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Challenges of the Late Middle Ages • Religious Crises: – Heresy: speaking beliefs that opposed the official teachings of the Church – Many de-emphasized role of clergy and the sacraments – Religious Officials were frightened and tried to fight off heresy by: • • • • Inquisitions (legal procedures) Education New Religious Orders develop Conducting War Challenges of the Late Middle Ages • Wars and conflict: – Hundred Years War: • 1328 French kings dies without heir • Only living relative was King Edward III of England • The French did not want to be ruled by England so they named Philip VI King of France • English king is upset, gathers army and invaded France in 1337 • English win many victories because of superior weaponry • 1429 – Joan of Arc helps change course of war • Joan of Arc claims saints tell her led French into battle, she marches on the city of Orleans and defeats English • She is captured, tried, and executed by English • The French took much of the lost territory back and eventually kicked out the English Challenges of the Late Middle Ages • Wars of the Roses: – The Lancasters (red rose emblem) vs. The Yorks (white rose emblem) – Yorkists were successful at first – New King Richard III faced uprisings and was eventually killed in battle – After Richards death, King Henry VII of the Tudor Family took over – Henry VII was married to Elizabeth of York – Henry VII’s rise to power marked end of Wars of the Roses The Culprits The Famine of 1315-1317 By 1300 Europeans were farming almost all the land A population crisis developed. Climate changes = crop failures between 1315-17 15% of peasants in England died. One consequence of starvation & poverty was susceptibility to disease. 1347: Plague Reaches Constantinople! The Symptoms Bulbous Septicemic Form: almost 100% mortality rate. Lancing a Buboe The Disease Cycle Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria. Bacteria multiply in flea’s gut. Human is infected! Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound. Flea’s gut clogged with bacteria. Medieval Art & the Plague Medieval Art & the Plague Bring out your dead! Medieval Art & the Plague An obsession with death. Boccaccio in The Decameron The victims ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors. Attempts to Stop the Plague A Doctor’s Robe “Leeching” Attempts to Stop the Plague Flagellanti: Self-inflicted “penance” for our sins! Attempts to Stop the Plague Pograms against the Jews “Jew” hat “Golden Circle” obligatory badge The Mortality Rate 35% - 70% 25,000,000 dead !!! A Little Macabre Ditty “A sickly season,” the merchant said, “The town I left was filled with dead, and everywhere these queer red flies crawled upon the corpses’ eyes, eating them away.” “Fair make you sick,” the merchant said, “They crawled upon the wine and bread. Pale priests with oil and books, bulging eyes and crazy looks, dropping like the flies.” A Little Macabre Ditty (2) “I had to laugh,” the merchant said, “The doctors purged, and dosed, and bled; “And proved through solemn disputation “The cause lay in some constellation. “Then they began to die.” “First they sneezed,” the merchant said, “And then they turned the brightest red, Begged for water, then fell back. With bulging eyes and face turned black, they waited for the flies.” A Little Macabre Ditty (3) “I came away,” the merchant said, “You can’t do business with the dead. “So I’ve come here to ply my trade. “You’ll find this to be a fine brocade…” And then he sneezed……….! What were the political, economic, and social effects of the Black Death??