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美国革命 American Revolution
提纲
一、北美十三个殖民地的建立及其经济、
社会状况
二、美利坚民族的形成及殖民地与宗主国
矛盾的尖锐化
三、两届大陆会议和独立战争的爆发
四、独立宣言的发表
五、独立战争的胜利
六、一七八七年宪法
七、 独立战争的历史意义
课件 (五) The Establishment of Thirteen Colonies
地图
Map:
The
British
Colonies
北美13个殖民地的建立
The Thirteen Colonies
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
New York
Connecticut
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
The Boston Tea Party
波士顿倾茶事件(1773)

An incident (16 Dec.
1773) in which three
shiploads of tea were
dumped into Boston
harbor by citizens
demonstrating against
British taxation of tea.
The struggle against
‘taxation without
representation’ led up to
the War of American
Independence.
The Battle of Lexington (April 18,1775
列克星屯枪声
The first shots starting
the revolution were fired
at Lexington,
Massachusetts. On April
18, 1775, British General
Thomas Gage sent 700
soldiers to destroy guns
and ammunition the
colonists had stored in
the town of Concord,
just outside of Boston.
They also planned to
arrest Samuel Adams
and John Hancock, two
of the key leaders of the
patriot movement.
The Battle of Lexington
George Washington(1732-99) 华盛顿
. With the out break of the
War, George
Washington was
appointed(1775)
commander in chief of
the Continental army.
After victory (1783), he
presided over the
council which drafted
(1787) the U.S.
constitution, and was
unanimously elected
president.
The Declaration of Independence
July 4. 1776
On June10, 1776, a committee was appointed
to prepare a declaration of independence; the
committee consisted of Jefferson, Adams,
Franklin, Sherman and R.R. Livingston. July 4
the Declaration of Independence was agreed to,
engrossed(正式写成), signed by Hancock,
and sent to legislatures of the states.
The Declaration of Independence
July 4. 1776 (2)
The unanimous Declaration
of the thirteen united States of America
The Declaration of Independence
July 4. 1776 (3)

We hold these truths to be selfevident: that all men are created
equal, that they are endowed by their
Creator with certain unalienable rights,
that among these are life, liberty, and
the pursuit of happiness.
The Declaration of Independence
July 4. 1776 (4)

……That, to secure these rights,
governments are instituted among men,
deriving their just powers from the consent
of the governed; That whenever any form of
government becomes destructive of these
ends,
it is the right of people to alter or to abolish
it , and to institute a new government, ……
The Declaration of Independence
July 4. 1776 (5)

…solemnly publish and declare, that
these colonies are , and of right ought
to be, free and independent states; that
they are absolved from all allegiance to
the British crown, and that all political
connection between them and the state
of Britain is, and ought to be, totally
dissolved; …
独立宣言(图片)
字斟句酌议《宣言》 (图片)
Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826)
托马斯 · 杰斐逊

The chairman of
the committee
which drafted the
Declaration of
Independence(17
76).He was third
president of
U.S.A(1801-1809).
Benjamin Franklin (1706-90)

富兰克林
American statesman,
scientist and writer.
Disillusioned with
British rule in America,
he helped to draft the
Declaration of
Independence (1776).
He was ambassador to
France (1776-85) and
took part in the peace
negotiations (1781-83)
at the end of war of
American
Independence. He
gained a worldwide
reputation for his
scientific work,.
The Battle of Saratoga 萨拉托加战役
(1777、9、)

Historians consider
the Battle of Saratoga
to be the major
turning point of the
American Revolution.
As a result of this
successful battle, the
European powers,
particularly the
French, took interest
in the cause of the
Americans and
began to support
them.
The Surrender of Burgoyne
October 17, 1777 柏高英投降


October
17,
1777
Near Saratoga, New York
"The fortunes of war have
made me your prisoner,"
said British General John
Burgoyne as he handed
over his sword to his
American counterpart,
Horatio Gates. "I shall
always be ready to testify
that it was through no fault
of your excellency," Gates
replied.
War Around Yorktown
Aug.-Oct. 19, 1781 约克顿战役

In May 1781, French
Admiral de Barras arrived in
Rhode Island .When
Washington received the
word he began marching
south for Virginia in late
August.
General Cornwallis ,on
October 19,1781,
surrendered his entire army
of 7000 men. Yorktown
turned out to be the last
major engagement of the
American Revolutionary War.
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE
UNITED STATES ,1787(1)
Article 1.
Sec.1.
All legislative Powers
herein granted shall be vested in a
Congress of the United States,
which shall consist of a Senate
and a House of Representatives
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE
UNITED STATES (2)
ART. Ⅱ
Sec.1. The executive Power
shall be vested in a President of
the United States of America.He
shall hold his office during the
Term of four years……
THE CONSTITUTION OF
THE UNITED STATES (3)
Art. Ⅲ
 Sec.1.
The judicial power of the United
States, shall be vested in one supreme
Court, and in such inferior Courts as the
Congress may from time to time ordain(规
定) and establish.
THE CONSTITUTION OF
THE UNITED STATES (4)

ART. Ⅴ
The Congress, whenever two
thirds of both houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose Amendments
to this Constitution, ┄┄
The BILL OF RIGHTS
(the first ten amendments)
Among
the
guarantees of Liberty
in the Bill of Rights,
several are especially
important. The first
Amendment
guarantees freedom of
religion, speech, press,
assembly, and petition.
The fourth upholds the
principle that “a man’s
home is his castle” by
prohibiting
unreasonable searches
and seizures. The Fifth,
Sixth,and Eighth
Amendments protect
accused persons from
arbitrary arrest and
punishment by the
federal government.
亚
当
斯 John
Adams(1735-1826)

Vice president of
Washington
Administration and
second president of the
U.S.A. (1797-1801).
Adams retired to his
farm in Quincy. Here he
penned his elaborate
letters to Thomas
Jefferson. Here on July 4,
1826, he whispered his
last words: "Thomas
Jefferson survives." But
Jefferson had died at
Monticello a few hours
earlier.
麦迪逊 James Madison(1751-1836),

Fourth president of the
U.S.A.(1809-17), he
played an important part
in drawing up the U.S.
constitution(1787). He
was a prominent
Federalist, but quarreled
with Hamilton over
finance, and served
Jefferson as secretary of
state (1801-09).
汉密尔顿 Alexander Hamilton
(c.1756-1804),

American statesman. A
staunch Federalist, he
was Washington’s
secretary and aide-decamp(1771-81), and
secretary to the
treasury(1789-95).His
financial proposals, the
creation of national
debt and of a federal
bank, were opposed by
Jefferson.
John Jay (1745-1827)
杰伊
American, statesman,
president
of
the
Continental
Congress (1778-79),
foreign
secretary
(1784-89) and chief
justice (1789-95).
英王乔治三世

George Ⅲ (1738-1820),
king of Great Britain
(1760-1820),
elector
(1760-1815) and the
king
(1815-20)
of
Hanover. The British
defeat in the War of
American
Independence
made
him
unpopular.
His
growing insanity led to
the regency (1811-20)
of the prince of Wales
(later George Ⅳ).
1783年的美国 The Map of U.S. in 1783