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Icons in the 20th Century
3. The Charisma Kids, 1930-1939
Inter-war European Fame
• Benito Mussolini (18831945) - Italian prime
minister (1922-1943)
and one of the first 20th
century European
fascist dictators. Il Duce
• Son of a blacksmith,
journalist - poor
boyhood. Turned out to
be a unruly at school
and moody at home.
Intelligent, self-taught,
articulate, and eloquent.
Inter-war European Fame
• Political journalist and public
speaker first for left-wings and
then right-wings.
• Amid the political, economic
crisis following WWI,
Mussolini formed a political
party consisted of republicans,
anarchists, disillusioned
socialists and frustrated
Inter-war European Fame
• Political rallies surrounded by supporters
wearing black shirts and Mussolini’s superb
oratory caught the imagination of Italian people.
• Fascist militias swept through various corners of
Italy, humiliating trade unionists and destroying
Inter-war European Fame
offices of Socialist Party.
• March on Rome (1922) after defeating the general
strike, Mussolini
threatened to seize the
power at a rally in Naples,
‘Either the government is
given to us, or we will
seize it by marching on
Inter-war European Fame
• Vittorio Emanuel III, king
of Italy, gave in the fascist
threat and appointed
Mussolini as prime
• Mussolini established law
and order but outlawed
opposition parties, trade
unions and free press.
• Assassination of Giacomo
Matteotti, the fiercest critic
in the parliament
Inter-war European Fame
• Achievement reinvigoration of
divided and demoralized
country; social
reformation; coming to
terms with the papacy.
• Imperial ambition invasion to Ethiopia.
Inter-war European Fame
• Mussolini found a new ally in Hitler. Pact of
Steel and the Rome-Berlin Axis.
• ‘Reluctant’ partner in WWII, but invaded Greece
through Albania and Soviet Union. Both ended
up in disasters.
Inter-war European Fame
• The Allied invasion started in 43.
• Mussollini was dismissed by the
Fascist Grand Council and then
• Rescued by German troops and a
puppet government was
established in Saló, northern Italy
with Mussolini its nominal head.
• German defenses in Italy
collapsed and Italian Communist
partisans arrested Mussolini and
executed him with his lover.
Inter-war European Fame
• Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) leader of the National
Socialist (Nazi) Party and
the Chancellor (1933) and
Führer (1934).
• Hitler lost his parents when
young and received only
modest education.
• Served as lance-corporal in
WWI and earned Iron
Inter-war European Fame
Hitler joined German
Workers (Nazi) Party and
later became its leader.
Putsch - failed, injured and
arrested - the 1st chapter of
Mein Kampf (his political
Ideas of Volk, antidemocracy and Führer.
Hatred of Marxists,
Socialists and Jews
Inter-war European Fame
• Hitler made an alliance with a nationalist, Alfred
Hugenberg in 1930 and began a newspaper
propaganda - national recognition.
• Steady rise of the Nazi Party and in the 1930
election it won 18% of the vote and Hitler
36.5% in the presidential election in 1932.
• In 1933 Hindenburg, the president, offered
Hitler the chancellorship of Germany.
• Road to dictatorship - after the fire at Reichstag
all civil liberty was suspended and violent
campaign against communists began.
Inter-war European Fame
• In the 1933 election the
Nazis polled 43.9% of the
• The bill was passed to give
Hitler full, absolute powers.
• In three months, all nonNazi parties, organizations
and labour unions ceased to
• Hitler left domestic politics
to his deputies and took
initiative in foreign policies.
Inter-war European Fame
• Invasion into Rhailand in 1936
• Pact of Steal 1936
• Anschluss - annexation of
Austria in 1938
• Invasion into Czechoslovakia
in 1938
• Non-aggression pact with the
Soviet Union in 1939
• Invasion into Poland in 1939
• Occupation of Norway,
Denmark, Holland, Belgium in
Inter-war European Fame
Armistice with France
Attack against the Soviet
Union began in 1941
Pearl Harbour and the
US joined WWII
From expulsion to
extermination of Jews,
Roma, handicaps,
6 million Jews killed
Inter-war European Fame
• Turning points - the defeats of ElAlmein and Stalingrad, the
American landing on French
North Africa.
• The Allied landing on Normandy,
on June 6, 1944 - the beginning of
the end
• April 28-9, 1945 Hitler married
Eva Braun.
• April 30, he said farewell to
Goebbels and shot himself. Braun
took poison.
Inter-war American Fame
• Johny Weismuller (19041984) - American freestyle
swimmer, who won 5 gold
medals and set 67 world
records. A famous motion
picture actor, notably in
the role of Tarzan, who
was abandoned as an
infant and reared by apes.
He starred in 12 Tarzan
films between 1932-1948.
Inter-war American Fame
• Franklin Roosevelt
(1882-1945) - 32nd
president of the USA and
the only president
elected four times to the
office. Led the USA
through the two of the
greatest crises in the
20th century - Great
Depression and WWII
Inter-war American Fame
• His family was very affluent
and lived in unostentatious
luxury dividing their time
between New York and
European resorts.
• Entered Harvard but spent
most of time on extracurricular activities and
busy social engagements.
• He married his distant
cousin, Eleanor Roosevelt.
Inter-war American Fame
• State senator at 29
• Appointed assistant
secretary of the navy
• In 1920 he was
nominated for the
Democrat candidate for
vice president but lost
to Harding and
• In 1921 he was stricken
with poliomylitis and
completely paralyzed.
Inter-war American Fame
• In 1928 FDR elected to the
governor for NY state.
• In his second term, he
mobilized the state
government to provide
relief and aid to the
• Nominated for the
Democratic candidate for
president. ‘I pledge you, I
pledge myself, to a new deal
for American people.’,
Inter-war American Fame
• In 1933 Roosevelt became
the 36th president of the
USA and he immediately
followed up his promise of
prompt action. Provided
relief to millions of the poor
and unemployed.
• Agricultural adjustment,
industrial recovery, reform
of banking system
Inter-war American Fame
• Popularity and
• Roosevelt frequently
appeared on radio and
talked directly to
American people.
Fireside Chat
Inter-war American Fame
• Shirley Temple (1928 - ) internationally famous,
American child star of the
1930s. The greatest boxoffice attraction at the age of
seven in sentimental
• Spirited singing, dancing,
dimples and golden ringlets
proved to be extremely
Inter-war American Fame
• in contrast with the era of
great depression.
• Her popularity declined in
the 1940s and retired and
married in 1950.
European Exiles in America
• Arturo Toscanini (18671957) - Italian conductor.
One of the greatest virtuoso
conductor in the 20th
century. He sometimes
conducted an opera from
memory. Music director at
La Scala, Milan and the
Metropolitan Opera in NY.
Made NBC Symphony
Orchestra one of the world
American Movie Stars
• Gary Cooper (1901-1961) - motion-picture actor whose
portrayal of ordinary guys established him as a
glamourized image of an average man.
• James Stewart (1908-1997) - motion-picture actor
mainly known for the portrayal of a moral and diffident
American Movie Stars
• Henry Fonda (1905-1982) - motion-picture and stage
actor who over 90 films he appeared created
quintessentially American heroes.
• John Wayne (1907-1979) - motion-picture actor who
mainly played the roles of quiet, stoic cowboys and
soldiers and personified the idealized American values.
American Movie Stars
• James Cagney (1899-1986) - motion-picture star who is
known for versatility in musicals, comedies and crime
• Errol Flynn (1909-1959) - Australian motion-picture star
remembered as the greatest swashbuckler.
American Movie Stars
• Joan Crawford (1908-1977) - motion-picture actress
who started her career as vivacious Jazz Age flapper and
matured into a star of psychological melodrama.
Developed screen image of glamourous career woman.
• Bette Davis (1908-1989) - versatile, volatile motionpicture actress whose intense acting kept her at the top
of her profession.
Photo Magazines
• Life (1936-1972) - picture magazine published in New
York. Pioneered photojournalism and remained one of
the most popular magazines. Its format was imitated
• Esquire - magazine for men started in 1933 that
featured a slick style and drawings of half-naked
American Common Heroes
• Orson Welles (1915-1985)
- motion-picture actor,
director, producer, and
writer. He innovated
filmmaking in almost
every aspect. He and his
associates attained
national notoriety when
they broadcast the
performance of The War of
the World on 30, 10,
‘The woman I love.’• Edward VIII (1894-1972)
- King of United Kingdom
of Great Britain and
Ireland from Jan. 20 to
Dec. 10, 1936 in order to
marry Wallis Simpson.
The only British sovereign
ever voluntarily to resign.
“I have found it impossible to
carry on the heavy burden of
responsibility and to discharge
the duties of King as I would
wish to do without the help
and support of the woman I
American Ethnic Hero
• Jesse Owens (19131980) - AfricanAmerican track and
field athlete who won
four gold medals in
the 1936 Olympic
Games in Berlin.
• American newspapers
reported that Hitler
refused to shake his
hands with Owens.
Another Superman
• Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) secretary-general of the
Communist Party of the
Soviet Union (1922-1953)
and the premier of the state
(1941-1953), who
dictatorially ruled the
country for a quarter of a
• Collectivization of
agriculture: police state;
defeat of Germany;
execution of his opponents