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Chapter 5, Section 3 Democratic principles and classical culture flourish during Greece’s golden age. #1 Golden Age o When a society is at it’s height • Drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture & science o Athens - 477 to 431 BCE Pericles as Leader o Skillful politician, inspiring speaker, respected general o Dominates life in Athens from 461 to 429 B.C. 1. Stronger Democracy o Pericles hires more paid public officials; creates direct democracy • Direct democracy—citizens rule directly, not through representatives 2. Athenian Empire o Takes over the Delian League; uses money to strengthen Athenian fleet. • Sparta and other cities resent Athenian power. 3. Glorifying Athens o Pericles buys gold, ivory, marble & hires artisans to beautify Athens • With money from the Delian League & without the whole league’s consent. $$$ from the Delian League allowed Athens to: o #3 Strengthen its Navy • Protect its empire/create an empire • Access to surrounding waterways • Overseas trade Some city states resisted Athens o Formed their own alliances Architecture and Sculpture o #4 & 5 Pericles builds the Parthenon—a large temple to honor the goddess Athena. Tragedy and Comedy o Greeks invent drama as an art form; includes chorus, dance, poetry • #6 Tragedy—tells story of heroes’ downfall; themes of love, hate, and war • #7Comedy—makes fun of politics and respected people; slapstick humor #8 Historians Herodotus and Thucydides record and study past events Athens grew in wealth, prestige, and power. o #9 Other city states viewed Athens with hostility because they have been independent city-states War Begins o 431 BCE Sparta declares war on Athens—the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. #10 Peloponnesian War (between Athens & Sparta) o #11 Sparta has a better army. o #11 Athens has a better navy. o #12 Sparta made the first move. o #13 430 BCE, 2nd year of war, plague strikes Athens, kills 1/3 of the population—including Pericles. Sparta and Athens sign a truce in 421 BCE #14 413 B.C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracuse on the island of Sicily. o o Sicily was Sparta’s wealthiest ally Athenians were crushed “[The Athenians] were destroyed with a total destruction – their fleet, their army – there was nothing that was not destroyed, and few out of many returned home.” - Thucydides #15 404 BCE Athenians & their allies surrendered to Sparta Impact of war for Athens: o #16 lost its empire, power & wealth Rise of Great Philosophers o After the war, Athenians lost confidence in democratic government & began to question their values. o Thinkers emerge who are called “lovers of wisdom.” This is from the Greek words: • phileo-to love • sophia—wisdom o Philosophers believe the universe is subject to absolute and unchanging laws. o People could understand these laws through logic and reason. The Sophists o The word means “the wisest,” • Proud & boastful • Know it all's - Claimed they could find the answers to all questions. o They used rhetoric to win arguments. • Even if morally wrong o They often charged fees for teaching their skills and for arguing for others. “The unexamined life is not worth living.” Encouraged Greeks to question themselves and their moral character. Encourages students to examine their lives. Socratic Method – teaching by asking a series of questions. 399 BCE – brought to trial for “corrupting the youth of Athens and sentenced to death in 399 B.C. Found guilty by jury. He dies by drinking hemlock, a slow acting poison. A student of Socrates. Before becoming a philosopher, he was a poet and a wrestler. Wrote The Republic, about an ideal society ruled by Philosopher-Kings. o Not a democracy. Said the society would fall into three groups: farmers/artisans, warriors, and the ruling class. His writings dominate European philosophy for 1,500 years. Opened a school called the Academy. He was a student of Plato. Invented method for arguing according to rules of logic. His work provides the basis for scientific method, still used today. He tutors 13-year-old prince who becomes Alexander the Great.