. Grades and grading policy will only be discussed in person.
Power point presentations on each class can be downlowded at the department’s library.
A set of annotated CDs containing music samples presented during the course are available at the
same library.
Books on jazz, jazz CDs and DVDs are available at the Music Collection of the University Library.
Recommended web sites on styles, musicians, and recordings:
WEEK 1, September 16: How to Recognize Jazz
Jazz as a separate and distinct art form. The elements of jazz: the blues, spiritual and gospel song,
sound and phrasing, rhythm, harmony, melody, arrangement, improvisation. The instruments of
jazz. A definition of jazz in terms of its origins and characteristics.
WEEK 2, September 23: The Birthplace: New Orleans
The early backgrounds. The roles of the slave, the free Negro, and the Creoles of Color. Crashing
of cultures. The musical melting pot: Protestant hymns, German and French Marches, ’Latin’ and
West Indian rhythms, European melodies. Ragtime. Pioneering jazzmen in the transitional era of
minstrelsy, and their early travels.The process of blending; the emergence of patterns, forms, and
styles. Second line. Storyville, the hothouse.
Oral presentation:
Way Down Yonder in New Orleans (in: Nat Shapiro and Nat Hentoff, ed: Hear Me Talkin’ to Ya.. Dover
Publications, 1955) 14-25.
WEEK 3, September 30: North to Chicago and New York
World War I, and the Jazz Age. The migration North to Chicago by land or riverboats: King
Oliver, Jimmy Noone, Johnny Dodds and others. The rise of the soloist: Louis Armstrong. The
white response: Bix Beiderbecke, and the Austin High Gang. The effect of the new environment
on music. Race records. Stride piano/boogie-woogie/barrelhouse New York: Harlem renaissance.
Oral presentation:
W. H. Kenney: White Chicago Jazz: Cultural Context (in: William Howland Kennedy: Chicago Jazz.
A Cultural History, 1904-1930. Oxford University Press, 1993.) 87-111.
Jelly Roll Morton: The “Inventor of Jazz”. (in: Robert Walser, ed.: Keeping Time. Readings on Jazz
History. Oxford University Press, 1999.) 16-22.
WEEK 4, October 7: Great Individuals: Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington
Armstrong: the first soloist in jazz. Introducing swing. Popular appeal: Ambassador of jazz.
Ellington: the orchestra as a musical instrument. A personal touch. The greatest oeuvre of all.
Oral presentation:
Gary Giddins: Louis Arsmtrong (in: Visions of Jazz. Oxford University Press, 1998) 83-101.
Rex Stewart: The Duke and His Man (in: Boy Meets Horn, The University of Michigan Press, 1991) 163179
WEEK 5, October 14: The Swing Era
The Depression and its effect on jazz in the late twenties and early thirties. New York becoming
the focal point of the sheet music, radio, recording, and booking business. The evolution of big
bands in Harlem. Jazzmen in big commercial bands and radio studios. Social dance. The
beginnings of swing: Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, the Dorsey Brothers. Territory bands. Kansas
City and environs in the Pendergast era. Prosperity in Prohibition as a magnet for musicians:
Count Basie. Duke Ellington: the orchestra as a musical instrument.
Oral presentation:
The Big Bands (in: Ted Goia: The History of Jazz. Oxford University Press, 1997.) 145-157.
Rudolph Fisher: Comon Meter (in: Marcela Breton, ed.: Hot and Cool. Jazz Short Stories.
Bloomsbury, 1991.) 12-28.
Week 6, October 21: Modern Jazz: The Bebop Revolution
Transitional years. The recording ban, World War II, and the developments in technology. Death
of the big band era. The evolution of bop: Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, at
Minton’s. Further developments in musical language. A psychological shift. The jazz musician as
artist. Junkie and Hipster.
Oral presentation:
Ross Russell: Bird at Work (in: Bird Lives! Quartet Books, 1973.) 255-268.
Ralph Ellison: Minton’s (in: Robert Gottlieb, ed.: Reading Jazz. Pantheon Books, 1996.) 545-554.
Nat Hentoff: Junk (in: The Jazz Life. Da Capo, 1961.) 75-97.
WEEK 7, November 4: Cool/West Coast, Third Stream
Birth of the cool: its origins and definiton. The Miles Davis recordings of 1949. White intellectualism: the new school of Lennie Tristano. West Coast directions: Dave Brubeck, Shorty Rogers,
Chet Baker, Gerry Mulligan. An attempt to mix jazz with classical music: Third Stream Music.
Oral Presentation:
James Lincoln Collier: The Old-World Cool of Tristano, Mulligan, and Brubeck (in: The Making of Jazz.
Delta Book, 1978.) 408-420.
André Hodeir: Situation of Jazz at the Death of Parker (in: André Hodeir: Jazz. Its Evolution and Essence.
Grove Press, 1956.) 267-280.
WEEK 8, November 11: Hard bop, Soul, Latin
Black vitality gains new expression in hard bop: Art Blakey, Horace Silver, Clifford Brown,
Sonny Rollins. The advent of long play recordings: improvisation extended. Blue Note Records.
Return to an earthy way of expression: soul jazz. The influence of ethnic music: Afro-cuban jazz,
the Latin ’tinge’, bossa nova. A flourishing decade.
Richard Cook: Seven (in: Blue Note Records.Justin, Charles and Co., 2001.) 117-136.
WEEK 9, November 18.: Great Individuals: Miles Davis and John Coltrane
Davis: the pioneer. Stylistic progress from bebop to fusion. Great bands and historic recordings. An
intimate trumpet sound. Popular appeal.
Coltrane: search for new aesthetic principles. An overwhelming voice: sheets of sounds. Freedom of
expression. Cosmic spirituality.
Oral presentation:
Nat Hentoff: John Coltrane (in: Robert Gottlieb, ed.: Reading Jazz. Pantheon Books, 1996.) 620-628.
Miles Davis Speaks His Mind (in: Robert Walser, ed.: Keeping Time. Readings on Jazz History. Oxford
University Press, 1999.) 365-376.
WEEK 10, November 25: The New Thing
The racial element: segregation and its consequences on black ideology. Music and politics. The
process of liberation: energy, intensity, atonality, and the opening of musical sounds into the realm
of noise. The new type of avant-garde jazzmen. The pioneers of free jazz: Ornette Coleman, Cecil
Taylor, Albert Ayler. Chicago revisited: the Association for the Advancement of Creative
Musicians. The New York loft scene. Towards a new definition: contemporary improvised music.
Oral presentation:
Valerie Wilmer: Ornette Coleman – The Art of the Improviser (in: As Serious As Your Life. The Story of
the New Jazz. Quartet Books, 1977.) 60-74.
WEEK 11, December 2: Fusion
Popular culture, beat music and their impact on jazz. New devices of sound production and the
electronization of intsruments. The integration of jazz and rock: Weather Report, Return to
Forever, Mahavishnu Orchestra. African and Indian influences.
Oral Presentation:
Stuart Nicholson: Ticket to Ride (in: Jazz-Rock. A History. Schirmer Books, 1998.) 1-13.
WEEK 12. December 9: Jazz in the New Millennium
A new conservative agenda: Wynton Marsalis. The New York scene. The role of the individual: Keith
Jarrett, Herbie Hancock, Vijay Iyer. Jazz becomes world music. European jazz. Considering the
future of jazz.
Oral Presentation:
Wynton Marsalis and Herbie Hancock: Soul, Craft and Cultural Hierarchy (in: Robert Walser, ed.:
Keeping Time. Readings in Jazz History. Oxford University Press, 1999.) 339-350.
Finding Her Roots - Dee Dee Bridgewater (in: Down Beat, October 2007)
WEEK 13. December 16: The Profession of Jazz
The morality of jazz. The language of jazz. The preservation of jazz. Jazz and business. The jazz
public. Jazz criticism. Jazz and other art forms.
Oral Presentation:
Frances Newton: The Musical Achievement (in: The Jazz Scene. MacGibbon and Kee, 1959) 136-147.
Marshall W. Stearns: The Appeal of Jazz (in: The Story of Jazz. Oxford University Press, 1956.) 197207.
In-class exam (test + essays)
Ben Sidran: Oral Culture and Musical Tradition (in: Robert Walser, ed.: Keeping Time. Readings on Jazz
History. Oxford University Press, 1999.) 297-301.)
LeRoi Jones: Jazz and the White Critic (in: LeRoi Jones: Black Music. Da Capo, 1968.) 1120.
(A one page summary of the recording career and a list of the most important CDs by one of these
artists to be submitted by December 16.)
Jelly Roll Morton
Bix Beiderbecke
Count Basie
Billie Holiday
Charlie Parker
Dizzy Gillespie
Thelonious Monk
Charles Mingus
Sonny Rollins
Art Blakey
Ella Fitzgerald
Art Ensemble of Chicago
Chick Corea
Keith Jarrett
Herbie Hancock
Wynton Marsalis
Dave Douglas
A list of the most important terms in jazz
Arrangement. A new version of a previously written piece. Jazz arrangements often include new
chords for the piece as well as new material to be played during and between solos, and so on.
Avant-garde. Jazz (usually atonal) not based on preconceived chord changes. Jazz played in a freely
improvised nature (but which is not entirely "free" as it generally shows evidence of a structure or
blueprint). The term first came into widespread use in the 1960s to describe some of the more freely
improvised music of artists.
Bebop. Virtuosic jazz style with irregularly accented, long phrases and sophisticated harmonies. Most
prominent between 1944 and 1950. Also called “bop.”
Block chords. A series of big chords played with the hands moving in parallel (c.f. locked hands).
Big band. A jazz ensemble of 12 to 20 members, consisting of a rhythm section plus sections of
trumpets, trombones and saxophones.
Black & Tan. A night club with customers of all races.
Blue note. The lowered 3rd, 5th, and 7th degrees of a key.
Blues. Frequently used song form in jazz. Also a separate tradition of African-American music.
Usually a twelve-bar form. Blues songs have a fairly standardized chord progression. The notes are
found "between" the keys of the piano; having a "bluesy" sound is common in blues compositions and
Boogie woogie. A piano blues style based on a driving repeated left hand part, playing eight notes to
the measure in an exaggerated swing style. Became very popular from late 1930’s on.
Bossa nova. A fusion of the harmonies and languid approach of cool jazz with several ostinato
patterns (two slow beats to the measure) derived from the Brazilian samba. Originated around 1960,
soon became hugely popular.
Break. A momentary pause in the rhythm section, usually just one or two measures, which a band
member will “fill,” usually with an improvised phrase.
Bridge. The B section of an AABA form, generally eight bars long. Also called “channel” or
Call and response. A means whereby instruments or sections of instruments in a band or combo play
a passage which is in turn responded to by another instrument or section; a musical conversation: one
musician or section will play a short melodic idea and is answered by another musician or section.
Changes. Jazz terminology for chords (e.g., the changes of a tune = the chords of tune); a tune's chord
Chord progression. A sequence of chords that underlies a composition, often twelve or thirty-two
bars in length.
Chorus. The form of a song, often twelve or thirty-two bars in length. In jazz the chord progression
(q.v.) of the chorus, but not its melody, is repeated over and over during improvisations.
Collective improvisation. Concurrent improvisation by the musicians in a combo; two or more
musicians improvising at the same time.
Combo. Same as small band or small ensemble (duo to nonet); an assemblage of musicians with a
common purpose.
Congo Square. The area in New Orleans where musicians met for social activities and to play music.
Cool jazz. A jazz style using a mellow tonal quality and smooth, flowing melodic lines partly inspired
by Lester Young. Often classical instruments and techniques were used. Most prominent throughout
the 1950’s. Sometimes called “West Coast jazz.”
Creole. Louisiana residents with African heritage mixed with Spanish or French ancestry.
Cutting contest. Musical game of one-upmanship, a competitive jam session, where the performers
attempt to outdo each other.
Dixieland. Early instrumental jazz band music. The name given to New Orleans style jazz when it
began to be played in Northern cities. This style of jazz is also known as New Orleans style jazz,
Chicago style jazz or traditional jazz.
Double time playing. Playing twice as fast as the other members of the band. It also refers to the
whole band going into a tempo twice as fast as what preceded it.
Embellishment. Musical decoration of a note or a phrase.
Extramusical devices. Sounds not normally associated with the instrument, like squeaks, vocal yelps,
electronic feedback.
Free jazz. A name often used throughout the 1960’s for jazz performances that contained improvised
solos free of preset chord progression, and in some cases do not have a steady beat.
Funky. 1. Earthy or dirty. 2. mean, „low down” or sexy. 3. Bluesy. 4. Gospel-flavored.
Fusion. A combination or “fusing” of jazz with other types of music, especially soul music and rock.
Amplified and electronic instruments are used. Prominent since around 1970.
Growl style. A methord used by some trumpeters and trombonists in which by unorthodox use of
mutes, lips, mouth and blowing techniques a sound is produced that resembles the growl of an animal.
Hard bop. An aggressive, exuberant style that grew naturally out of bebop. Prominent beginning in
the early 1950’s.
Harlem. The best known African American neighborhood in the United States, located in Manhattan,
north of Central Park. It has been a center for black business and cultural activities for more than sixty
Head. The melody or prewritten theme for a piece.
Head arrangement. A band arrangement that was created extemporaneously by the musicians and is
not written down.
Improvisation. The spontaneous creating of an original piece of music. It requires a great deal of
practice and an intimate knowledge of the style of music in which one desires to create.
Jam session. Informal performance where musicians improvise at their leisure, often without an
audience but just for the benefit of the musicians themselves.
Jazz-rock. A variety of tsyles beginning in the late 60s that used electric instruments, funk rhythm and
accompaniment and jazz improvisation. Also known as fusion music.
Jukebox. An automatic phonograph that plays recordings when money is inserted into a coin slot.
Lick. A little melodic idea that a musician uses frequently. Jazz players can be identified by their
characteristic licks. In classical analysis licks are called “formulas.”
Mainstream. Originally a term that embraced certain music (particularly small bands) which extended
the swing jazz tradition into the present; an umbrella term that includes all post-bebop acoustic jazz
except that which is considered free or avant garde jazz; jazz reflecting hard bop sensibilities.
Modal jazz. A music in which the melody and/or harmony is based on arrangement of modes. In jazz,
the term can mean music based on the extensive repetition one or two chords or music based on modes
instead of chord progressions.
Motive. A short musical idea that the musician develops by creating some variations of it. A typical
jazz solo will have several short stretches during which the artist becomes involved in developing a
particular motive.
Mute. An attachment which reduces an instrument’s loudness and alters its tone color.
Piano roll. A roll of paper with holes cut into it while a pianist plays. When played back on a specially
designed player piano, the original performance can be reproduced. Most prominent in the early
Playing in/out. Improvisation in which all notes selected are contained within the given
chord/improvisation in which few, if any, of the selected notes are contained in the given chord or
Polymetric. The simultaneous occurrence of two or more time signatures (meters).
Polyphony. The simultaneous sounding of two or more melodies of equal importance; also known in
jazz as "collective improvisation;" the simultaneous expression of two or more instruments
improvising with equal individual melodic and counter-melodic significance (e.g., polyphony is a key
element in Dixieland jazz.).
Polyrhythm. Two or more contrasting rhythms played simultaneously; two or more rhythms
Ragtime. A non-improvised, notated late 19th-early 20th century style of piano-based music
characterized by its syncopated, distinctive so-called "ragged" right hand movement on the keyboard;
an influence on and direct precursor of early jazz; a piano style with stride left hand and highly
syncopated right hand; ragtime was composed music.
Rent party. A gathering in one's home for which an admission fee is charged in order to raise money
to pay the rent or other bills.
Rhythm and blues. A driving, riff-based, urban blues style relying on jazz instrumentation, especially
tenor saxophone. Also called “r&b” for short. Most prominent during the middle 1940’s through the
Rhythm section. The musicians in the band whose primary function is accompanying. It provides and
maintains the pulse, rhythm, and feel of the music as well as its underlying chord structure. The
rhythm section consists of piano, bass, guitar, and drums.
Riff. A little melodic idea that is repeated over and over again even though the chords are changing
underneath, creating a great deal of rhythmic momentum. The riff must be compatible with the
underlying chords, or else one or two notes of the riff may be changed to accomodate the chords as
they change.
Ring shout. An African-American dance and music, originally described in religious settings during
the 1800’s, in which dancers move in a circle, making short shuffling steps. Music accompanying the
dance consisted of short repeated melodies.
Scat singing. A vocalist's improvisatory device whereby he/she sings in nonsense syllables rather than
lyrics, often in imitation of an instrumental jazz solo.
Sideman. A musician who is not the leader of a band or recording session. Also called “sideperson.”
Solo. A featured improvisation in a jazz piece. Also a verb, to solo. In jazz it is not truly “solo”
because the rhythm section usually continues to provide accompaniment.
Soul jazz. Jazz based on the style and rhythms of African-American popular music of the late 1950’s
and early 1960’s.
Speakeasy. A nightclub which operated illegally during Prohibition. Many musicians found
employment in speakeasies.
Standards. Familiar, well-established popular or jazz tunes; those songs which through widely
repeated performance have become part of the standard jazz repertoire.
Straight ahead. Term used to suggest a manner of playing which adheres closely to the tradition of
jazz, as in played straight, moving in a straight forward manner; also used as a stylistic designation
related to mainstream (see mainstream) playing; acoustic jazz based on the hard bop tradition and
Stride. A style of piano playing named for its left hand figures, with a characteristic “oom-pah”
sound, made by striking a single note low in the bass on the first and third beats of a measure, and
filling in with a chord in midrange on beats two and four. Differs from ragtime in the swing feeling
and the right hand improvisation.
Swing. The feeling projected by a jazz performance which succesfully combines constant tempo,
syncopation, swing eighth notes, rhythmic lilt, liveliness and rhythmically cohesive group playing. It
appears to result partly from the push and pull between layers of syncopated rhythms and the constant
underlying beat.
Syncopation. The accenting of a normally weak beat or weak part of a beat; the accenting of
"upbeats;" placement of accents in unexpected places; placement of notes between the steady beats.
Third Stream. A repertoire of music consciously combining jazz and classical music in various
degrees. The composers are usually, but not always, from jazz backgrounds. The term was coined by
Gunther Schuller in 1957.
Timbre. Tone quality.
Time signature. A numerical symbol of the number of beats in a measure and the value of the note
that will receive one beat of duration.
Walking bass. A bass line that moves like a scale, four notes per bar.
Work song. A song sung in the same rhythm as a task being done. Groups would sometimes sing
together to keep the workers moving at a steady pace.
(Recommended listenings)
Muhal Richard Abrams
Cannonball Adderly
Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
The Art Ensemble of Chicago
Albert Ayler
Count Basie
Sidney Bechet
Bix Beiderbecke
Art Blakey
Anthony Braxton
Clifford Brown/Max Roach
Dave Brubeck
Charlie Christian
Ornette Coleman
Ornette Coleman
John Coltrane
John Coltrane
John Coltrane
Chick Corea
Miles Davis
Miles Davis
Miles Davis
Miles Davis
Eric Dolphy
Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
Bill Evans
Ella Fitzgerald
Erroll Garner
Stan Getz
Dizzy Gillespie
Benny Goodman
Dexter Gordon
Charlie Haden
Lionel Hampton
Herbie Hancock
Coleman Hawkins
Fletcher Henderson
Woody Herman
Andrew Hill
Billie Holiday
Freddie Hubbard
Keith Jarrett
The Hearinga Suite (Black Saint)
Mercy, Mercy, Mercy (Capitol)
AirTime (Nessa)
The Complete Hot Fives & Hot Sevens, I-IV (Columbia)
The Complete RCA Victor Recordings, I-IV (Bluebird)
Live in Paris I-II (Varese)
Spiritual Unity (ESP)
The Complete Decca Recordings, I-III (Decca)
Shake ’Em Up, I-II (Avid)
Vol. 1: Singing the Blues (CBS)
Moanin’ (Blue Note)
For Alto (Delmark)
Alone Together I-II (Verve)
Time Out (Columbia)
Solo Flight (Columbia)
The Shape of Jazz to Come (Atlantic)
Free Jazz (Atlantic)
Giant Steps (Atlantic)
A Love Supreme (Impulse!)
The Major Works of John Coltrane, I-II (Impulse!)
Return to Forever (ECM)
The Complete Birth of the Cool (Capitol)
Kind of Blue (Columbia)
Miles Smiles (Columbia)
Bitches Brew I-II (Columbia)
Out to Lunch (Blue Note)
The Blanton-Webster Band I-III (RCA Bluebird)
Ellington at Newport 1956, I-II (Columbia)
Sunday at the Village Vanguard (Riverside)
Mack the Knife: Ella in Berlin (Verve)
Concert by the Sea (Columbia)
Getz/Gilberto (Verve)
The Complete RCA Victor Recordings, I-II (RCA Bluebird)
Live at Carnegie Hall 1938, I-II (Columbia)
Our Man in Paris (Blue Note)
Liberation Music Orchestra (Impulse!)
1937-1938 (Classics)
Head Hunters (Columbia)
Body and Soul (Dreyfus)
A Study in Frustration I-III (Columbia)
The Thundering Herds 1945-47 (Columbia)
Point of Departure (Blue Note)
Lady Day Swings! (Columbia)
Ready for Freddie (Blue Note)
The Köln Concert, I-II (ECM)
Eddie Jefferson:
J.J. Johnson
Stan Kenton
Rahsaan Roland Kirk
Lee Konitz
Lambert, Hendricks, Ross
Meade Lux Lewis
Mahavishnu Orchestra
Wynton Marsalis
Jackie McLean
Carmen McRae
Pat Metheny
Charles Mingus
Charles Mingus
Modern Jazz Quartet
Thelonious Monk
Thelonious Monk
Wes Montgomery
Lee Morgan
Jelly Roll Morton
Gerry Mulligan
David Murray
Fats Navarro
King Oliver
Charlie Parker
Charlie Parker/D.Gillespie
Art Pepper
Oscar Peterson
Bud Powell
Max Roach
Shorty Rogers
Sonny Rollins
Jimmy Rushing
George Russell
Artie Shaw
Archie Shepp
Wayne Shorter
Horace Silver
Bessie Smith
Jimmy Smith
Muggsy Spanier
Sun Ra
Art Tatum
Cecil Taylor
Cecil Taylor
Lennie Tristano
Sarah Vaughan
Fats Waller
Weather Report
Joe Williams
Tony Williams
Cassandra Wilson
World Saxophone Quartet
Lester Young
John Zorn
The Jazz Singer (Evidence)
The Eminent Jay Jay Johnson Vols. 1 & 2 (Blue Note)
New Concepts of Artistry in Rhythm (Capitol)
Rip, Rig and Panic/Now Please Don’t You Cry (Emarcy)
Subconscious Lee (Verve)
Sing a Song of Basie (Verve)
1927-1939 (Classics)
The Inner Mounting Flame (Columbia)
Black Codes (From the Underground) (Columbia)
Let Freedom Ring (Blue Note)
Sings Lover Man (Columbia)
Still Life (Talking) (Geffen)
Pithecantropus Erectus (Atlantic)
Mingus Ah Um (Atlantic)
The Complete Last Concert, I-II (Atlantic)
Genius of Modern Music Vol. 1 & 2 (Blue Note)
Brilliant Corners (OJC)
Incredible Jazz Guitar (OJC)
The Sidewinder (Blue Note)
J.R.M. 1926-28 (Classics)
The Original Quartet, I-II (Blue Note)
Ming (Black Saint)
The Complete Fats Navarro on Blue Note and Capitol I-II (Blue Note)
King Oliver and His Creole Jazz Band 1923 (Classics)
Yardbird Suite I-II (Verve)
The Quintet – Jazz at Massey Hall (OJC)
Meets the Rhythm Section (OJC)
Night Train (Verve)
The Amazing Bud Powell Vol. 1 & 2 (Blue Note)
We Insist! Freedom Now Suite (Candid)
Short Stops (RCA)
Saxophone Colossus (OJC)
Rushing Lullabies (Columbia)
Ezz-tetics (OJC)
Begin the Beguine (ASV)
Four for Trane (Impulse!)
Speak No Evil (Blue Note)
Blowin’ the Blues Away (Blue Note)
The Essential Bessie Smith, I-II (Columbia)
Back at the Chicken Shack (Blue Note)
1939-42 (Classics)
The Magic City (Evidence)
The Tatum Group Masterpieces Vol. 8. (Pablo)
Jazz Advance (Blue Note)
Silent Tongues (Freedom)
Lennie Tristano (Atlantic)
Swingin’ Easy (Emarcy)
The Joint is Jumpin’ (RCA Bluebird)
Heavy Weather (Columbia)
Count Basie Swings/Joe Williams Sings (Verve)
Lifetime (Columbia)
Blue Lights ’Til Dawn (Blue Note)
Revue (Black Saint)
The Complete Aladdin Sessions (Blue Note)
The Big Gundown (Tzadik)