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Chapter 5, Section 3
Democratic principles and classical culture
flourish during Greece’s golden age.
 #1 Golden Age
o When a society is at it’s height
• Drama, sculpture, poetry,
philosophy, architecture & science
o Athens - 477 to 431 BCE
 Pericles as Leader
o Skillful politician, inspiring speaker,
respected general
o Dominates life in Athens from 461
to 429 B.C.
Stronger Democracy
o Pericles hires more paid public officials; creates direct democracy
• Direct democracy—citizens rule directly, not through representatives
Athenian Empire
o Takes over the Delian League; uses money to strengthen Athenian
• Sparta and other cities resent Athenian power.
Glorifying Athens
o Pericles buys gold, ivory, marble & hires artisans to beautify Athens
• With money from the Delian League & without the whole league’s
$$$ from the Delian League allowed Athens to:
o #3 Strengthen its Navy
• Protect its empire/create an empire
• Access to surrounding waterways
• Overseas trade
Some city states resisted Athens
o Formed their own alliances
Architecture and Sculpture
o #4 & 5 Pericles builds the Parthenon—a large temple to honor the
goddess Athena.
 Tragedy
and Comedy
o Greeks invent drama as an art form; includes chorus,
dance, poetry
• #6 Tragedy—tells story of heroes’ downfall; themes of love, hate,
and war
• #7Comedy—makes fun of politics and respected people;
slapstick humor
 #8
Historians Herodotus and Thucydides record
and study past events
Athens grew in wealth, prestige, and power.
o #9 Other city states viewed Athens with hostility because they have
been independent city-states
War Begins
o 431 BCE Sparta declares war on Athens—the beginning of the
Peloponnesian War.
#10 Peloponnesian War (between Athens & Sparta)
o #11 Sparta has a better army.
o #11 Athens has a better navy.
o #12 Sparta made the first move.
o #13 430 BCE, 2nd year of war, plague strikes Athens, kills 1/3 of the
population—including Pericles.
Sparta and Athens sign a truce in 421 BCE
#14 413 B.C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracuse on the
island of Sicily.
Sicily was Sparta’s wealthiest ally
Athenians were crushed
“[The Athenians] were destroyed with a total destruction – their fleet, their
army – there was nothing that was not destroyed, and few out of many
returned home.” - Thucydides
#15 404 BCE Athenians & their allies surrendered to
Impact of war for Athens:
#16 lost its empire, power & wealth
Rise of Great Philosophers
o After the war, Athenians lost confidence in democratic
government & began to question their values.
o Thinkers emerge who are called “lovers of wisdom.” This is
from the Greek words:
• phileo-to love
• sophia—wisdom
o Philosophers believe the universe is subject to absolute and
unchanging laws.
o People could understand these laws through logic and
 The
o The word means “the wisest,”
• Proud & boastful
• Know it all's - Claimed they could find the answers to all
o They used rhetoric to win arguments.
• Even if morally wrong
o They often charged fees for teaching their skills and for
arguing for others.
“The unexamined life is not worth living.”
Encouraged Greeks to
question themselves and
their moral character.
Encourages students to
examine their lives.
Socratic Method – teaching
by asking a series of
399 BCE – brought to trial for
“corrupting the youth of
Athens and sentenced to
death in 399 B.C.
Found guilty by jury.
He dies by drinking hemlock,
a slow acting poison.
A student of Socrates.
Before becoming a
philosopher, he was a poet
and a wrestler.
Wrote The Republic, about
an ideal society ruled by
o Not a democracy. Said the
society would fall into three
groups: farmers/artisans,
warriors, and the ruling
His writings dominate
European philosophy for
1,500 years.
Opened a school called the
He was a student of
 Invented method for
arguing according to
rules of logic.
 His work provides the
basis for scientific
method, still used today.
 He tutors 13-year-old
prince who becomes
Alexander the Great.