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Transcript
SESSION SUMMARY SPAA 31 9/628 CLINICAL PRACTICUM CLIENT:
DATE OF SESSION:
OVERALL SUMMARY
OBJECTIVE DATA
PROCEDURES/NoVEL STRATEGIES FOR FUTURE SESSION
QUESTIONS
Jl
Language
Screening for
APD
Auditory Training
CELF 4 (Clinical
Evaluation of Language
Fundamentals fourth
edition)
CHAPPS (Children's
Auditory Processing
Performance Scale
DALS II (Developmental
Approach to Successful
Listening II)
Erber
- ­ '----­
Auditory Training
LACE (Listening and
Communication
~ancement)
Articulation
GFTA-2 (Goldman Fristoe
Test of Articulation 2 nd
Ed.)
Auditory Training
Articulation and
Phonology
Articulation
Type
Auditory
Attention Deficits
CAAP (Clinical
Assessment of Articulation
& Phonology)
Test
ACPT (Auditory
Continuous Performance
Test)
Arizona
-
-
It Evaluates perceptual abilities on four different
levels- Detection, Discrimination, Identification,
Comprehension
Provides information about a child's articulation
ability by sampling both spontaneous and imitative
sounds. Measures articulation of consonant sounds
and determines types of misarticulation. The
Sounds-in-Words section is norm-referenced. The
Sounds-in-Sentences and Stimulability sections are
not norm-referenced.
An interactive computer program designed to
improve listening skills. This program is used in the
client's home in a self-directed manner. It focuses
The child is taught to develop hearing as an active
sense so that listening becomes automatic and the
child seeks out sounds in life. Hearing and active
listening become an integral part of communication,
recreation, socialization, education, and work.
Determines language strengths and weaknesses.
Provides Receptive Language and Expressive
Language scores, and additional composite scoresLanguage Structure, Language Content, Language
Content and Memo~ and Working Memory.
A questionnaire that is used to screen for APD by
assessing a parent's and/or a teacher's judgment of a
child's listening ability as compared to his or her
peers.
Consists of a hierarchy of listening that are worked
on in brief individualized sessions.
Description
Determine if an attention problem is one of the
underlying factors contributing to a child's learning
problems.
Provides a quick, reliable, and well-standardized
measure of articulation proficiency in children.
Adult
Children 2-21
years
Pre-School and
School Aged
Children
Children
7+
5-21 years
2:6- 8: 11
Varies
I
I
~I
~.
5 to 15 minus
depending on age
and attention span
Varies
Varies
Depends
30-60 minutes
2-10 minutes
depending on if a
language screening
is included
15-20 min
-
Children between
1.5 and 18 years
- -
Time to Administer
10 minutes
Target Population
6-11
I
I
J
'
L
Direct Audio
Processing
Articulation
Auditory Training
Auditory Training
SCAN-C (Test for
Auditory Processing
Disorders in ChildrenRevised)
S-CA T (Second Contextual
Articulation Test)
SKI-HI
SPICE (Speech Perception
Instructional Cirriculus &
Evaluation)
TOLD
Language
Language
PLS (Pragmatic Language
Skills Inventory)
Seven subtests: Picture Vocabulary, Oral
Vocabulary, Grammatic Understanding, Sentence
Imitation, Grammatical Completion, Word
Discrimination, and Word Articulation
on perception of degraded speech and developing
Irefining certain cognitive skills.
Assesses children's pragmatic language abilities in
three subscales: Personal Interaction Skills, Social
Interaction Skills, and Classroom Interaction Skills.
Give to children who have normal peripheral
hearing but who appear to have poor listening skills,
short auditory attention span, or difficulty
understanding speech in the presence of background
noise. (Need a cd player)
Part I-SPAC: Storytelling Probes of Articulation
Competence Part 2-CPAC: Contextual Probes of
Articulation Competence Part 3-TWCT: Target
Words for Contextual Training Determines exact
pretreatment status for any particular phoneme or
phonological process, evaluates progress during
treatment, and ensures correct treatment target. Also
allows practice materials to be linked to the
assessment process, and documents overall
effectiveness of intervention.
This program is based in the home and is a
developmentally based auditory stimulation training
program.
A guide to clinicians in evaluating and developing
auditory skills in children.
Babies and
children who have
just received CIs
4:0-8:11
60 minutes
Varies
Varies
3-5 minutes to be
administered as a
reading task or an
imitative task
Preschool to adults
Infants
30 minutes
5-10 minutes
5:0-11:0
5:0-12:11
'l"'I
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0
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1
1
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1
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Q.
en
What Everyone Should Know
About Speech Soun isorders
Jordan Amor
Special points of Interest:
> Articulation
> Phonology
Definition of Speech Sound Disorders
III
Speech sound disorders
inhibit a person's ability
Most cases of SSD are
(SSD) cover a wide
to communicate.
either articulation
variety of areas but their
Included in this category
disorders or
common theme is they
are disorders of voice,
phonological disorders.
'iii
arti'culation, or fluency.
G) I
,c l
.... 1
What is an Articulation Disorder?
~ I
0
C
1
1
An articulation disorder
the age of 8. An
In other cases there is a
is associated with the
articulation error is when
physical disability
inability to properly
a sound is substituted
involving the articulators
produce speech sounds.
(substitution), left off
including malformations
~ I
This is often associated
(omission), added
of the lip or palate
en
_
with difficulties involving
(addition), or changed
among others.
the articulators (lips,
(distorted). The cause of
Neuromuscular
teeth, tongue, soft and
articulation disorders
problems also impact
hard palate). On
vary. Some children
speech. Finally,
average children should
have some form of
articulations disorders
0
x:
1
~ I
..
'iii '
~ I
-
1
C ,
;:) 1
!II I
-
l
I
I
~:
have mastered the
hearing loss that inhibits
can result from
correct production of
them from properly
overarching
1
most speech sounds by
perceiving the sounds.
developmental delays.
Tell Me About
Phonological Disorder
1
Tell Me About Phonological Disorders
Treatment
2
Inside this Issue:
.-­
What is an Articulation
Disorder
Specific Errors
Things To Do at Home
to Help
I
3
4
Phonological disorders
speech sounds needed
that is easier for them to
involve the cognitive
to communicate. It is
produce. Also common
processes associated
common for children
is cluster reduction.
with the selection of
with phonological
Cluster reduction
proper speech sounds.
disorders to substitute
happens when a child
Clients with phonological
all sounds made in a
produces "poon" for
disorders have difficulty
particular way or place in
"spoon" removing the s.
learning and organizing
the mouth for something
55
Page 2
Treatment for Articulation Disorders
The earlier intervention
Another popular method is the
In this instance the
for articulation disorders
clinician would begin by
cycles approach. This was
begins the easier the
training the client to
developed by Hodson and Paden in
rehabilitation will
perceive the difference
1991. With this type of therapy
progress. There are
between the target sound
several different articulation goals
several factors that
and the error sound. Then
are being worked on
influence therapy
the clinician begins
simultaneously. The rationale
including, the age of the
working on production of
behind this approach is that
client and the severity of
the phoneme in isolation
individuals do not learn speech
the disorder.
then syllables, words,
concepts in isolation; they are
sentences, and
learned in conjunction
conversation.
with multiple concepts.
One approach is to
target Single phonemes.
,
­
ell
-;;
Q)
.c
Treatment for Phonological Disorders
I
.. ~
ell
S
..
..
I
speechlsto
~
-;;
persuade, to
~c
convert, to
Q)
compel.
....
;:)
III
(f)
When a clinician is
way to produce the
and other speech
focusing on a
desired sound. In
disorders it is important to
phonological goal it is
addition, clinicians know
take therapy outside the
common to begin with
the concepts behind
clinic so the child can
placement. One way is to
language and it is their
generalize what they are
go through a step-by-step
goal to teach the client
learning and apply it to
process of teaching the
rules of language
other situations.
client to move their
including past tense. With
articulators in the correct
phonological disorders
Speech Is power:
o
-Ralph Waldo
Emerson
Intervention for Both
Often articulation and
non-developmental
of a target makes it easier
phonology are combined
approach which uses other
for the clinician to teach.
Finally, some clinicians
into one approach. There
factors to determine goals.
are two main methods
One option is to choose the
choose targets based on the
that target both areas. The
targets that are most
apparent level of deviance
first is the developmental
relevant to the client.
related to a specific error.
approach. When using this
Targets may also be chosen
This option is organized to
method the clinician
to coincide with other errors
increase the client's
targets articulation or
in the child's use of
intelligibility as quickly as
phonological errors in the
language. Another option is
possible by targeting the
order in which they typically
to choose targets because of
errors that are the most
develop. The
their visibility. The visibility
detrimental.
56
Page 3
Common Types of Phonological Processes
•
Alveolarization ­
•
::::I
o
~
c
partial of complete
Depalatalization- an
syllable is repeated
•
o
»
...
•
C'CI
.c
~
(I)
'ii
•
~
.c
..
I­
by which a sound
cate replaces a palatal
a stop for a fricative or
becomes more like those
fricative or affricate.
affricate
•
Diminutization- addition
•
of /V
Doubling- insertion of a
Backing- a phoneme is
Cluster Reduction- when
a strident or replacing it
with a nonstrident
•
deletion
Final consonant deletion
Fronting- a sound being
Unstressed syllable
•
Voicing of devoicing- a
together but only one is
that is produced further
because of surrounding
produced
forward
sounds
Coalescence- a different
sound substituted for a
cluster
..
•
•
Strident deletion- deleting
substituted for something
o
c
•
new sound
•
two consonants are
(I)
,
...»
'ii
Stopping- substitution of
alveolar fricative or affri­
in the mouth
~
>
L&.I
•
Reduplication- when a
Assimilation- the process
is produced further back
..
•
with similar placement
replaced by another that
fI)
sounds
alveolar for a labial or
around it
.c
Denasialization- a nasal
being replaced with a stop
lingualdenta
•
•
substitution of and
Deaffrication - a fricative
•
•
•
replacing an affricate
Gliding- a glide is
changed in vOicing
•
Vocalization (vowelization)
substituted for a liquid
- a vowel takes the place
Initial consonant deletion
of a liquid in the final
Matathesis (Spoonerism)­
position
transposition of two
1c
;:)
.....
~
I
Works Cited
C'CI
fI)
C'CI
CD ,
Articulation disorders: treatment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http:;/www.clas.ufl.edu/users/rahuIj4250/
artn3.htm.
Bowen, Caroline. (1998). Pact: a broad-based approach. Retrieved from http://members.tripod.com/
caroline_bowen/clinphonology.html.
Davidson, Tish. (2011). Phonological disorder. Retrieved from http:;/www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/
Phonological-disorder.html.
Roth, F, & Worthington, C. (2005). Treatment resource manual for speech-language pathology. Clifton
Park: Thomas Delmar Learning.
Shipley, K, & McAfee, J. (2009). Assessment in speech-language pathology. Clifton Park: Delmar Cen­
gage Learning.
Speech sound disorders. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.brighttots.com/
Speech_and_Language_disorders/What causes an articulation disorder? (2010, June 19). Re­
trieved from http://superstarspeech.com/blog/2010/06/what-causes-an-articulation-disorder/.
Speech sound disorders: articulation and phonological processes. (n.d.). Retrieved from http:;/
www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/speechsounddisorders.htm.
Speech sound disorders Glossary of terms. (n.d.). Retrieved from http:;/www.mtcus.com/
glossary.html.
57
Jordan Amor
What Everyone Should Know About Language Special points of interest:
>
Expressive and Receptive Language
> Symptoms of Language Disorders
> Types of Language Disorders
> Treatment of Language Disorders
Basics of Language Disorders
presented to them. This
the rules that are in
deal with broad based
type of disorder is
effect when they are
communication. All
typically experienced
combined into phrases.
disorders fall into one of
when listening or writing.
Morphology controls the
two categories:
Because of its general
construction of words by
expressive language or
nature, receptive
the combination of
..
receptive language.
language disorders may
morphemes, the
Both types of language
overlap with auditory
smallest level of a
~
disorders can affect one
processing disorders or
language that contains
:::J
or multiple forms of
aphasia. It is also
meaning. Syntax
communication
possible for an individual
concerns sentence
including oral
to have a mixed
structure and the
communication, reading,
language disorder in
creation of
and writing.
which they experience
grammatically correct
Language disorders
1/1 1
Uj l
Q) I
,c l
1- 1
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C I
0
1
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>.
:!::
1/1
Q)
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....
....C'CI
/I)
Q)
C'CI
In
An expressive
langoage disorder
creates problems for an
Inside this Issue:
Basics of Language
Disorders
Recognizing a
Language Disorder
0
1
2
Specific Language
Disorders
2
Treatment
2
characteristics of both
sentences. Pragmatics
subgroups .
focuses on nonverbal
Another way language
aspects of language
individual trying to
disorders are classified
including turn taking and
communicate a
is by associating them
personal space. Finally,
message to another
with the major linguistic
there is phonology, a
individual or other
component they most
component of language
individuals. Expressive
impact. There are five
the most basic because
disorders can present
different linguistic
it deals with individual
themselves orally or in
components: semantics,
sounds, or phonemes.
writing.
morphology, syntax,
Some language
pragmatics, and
disorders are present in
inhibit a person's ability
phonology. Semantics
children and others in
to understand the
deals with the meanings
adults.
message being
of individual words and
Receptive disorders
59 ,
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,
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Page 2
'01) '
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Recognizing a Language Disorder
::lI
o
.a
Here are the most common
c(
~
what others are saying
expected
•
Clients may have a
o
symptoms.
::IC
Expressive
ph rase that is used
•
Sentences are not
excessively-especially
coherent or
when unsure of what to
grammatically correct
say or unable to say what
Sentences may be
is intended
c
=, 'C
0
,
oC ,
1/) ,
G)
I
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"~ ,I
•
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abnormally simple and
ni l
short.
.. 1
~ I
•
•
•
Slower than normal
•
Trouble following
processing rate
directions
•
Difficulty preparing
thoughts
Common misuse of verb
•
predicting
tenses.
Word finding issues are
•
Improper use of pronouns
•
•
Q)
....oC
..
III
Echolalia- repetition of
words or phrases
apparent
III
c;;
Trouble inferring or
Vocabulary might not be
Receptive
as developed as
•
Difficulty understanding
o
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>- 1
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Q)
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Specific Language Disorders
"Language shapes
the way we think,
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and determines
CD ,
what we can think
=ni ,l
Child Language Disorders
Adult Language Disorders
Associated Disorders
•
•
•
•
•
•
about."
-Benjamin Lee
Whorf
•
Language Based
Aphasia- can be
Learning Disability-
expressive or
the child has difficulty
receptive. This occurs
with age-appropriate
when there is damage
reading, spelling, and
to the language center
or writing.
of the brain.
Selective Mutism- the
•
Dementia - an
child chooses not to
acquired disorder
speak in particular
leading to intellectual
social settings
decline from
Traumatic Brain Injury
Strokes
Autism
Fetal Alcohol
Syndrome
•
•
•
•
Mental Retardation
Developmental Delays
Learning Disabilities
Specific Language
Impairment
neurogenic causes
Treatment
Treatment for school-age
setting. For adolescent
children incorporates both
clients goals become more Treatment for older adults
oral language and literacy.
complex including the
becomes more
Therapy goals should be
introduction of
specialized. The types of
oriented to the
metalinguistics. It is also
treatment depend on the
requirements placed on
expected that utterances
specific disease or
the child in the classroom
and conversations
disorder.
60
become more complex.
G)
'QAI
IV
Page 3
:::s
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IV
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o
J:I
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o
c
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:E
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o
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en
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III
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IV
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~
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...
(I)
Works Cited
Aphasia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.asha .orglpu bl ic/speech/d isorders/
Aphasia.htm.
Expressive language disorder. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.kidspeech.com/
index.ph p?option=com_content&view=a rticle&id=211&ltemid=506.
Language-based learning disabilities. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.asha.orgl
public/speech/disorders/LBLD.htm.
Language disorder - children. (2010, June 29). Retrieved from http:// www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001545.htm.
Owens, R E., Metz, 0 E., & Haas, A. (2007). Introduction to communication disor­
ers a lifespan perspective. Boston: Pearson.
Receptive language disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://http://
www.kidspeech.com/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=222&ltemid=512.
o
c
o
Selective mutism. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.asha.orglpublic/speech/
...>­
-;;
Watson, Sue. (n.d.). 10 common symptoms of language disorders/delays. Re­
::I:
...
c>
G)
:::;)
......
en
G)
IV
disorders/SelectiveMutism.htm.
trieved from http://specialed.about.com/od/learningdisabled/a/
langdelay.htm
I
I
61 Grammatical morphemes: are
used to modify words such as "ing"
in talking.
Mean Length ofutterance (MLU):
the average number of morphemes
per sentence.
Morphemes: smallest unit of
meaning in language for example
played has two play and the past
tense ending "ed."
Overregularization: an error in
which children use the rules for
plurals and past tenses even when
they are inappropriately applied.
Vocabulary to Know
All ages provided in this
brochure are only averages.
Children reach and pass through
stages at different rates and that is
completely normal.
In addition, what children can
understand and what they are able
to produce are completely
different. In most cases children
can understand a wider variety and
more complex information then
they themselves can convey.
Please keep this in mind when
interacting with a child who is
exploring their world through
language; the most important thing
is to be supportive.
Make sure you give your child
your full attention. It is also best to
have their full attention when
speaking to them.
Some helpful hints include
playing labeling games with body
Mean length of utterance is 1­
2 or about 2-3 words. The child's
vocabulary is between 150- 300
words. Sounds for k, g, f, t, d, and
n are beginning to be used.
The child's speech is now at a
point where those who are
frequently around them can
understand most of what they are
saying.
When your child names
something he or she is trying to
draw your attention to that object.
After naming the object the child
might add a describing word. Also,
the words that your child uses most
often are those that are common in
their environment.
As far as your child's
understanding you can tell them a
string of two tasks to complete.
They can also distinguish between
go and stop and other similar pairs.
In addition, the child is questioning
their world so be prepared.
As the child approaches three
their vocabulary has almost tripled
and three word sentences are easy.
Most children should be able to
identify their name, age, and sex.
You will begin to notice the
correct use of some plurals and
past tenses. They have a good
:dle on the pronouns I, youJ and
Ages 2 through 3
By this point in development
the child should have most
consonants, vowels, and
diphthongs. Some exceptions are s,
Z, r, I, and h blends. Their MLU is
between 3.5 - 4.5 and increases
with age.
The child's sentences are
beginning to contain more detail.
In addition, stories are staying on
topic.
At this stage most people
should be able to understand 90%
of what the child is saying.
However, the child might still be
over regulating during
conversations.
Up to this point the child has
been able to ask questions but can
now answer simple ones. The child
has full use of at least four
prepositions including over and
under.
Children can identify familiar
animals by name. Also, the child
should know at least one color.
They are able to pay more
attention to short stories and
answer some basic comprehension
questions. Make-believe play has
become very popular and it is a
great way for them to explore
Ages 4 through 6
parts or other word groups to
establish vocabulary. Also reading
and singing nursery rhymes helps
to establish speech patterns.
Here are some additional
resources for parents and
caregivers seeking more
information.
http://www.asha.oralpublic/speech/
development/chart.hlm
http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.
com/development/language develo
pment.shtml
http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/v
oice/speechandlanguage.asp#mych
ild
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/
deve lopmentlParen t-St im­
Activities.htm
http://www.speech-Ianguage­
therapv.com/deveI2.htm
their world.
Around age five, the majority
of children's speech should be
grammatically correct.
The child should understand
common opposite pairs including
hard-soft. Additionally, time has
acquired a basic meaning for them,
for example morning, afternoon,
and night.
The child is now using spatial
relationships such as first, middle,
and last. Furthermore, they might
start to show off to by counting to
ten.
After six the remaining
consonants should be mastered.
Most children can look at a series
of pictures and create a story.
rce for
The perfect
parents with I,;hildren
entering Preschool or
Kindergarten.
(MLU): el nlirnero promedio de
morfemas por sentencia.
Morfemas : unidad mas pequei'la de
significado en lenguaje interpretado
por ejemplo tiene dos juegos y el
preterito terminando a "ed".
Overregularization: un error en el
que los niftos utilizan las reglas
plurales y ultimos tiempos incluso
cuando sean aplicados de manera
inapropiada.
Signijica longitud de enunciado
para modificar palabras tales como
"ing" al hablar.
Motfemas gramaticales: se utilizan
Vocabulario saber
Todas las edades en este folleto
son solo promedios. Niftos alcanzan
y pasan por etapas a diferentes
velocidades y eso es completamente
normal.
Ademas, 10 que los nii'los pueden
entender y 10 que son capaces de
producir son completamente
diferentes. En la mayorfa de los
casos los niftos pueden entender una
variedad mas amplia y pueden
transmitir informacion mas
compleja, y luego ellos mismos.
Por favor, tengalo en cuenta
cuando interacruan con un nino que
esta estudiando su mundo a traves
dellenguaje; 10 mas irnportante es
ser solidarios.
Aseglirese de que darle a su hijo
su completa atencion. Tambien es
mejor tener toda su atencion al
hablar con ellos.
ecto
El recurs
para los paares con
ninos en preescolar 0
Kindergarten.
~===:::!:I
EI promedio de longitud de la
expresion es de 1-2 0 de 2-3
palabras. EI vocabulario del nino es
de entre 150 a 300 palabras. Sonidos
para k, g, f, t, d, n, y estan
empezando a ser utilizado.
EI habla del nino se encuentra
ahora en un punto donde los que son
con frecuencia alrededor de ellos
pueden entender la mayoria de 10
que estan diciendo.
Cuando su nino los nombres de
algo que el 0 ella esta tratando de
lIamar su atencion sobre ese objeto.
Oespues de nombrar el objeto que el
nii'io podria anadir una palabra
descriptiva. Ademas, las palabras
que su hijo usa con mayor frecuencia
son aquellos que son comunes en su
entomo.
En cuanto a la comprension de su
hijo se les puede decir una cadena de
dos tare as que realizar. Tambien se
puede distinguir entre ir a parar y
otros pares similares. Ademas, el
nino pone en duda su mundo, as! que
preparate.
A medida que el nino se acerca a
tres su vocabulario casi se ha
triplicado y tres palabras son faciles.
La mayoria de los nifios deben ser
capaces de identificar su nombre,
edad y sexo.
Usted empezara a notar el uso
correcto de algunos plurales y
tiempos pasados. Ellos tienen un
buen manejo de los pronombres yo,
ttl y yo.
Algunos consejos utiles son los
juegos con el cuerpo de etiquetado
I Edades de 2 a 3
En este punto del desarrollo del
nino debe tener la mayoria de las
consonantes, vocales y diptongos.
Algunas excepciones son s, z, r, I, h,
Y las mezclas. Su MLU es entre 3,5 a
4,5 y se incrementa con la edad.
Las frases del nii'io estan
empezando a incluir mas detalles.
Ademas, las historias se quedan en el
tema.
En esta etapa la mayoda de la
gente debe ria ser capaz de entender
el 90% de 10 que el nino esta
diciendo . Sin embargo, el nino
todavia puede ser mas regular
durante las conversaciones.
Hasta este momenta el nif'io ha
sido capaz de hacer preguntas, pero
ahora pueden responder a los
simples. EI nino tiene pleno uso de
al menos cuatro preposiciones entre
ellos mas 0 menos.
Los nii'ios pueden identificar a los
animales conocidos por su nombre .
Tambien , el nino debe saber por 10
menos un color.
Son capaces de prestar mas
atencion a las historias cortas y
responder a a lgunas preguntas
basicas de comprension. Juegos de
simulacion se ha conveltido en muy
popular y es una gran manera para
que ellos exploren su mundo.
Edades de 4 a 6
partes u otros grupos de la palabra
para establecer el vocabulario .
Tambien leer y cantar canciones de
cuna ayuda a establecer los patrones
del habla.
http://www.asha.org/pub Iic/speec
h/developmenrfchart.htm
http://www.childdevelopmentinf
o.comJdevelopmentllaJ1guage de
velopmenLshtml
http://www.nidcd.nih .gov/hcalth/
voice/speechand Ian guage.asp#m
ychild
http://www.asha.orglpublic/speec
h/developmentiParent-Stim­
Activities.htm
http://www.speech-Iangua!!e­
therapy.com/deveI2.htm
Aqui hay algunos recursos
adicionales para los padres y
cuidadores que buscan obtener mas
informacion.
Alrededor de cinco an os de edad,
la mayorfa de habla de los ninos
debe ser gramaticalmente correcto.
EI nii'io debe comprender
comunes pares de opuestos como
duro-bl ando. Ademas, el tiempo ha
adquirido un significado
fundamental para ellos, por la
manana ejemplo, tarde y noche .
EI nii'io esta ahora con las
relaciones espaciales, como primero,
segundo y ultimo. Ademas, se podria
empezar a mostrar que por con tar
hasta diez.
Oespues de seis consonantes
restantes deben ser dominadas. La
mayoria de los ninos pueden ver una
serie de imagenes y crear una
historia.
Jordan Amor
What Everyone Should Know About Hearing
Special points of interest:
>
Classifications of Hearing Loss
> Causes of Hearing Loss
> Types of HearingAids
What Type of Hearing Loss Is It?
III
III
There are three types of
caused by aging, diseases
malformations, and wax
hearing loss: conductive
including but not limited to
buildup. Another cause is
hearing loss,
mumps and meningitis,
otosclerosis, a calcium
sensorineural hearing
ototoxic drugs, and
build up on the middle ear
loss, and mixed hearing
heredity. Sensorineural
bones. It is possible for
loss. Of those three
hearing loss is permanent
this type of hearing loss to
sensorineural is the most
but in the majority of
be treated medically or
common. A sensorineural
cases hearing aids can
surgically. But if these
loss occurs when hair
provide some assistance.
problems are left
cells, sound receptors, in
Next there is conductive
untreated the hearing loss
the inner ear become
hearing loss. This is
can become permanent.
damaged. When this
caused when sound is
Mixed hearing loss has
happens the sound cannot
blocked from reaching a
components of
reach the brain. This type
properly functioning inner
sensorineural and
of damage is often caused
ear by an obstruction in
conductive loss. There is
by repeated exposure to
the outer or middle ear.
often a partial medial
loud sounds without the
The most common causes
solution but hearing aids
use of protection. This
of a conductive loss
are often suggested.
type of loss can also be
include infections,
Causes of Hearing Loss
People experience
Inside this issue:
Classifications of
Hearing Loss
2
Configurations of
Hearing Loss
2
Types of Hearing
Aids
3
this include a buildup of
damage (acoustic trauma)
different degrees of
wax, external and
as well as pressure
hearing loss from slight to
middle ear infections,
trauma, a fracture in the
profound. All cases of
dislocated ossicales (the
temporal bone (head
hearing loss fall into two
bones in the middle ear),
trauma), ototoxic drugs,
diagnostic categories:
and a perforated ear
vascular disease, a tumor
conductive hearing loss
drum.
in the auditory nerve, of
and sensorineural hearing
When the hearing
many types of infections
loss. When the cause in
loss is sensorineural the
(measles, mumps,
conductive there is
sound waves can not be
meningitis) may also be
something physically
perceived. Prolonged
responsible. It is also
blocking the passage of
exposure to loud noises
quite possible that it is
sound. Some examples of
causes this type of
simply the result of aging.
67
_I
.1'
'i::
1
Page 2
• •
C
Configurations of Hearing and Their Meanings
1
ii ·
1
~
I
.. 1' :.
-,
:-I
1
~ I
The configuration of the
hearing loss denotes the
that the hearing loss is
Progressive means that
only in one ear and
the hearing loss will
,. 1
shape/pattern of the
bilateral designates both
continue to become worse
hearing loss as it appears
ears are effected. Next,
over time as opposed to a
w ,
on the audiogram.
there is symmetrical and
sudden loss which
Diagrams are presented
asymmetrical. These
happens quickly. Finally,
below.
terms refer to whether the
there is the distinction
degree and configuration
that is made between
other ways to label
of loss are the same in
fluctuating versus stable
hearing loss. First, there
both ears. Third,
hearing loss. A fluctuating
are unilateral and
progressive and sudden
loss changes sometimes
bilateral types of hearing
are used to specify the
for the better but other
loss. Unilateral signifies
onset of the hearing loss.
times for the worse.
-
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:' 1
-lit
iii
There are also several
....•
Flat Configuration
lit
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if:
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w
•
High Frequency
(Sloping) Configuration
f"Tcqucocy In Hertz
C
." "When someone
I
I
In the family has a
f"Tcquency 1.0 Rc--r1:r.
1
hearing loss, the
~
entire family has a
~~ I
i.
~
hearing problem."
Mark Ross, PhD
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Low Frequency (Rising) Configuration f'rl!'qur. nCJ'
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Page 3
Types of Hearing Aids
There are five main types of
is easy to handle and maintain.
plastic shell that fills the outer
i ll hearing aid styles: behind-the­
Next there are the mini BTE
part of the ear. Also there is
M:
ear, mini behind-the-ear, in the
which is also know as the on­
the in-the-canal. type In this
'ii
ear, in the canal, completely in
the-ear. It is extremely similar
instance the entire hearing aid
en
-
the canal.
to the BTE except noticeably
fits inside the ear canal. The
smaller. Also instead of an
completely-in-the-canal aid is
(BTE) hearing aid is contained
earmold they might have an
even smaller and less
.­;; in a plastic case behind the
ear piece similar to an ear bud.
conspicuous. Smaller hearing
ear. Then there is a piece of
Third, is the in-the-ear hearing
aids are often harder to
clear tubing that is connected
aid. With this style all
control.
to an earmold. This type of aid
components fit inside a hard
-
•
to
::•
II
I: The bulk of a behind-the-ear
..•
III
iii
--
to­
~
Hearing Aid Styles •
-=
l!
­-­. i!
iii
=;•;;
Comole t et", . ,f'I
..­
H" ' i - 5h>!11
-Win.,' (C l e) '\
'\
~J ~
III
F-lill Shell
5 eh .n d- lhe -Ear Open Ea r ti lE
E nr
Works Cited
Configuration of hearing loss. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/ Configu ration-of-Hearing-Loss/. Hearing aid styles. (2011). [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.thingsforoldpeople.com/page/2. Hearing loss (cont.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/hearing..Joss/ page2_em.htm. Types and degrees of hearing loss. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.unitronhearing.com/unitron/ global! en/consumer/youchearing-c/hearing..Joss/types_degrees.html. Types of hearing loss. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pamf.org/hearinghealth/facts/types.html. 69 Diagram of the Ear @
_ Ea dru
2. M letJ5
3. Incu
fl . Vestlb la
Coch ea
5. Se tclrcula canals
Auditory n e
7 Fa I Ne e
(5
erve
O. EuSia IS tLJ e
4 Stapes
http:L/jacketmagazine.com/20/pt-reev-kerr.html
'>
71
.crth
\lEtS
In
nlv mity
All-in-One Resource on Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) Honors Thesis
JordanAmor
Ball State University Spring 2011
What is NIHL?
• Approximately
15 percent of
Americans
between the ages
of 20 and 69-0r
26 million
Americans have
noise induced
hearing loss.
Every day our ears are responsible for receiving millions of sounds. Normally, hearing these sounds at safe levels does not affect our hearing. However, when sounds are too loud or
loud are prolonged
the sensitive
structures in the inner
ear can be damaged
this causes noise
induced hearing loss
(NlliL). These
sensitive structures,
called hair cells,
convert sound energy
into electrical signals
that travel to the
brain. Once damaged,
the hair cells cannot
grow back.
Symptoms When exposed to loud noise over a long period of time, symptoms of NlliL will increase gradually. Over time, the sounds heard may
become distorted or
muffled, and it may
be difficult to
understand speech.
Someone with NillL
may not even be
aware of the loss, but
it can be detected
with a hearing test.
Prevention NIHL is 100% preventable so take these easy steps: • Know which
noises can cause
damage (those at or
above 85 decibels).
• Wear earplugs or
other hearing
protecti ve devices
when involved in a
loud activity (special
earplugs and earmuffs
are available at
hardware and
sporting goods
stores).
• Be alert to
hazardous noise in
the environment.
• Protect the ears of
children who are too
young to protect their
own.
• Make family,
fiiends,and
colleagues aware of
the hazards of noise.
If hearing loss is
suspected, have a
medical examination
by an
otolaryngologist (a
physician who
specializes in diseases
of the ears, nose,
throat, head, and
neck) and a hearing
test by a licensed!
certified audiologist
(a health professional
trained to measure
and help individuals
deal with hearing
loss).
Works Cited Bredenkamp, MD, FACS, J. (2009, July 21). Noise-induced hearing loss and its prevention. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/ noisejnduced_hearingJoss_and _itsyreventionlarticle.htm. Noise-induced hearing loss. (2011, March 01). Retrieved from http:// www.cdc.govlhealthyyouthlnoise. Noise-induced hearing loss. (2008, October). Retrieved from http:// www.nidcd.nih.gov/healthlhearinglnoise.asp. 73 AII- -n-One Resource on Otitis Media Jordan Amor
Honors Thesis
Ball State University Spring 2011
Signs and Symptoms
Otitis Media
At a Glance:
Definition:
An infection in the
middle ear usually
caused by bacteria
when there is a
build up of fluid
behind the ear­
drum.
Statistics:
•
There are 7
million cases of
middle ear in­
fections each
year.
• The majority of
cases are in
children
The majority of
cases of otitis media
occur in children. If
several of these
signs are present a
doctor needs to be
seen.
•
•
•
•
•
Tugging or
pulling at ears
Fussiness and
crying
Trouble sleeping
Fever
Fluid draining
from the ear
• Problems with
balance
• Trouble hearing
or responding to
quiet sounds
Types of Otitis Media
Acute otitis media
(AOM) is the most
common ear
infection. Parts of
the middle ear
become infected and
swollen when fluid is
trapped behind the
eardrum. This
causes pain in the
ear commonly called
an earache. The
child might also
have a fever.
Otitis media with
effusion (OME)
can occur after an
ear infection has run
its course and fluid
stays trapped behind
the eardrum. A child
with OIVIE may have
no symptoms, but a
doctor will be able to
see the fluid behind
the eardrum with a
special instrument.
Chronic otitis
media with
effusion (COME)
happens when fluid
remains in the
middle ear for a long
time or returns over
and over again, even
thoug h there is no
infection. COME
makes it harder for
children to fight new
infections and also
can affect their
hearing.
pain medication may
be recommended.
If the individual
continues to have
problems with otitis
media it is
suggested to consult
an ear, nose, and
throat doctor. Tubes
may need to be
implanted in the ear
assist with drainage.
Treatment
For an acute case
of otitis media most
doctors will prescribe
an antibiotic for 7-10
days. Additionally
an over the counter
Works Cited
Ear infections in children. (2011, January 05). Retrieved from
http://www. nidcd. nih.gov/health/heari ng/earinfections.
Perlstein, MD FAAP, D. (2011). Otitis media (middle ear infection or
inflammation). Retrieved from http://
www.medicinenet.com/.otitis_media/article.htm.
74 ~.ltrJrne
Resource on Pre s bycusis
g e Re lated Hearing Loss)
Honors Thesis
JordanAmor
Ba ll State University Sprin g 2011
Causes and Risk Factors
Tiny hairs in the
ears detect sO\Uld
waves and transmit
them to the brain to
be interpreted.
Hearing loss occurs
when these hairs are
damaged or die.
They are unable to
regenerate.
Some risk factors
include:
• Family History
• Repeated
exposure to loud
noises
• Smoking
• Other medical
conditions can
increase the
incidence of
Presbycusis.
Signs and Symptoms
nerve pathways
that lead from the
middle ear to the
brain begin to
deteriorate.
Statistics:
• Presbycusis is
present in 30­
35% of those
over 65 and 40­
50% over 70.
• About 10.6
million people
in the United
States alone are
suffering from
Presbycusis.
This type of
hearing loss occurs
slowly over time. At
the onset, it is most
difficult to hear loud
sounds.
• Certain sounds
seem overly loud
• Difficulty hearing
things in noisy
envirorunents.
• High-pitched
sounds such as "s" or
"th" are hard to
distinguish from one
another
• Men's voices are
easier to hear than
women's
• Other people's voices sO\Uld mumbled or slurred • Ringing in the ears. It is unlikely that
Presbycusis will
cause a complete loss
of hearing.
Treatment
There is no cure
for hearing loss
because it is a
permanent type of
damage. However,
there are things a
patient, family, and
friends can do to
make it easier for
loved one to hear.
First, make an
appointment with an
audiologist. This
hearing professional
will be able to tell
you if hearing aids
are appropriate in
your situation.
There are other
types of assistive
devices including
telephone
amplifiers, or
telephones that
convert sound into
text and fro systems.
In addition try to
• Reduce the amO\Ult
ofbackgro\Uld
noise.
• Look at the
individual.
• Speak slowly and
clearly.
• There is training
available is speech
reading and sign
language
Presbycusis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://medicalcenter.osu.edul
Works Cited
patientcare/healthcare_services/otolaryngology/
abouCotolaryngology/ear_nose_throaCfacts/presbycusis/Pages/
index.aspx.
Presbycusis. (2010, June 07). Retrieved from http://
www.nidcd.nih.gov/healthlhearing/presbycusis.htm.
75 Coping with Hearing Loss ~ordanAmor
Honors Thesis
BaD State Uohersity Spring 2011
You have just found out that you or someone you love has a hearing loss.
You are full ofquestions. What does this mean? What do we do now?
How will our lives be different &om now on? Hopefully the information
in this brochure will help you begin the process ofunderstanding and
coping with the lifestyle associated with hearing loss.
Steps/ StageS
A.dditional
ResoUJ"CeS
• Alexander Graham Bell
Association for the Deaf
and Hard of Hearing
http://nc.agbell.org!
netcommunity/page.aspx?
pid=348
• American Society for
Deaf Children (ASDC)
http://
www.deafchildren.org!
• American Speech­
Language Hearing
Association (ASHA)
http://www.asha.org/
• Association of Late­
Deafened Adults
http://www.alda.org!
• Hearing Loss
Association of America
http://
www.hearingloss.org!
•
American Academy
of Audiology
http://www.audiology.org!
Pages/default.aspx
• Denying that the
problem exists
• Guilt for having
caused the
hearing loss (HL)
• Depression
• Anger at
themselves or
others
• Anxiety-not
knowing what to
expect
intensified if the
hearing loss is quite
rapid. To successfully
cope with hearing
loss, first the client
should grieve. This
process helps
stimulate re­
evaluation, which can
lead to acquiring
positive values and
atti tudes, and
facilitate growth.
There are individuals
and facilities who are
able and willing to
help at any point
during this process.
Grieving
When you find out
that you or someone
you love has a
hearing loss it is as if
you are losing a part
of what you thought
you knew. Hearing
loss throws emotions
into a turmoil. This is
Get Active and Get Informed
Having come to
is also important to
use assistive
terms with the
hearing loss you need technology. This
comes in several
to become an
advocate for yourself forms such as
frequency modulation
and or your loved
one.
(FM) systems, a
The first step is to amplification devise
become informed.
that can be used in
Look into different
almost any situation,
types of hearing aids
or voice converter for
and then get fitted
the telephone.
with the correct ones Another option to
for the hearing loss. It consider is learning to
77
speech read, the
process of determining
the meaning of a
speaker's message
using visual cues, lip
movements, facial
expressions and
bodily gestures. This
skill can help an
individual acquire
additional information
in challenging
situations.
Page 2
Coping with Hearing Loss
Environmental Management
• Tell friends
and family
about the
hearing loss.
• Ask people
to look directly
at you when they speak.
• Make sure the area is
well lit. This helps
provide visuaJ cues for
those with hearing
problems.
• Use closed captioning
when watching TV.
• Arrange furniture to
create a positive
conversation
environment where
individuals are facing
each other.
• Reduce background
noise (Turn off the TV,
stereo, etc.).
• Use additional alerting
systems that tell
occupants when the
phone is ringing, a
visitor is at the door,
there is smoke or a fire
has started, or baby is
crying. Some signalers
have flashing lights and
others make a loud
sound, or shake the bed.
• Telephone jacks should
be installed near
electrical outlets to
accommodate signalers,
voice to text converters,
and other devices.
• Since a person with
hearing loss may not be
able to hear someone's
voice on the other side
the door, a view panel (a
window or side panel)
helps identify visitors. A
view panel is preferable
to a typical peephole
because it's easier to see
through.
• The type of flooring
used is another
important consideration.
If background noise is
problematic, wall to
wall carpeting will help
absorb sound. However,
if occupants depend on
feeling vibrations in the
horne, thin carpeting or
rugs, linoleum, or
hardwood floors are
better.
• Sit closer when
speaking to the person
who is hard of hearing.
• Try to find a more
suitable location for
communication.
Works Cited
Five steps to successfully coping with hearing loss. (2005, December 26). Retrieved from
http://hearinglosshelp.comlweblog/fIve-steps-to-successfully-coping-with-hearing­
loss.php.
Kohnle, D. (2010). Health tip: coping with hearing loss. Retrieved from http://
www.medicinenet.comlscriptlmainlart.asp?articlekey=115995.
Total resource guide. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.inflnitec.org/totalresource/deaf/
modhearing.htm.
78 COChlear Implant
All-in-One Resource on
Cochlear IlTIplants
Honors Thesis
Jordan Amor
Ball Slatl' l JniYl'r",ity Spring 2011
Criteria for Children
Memhel's of the
CocWeru'lmplanl
Team
patient's parents must consult
success of the surgery. It is
12 months of age to receive
with adoctor, preferably an
imporlantto know cochlea
cochlear implant surgery. In
otolaryngologist, to make sure
implant surgery will not result
• Patient
addition, the patient's hearing
there are no medical
in perfect hearing.
• Parent
loss needs to be at least
contraindications. The patient
Finally, the patient needs to
• Audiologist
profound and receive lillie to
and the patient's family should
have access to habilitation and
• Speech Pathologist
no benefit from the use of
have appropriate expectations
hearing aids.
and motivations. These
• Otolaryngologist
The patient must be at least
rehabilitation services.
criteria contribute to the
Prior to surgery the
• Educational Psychologist
• Social Worker
Criteria for Adults
preferably an otolaryngologis~
porlantto know cochlea im­
surgery the patient's hearing
to make sure there are no
plant surgery will not result in
loss needs to be at least sever
medical contraindications. The
perfect hearing.
to profound and receive lillie
patient and the patient's family
Finally, the patient needs to
to no benefit from the use of
should have appropriate expec­
have access to habilitation and
hearing aids.
tations and motivations. These
To receive cochlear implant
Prior to surgery the patient
must consult with adoctor,
79
criteria contribute to the suc­
cess of the surgery. It is im­
rehabilitation services.
Page 2
Benefits of Cochlear Implants
In children cochlear implants aid in tbe development of spoken language both
expressive and receptive. Successful surgical outcomes also increase their environmental
awareness.
In adults this device increases information input and speech recognition abilities. Adults also gain increased environmental awareness. Bilateral vs Bimodal
Bilateral cochlear implants are avery new concept. They are still in development and are not currenLly
seen as extremely useful.
In Bimodal cochlear implants the patient has a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid in the other.
Trouble Shooting Cochlear Implants
No Sound or Intermittent Sound
Speech is Unclear, Too Soft or Noisy
Intermittent Buzzing Sonnd
• Insert new or fuUy charged balleries
• Check if headset coil is in place
•
• Use dry pack to remove moisture
•
(Radio or TV transmission towers,
If the Mlight doesn't nash the speaker
security systems, and some mobile
might be speaking too softly
from speech processor Check for electromagnetic interference
phones.)
• Turn on speech processor
•
locate and reduce background noise
• Ensure headset is properly connected
•
Check the headset function
If the Mlight stays on allemptto
Battery Charger Won't Charge
Sounds are Uncomfortably Loud
•
Check balleries for charge
•
•
Remove and reinsert the balleries to
Reduce microphone sensitivity
insure they are installed properly
Works Cited
Cochlear implants. (2011, March). Retrieved from hllp://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/coch.html.
Coclr/ear implants. (2011). Retrieved from hllp://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Cochlear-Implanl/.
Troubleshooting guide your introduction to cochlear implants. (n.d.). Retrieved from hllp://professionals.cochlearamericas.com/siles/
defaull/files/resources/TroubleShoolingFUN599GISS2.pdf.
80 AII-in-One Resource on Classroom Amplification Honors Thesis
Jordan Amor Ball State University Spring
201.1
Who Benefits and Why?
Teachers are the first to benefit from added amplification. In today's classrooms
teachers are fighting a losing battle against background noise that forces them to
raise their voices. This causes straining which can lead to permanent damage of
the vocal cords.
In addition, all groups of students benefit from classroom amplification
systems. These systems allow those students with attention deficit disorder and
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to focus better by blocking out background
noise. Classroom amplification makes it easier for those students with hearing
• Be Heard­
School Grant
http://
www.calypsosys
tems.com/grant­
apps
• Community
Foundations
• Psi Iota Xi
disabilities to hear. Finally, students with normal hearing don't have to exert as
much energy to hear the teacher.
The use of a sound-field amplification system provides the teacher with a unique
opportunity to maximize listening and learning opportunities in the classroom. Sound-field
amplification research supports the benefits for both students and teachers. Primary
research findings are:
• An improvement in academic achievement, espeCially for younger students
• An increase in on-task behavior
• An increase in attention to verbal instruction and activities and improved understanding • A decrease in the number of requests for repetition
• A decrease in the frequency of need for verbal reinforces to facilitate test performance
• Psi Chi
• Rotary Club
• Kiwanis
• A decrease in test-taking time
• An increases ub sentence recognition abilities
• An improvement in listening test scores
• An increases in language growth
• An improvement in student voicing when speaking
• Lions Club
• Elks Club
• An increase in student length of utterance
• An increase in ease of listening and teaching
• A decrease in vocal strain and fatigue for teachers
• Moose Club
• A decrease in the special education referral rate
• An increase in seating options for students with hearing loss
• Sertoma Club
• It is a cost-effective means of enhancing the listening and learning environment.
81
AII-in-One Resource on Classroom Amplification
Page
2
Trouble Shooting CA Systems
getting reception ­ the channel lights on the receiver are red_ What's wrong?
Check that the transmitter is on and is un-muted. Verify that you are not blocking either the emitters on the transmitter or the sensors on receiver or mounted around room. If reception is interrupted when facing a certain direction, install an additional sensor in that area of the room . Ifteam-teaching, verify that transmitters are not on the same channel. If low battery indicator shows recharge transmitter's batteries. Replace batteries if recharge is ineffective. Getting feedback (squealing) - how can it be minimized?
Make sure the speakers are mounted as close as possible to both the ceiling and the listeners; avoid mounting
speakers in the teacher's primary lecture area. Position the microphone closer to the speakers mouth. Lower the microphone volume control on the receiver. Select the low or medium OptiVoice setting. No sound coming out of the speakers (or sound output is weak).
Verify that the receiver is on (green power light). Verify that the receiver is picking up a signal (green channel indication light). Increase the microphone volume or Aux Volume control on the receiver. Position the microphone closer to the speakers mouth. Verify that the speaker cables are connected properly. Verify that the transmitter is not muted. {he receiver won't turn on - the power light is off. What needs to be done?
Verify that the power supply is plugged into both the receiver and a working wall outlet. Test with another power supply. If the power light turns yellow, the receiver is in standby mode. The receiver will power-down automatically when it does not detect a microphone or audio input for more than ten minutes.
The receiver will turn on automatically when: the microphone is turned on and/or un-muted, or an audio source is
connected to the receiver.
How to eliminate 'dead spots' or microphone crackling / noise?
Verify that the speaker is not blocking either the emitters on the transmitter or the sensors on receiver or that are
mounted around room. If reception is interrupted when facing a certain direction, install an additional sensor in that area ofthe room . If team-teaching, verify that transmitters are not on the same channel. Recharge or replace the transmitter's batteries. Verify that the emitter/microphone is working (Test with another working emitter/microphone). Works Cited
Classroom soundfield amplification: an introduction. (2008, December 15). Retrieved from http://www.extron.com/
download/files/whitepaper/ciassroomsoundfieldamp_reVl.pdf.
Classroom amplification systems. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.esd112.org/edtech/whitepapers/
Sound_Amp_whitepaper.pdf.
'Iassroom sound-field amplification systems. (1995). Retrieved from http://www.hear-more.com/
82 Classroom Amplification Diagram Ampifier/Receiver
on back counter
Speakers at a
33" height to
accomrr.odate
students seated
at tables
\.
Speaker at
height to
accommodate
students seated
on floor for music
and story time
MAIN ALL-CLASS
INSTRUCTION AREA
small group
table
bookcase
Speaker at 21"
height to
accommod
students seated
on floor
•
21~)
PLAY AREA
door
FIGURE 7-1 1. Diagrom of loudspeaker place .ent for sample kindergarten . Adopted from A School
Handbook on Classroom Amplifica/ion (p . 19) by L. Allen,1991 , Permission Keystone Area Educational
Agency, Division of Special Education, RR #2, Box 119, Elkader, Iowa 52043.
83
Severity of Hearing Loss Graph I~L_O
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http://www.pedsent.com/problems/aud_audiogram.htm
84
Sound Levels Graph http://www.hearing-aid.com/h eari ng-I oss-treatment-consi d erations/ au dio Iogists-a nd-h ea ri ng-speci aIists/h earing-I oss-a ud iogram
85 Speech Audiogram ,
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86
Ie
",,~
·in·One Resource
on Alzheimer's
JordanAmor
Honors Thesis
Ball State Unncrsity Sprm,r; 2011
What is Alzheimer's
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, degenerative disorder
that attacks the brain's nerve cells resulting in loss of
memory, thin'king and language skills, and behavioral skills.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause ofdementia
among people 65 years of age and older.
Brain weight is usually reduced due to the atrophy ofbrain
tissue.
• It is estimated
that as many as
5.1 million
Americans have
Alzheimer's
disease.
• On average 1-4
family members
are needed to
take on the role
of caregiver.
• $172 billion are
spent annually
on treatment.
• It is the 7th
leading cause of
death.
Symptoms ofAlzheimer's
•
~emory
• Trouble
loss that
disrupts daily life
• Challenges in
planning or
problem solving
• Difficulty
completing
familiar tasks
• Confusion with
time and or place
•
•
understanding
visual images and
spatial
relationships
New problems
with words in
speech or writing
~isplacing things
and losing the
ability to retrace
steps
• Decreased or poor
judgment
• Withdraws from
work or social
activities
• Changes in mood
and personality
Stages ofAlzheimer's
Stage 1: No
Impairment-no
memory problems or
other symptoms.
Stage 2: Very ~ild
Decline-maybe
normal age-related
changes, minor
memory lapses
Stage 3: ~ild
Decline- early stage:
people close to the
client begin to notice
changes.
Stage 4: ~oderate
Decline- forgetful of
recent events and
personal history,
greater difficulty
performing complex
tasks
Stage 5: ~oderately
Severe Decline-get
confused about
where they are and
what day it is.
87
Stage 6: Severe
Decline- personality
changes may take
place and need
extensive help with
daily activities
Stage 7: Very Severe
Decline-last stage
individuals need help
with the most basic
tasks such as eating
and using the toilet.
All-in-Onc Resource on Alzheimer's Page 2
~entfor~hebners
Currently there is no cue for Alzheimer's. However, researchers are trying to develop drug
therapies to slow the progression and reduce the damage.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several medications for treating
Alzheimer's. Several of the drugs are only able to be used during the mild to moderate stages. One
type of drug being prescribed is cholinesterase inhibitors. These medications help slow the
breakdown of the parts of the brain that are in charge ofleaming and memory.
EfFects on Speech
The Speech Language Pathologist is an important part ofthe treatment team. Other members include
doctors, nurses, and occupational therapists among others. The role of a speech pathologist can take on several
forms for an Alzheimer's patient.
• First there is treatment for disorders such as aphasia and apraxia. To work on aphasia clinicians target the
area that is having the difficulty spoken language or written language, It also involves finding alternate
communication methods. To decrease the affects of apraxia clinicians work on strengthening articulators.
Also they teach the client strategies about the placement of lips, teeth, and tongue.
• Secondly, they can assist in strengthening and maintaining memory. This minimizes the effects and can
slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
• In the fmal stages of Alzheimer's disease the patient may begin to have trouble with basic functions such
as swallowing. The treatment of swallowing is called dysphasia. The treatment can include making
diet recommendations such as thickened liquids or pureed foods.
Additional Resources:
Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center Eldercare Locator
P.O. Box 8250 800-677-1116 (toll free)
Www.eldercare.gov
Silver Spring, MD 20907-8250 Family Caregiver Alliance
www.nia.nih.gov/Alzheimers Alzheimer's Association
180 Montgomery Street, suite 1100
225 north Michigan A venue, Suite 1700
San Francisco, CA 94104
800-445-8106 (toll free)
Chicago, IL 60601-7633
www.caregiver.org
800-272-3900 (toll free)
www.alz.com
National Institute on Aging Information Center
Children of Aging Parents
P.O. Box 8057
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8057
P.O. Box 167 800-222-2225 (toll free)
Richboro, PA 18954 800-227-7239 (toll free) www.nia.nih.gov
www.caps4caregivers.org Works Cited:
Alzheimer's Association. (20 10, November 30). Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/.
Alzheimer's Association ofAmerica. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.alzfdn.org/.
Hodges, l.R. (2001). Early-onset dementia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
88
Jordan Amor Honors Thesis
Basics of Cerebral Palsy
wo-thirds of
:hildJ~en with
cerebral palsy
will be mentally
impaired.
• About 10,000
babies per year
in the U.S. will
develop cerebral
palsy.
• An estimated
800,000 people
have cerebral
palsy in the U.S.
• About 2-3 chil­
dren per 1,000
have cerebral
palsy.
• In 2003 , the
average lifetime
cost of cerebral
palsy is esti­
mated at
$921,000. This
does not include
hospital visits,
emergency room
visits, residen­
tial care, and
other out of
pocket expenses.
The diagnosis of
cerebral palsy (CP)
refers to anyone of a
number of
neurological
disorders that appear
during infancy or
early childhood
before 12 years of
age. The disorder is
caused by permanent
damage to the parts
of the brain that
controls body
movement and
muscle coordination.
However, it is not a
progressive disorder.
The damage that
causes Cerebral
Palsy occurs during a
period of brain
development. The
majority of children
with cerebral palsy
are born with it.
Nevertheless the
majority of cases
aren't detected until
months or years
later. This is because
the areas of the brain
that were damaged
are not used until
later in development.
There are three
main factors that
cause CPo The first is
prenatal, which is
before birth or during
pregnancy. These
causes include
intrauterine infection,
ingestion of drugs,
chromosomal
abnormalities, trauma
during the first
trimester, and
radiation exposure.
Second there are
perenatal causes
which include
hemorrhage and
anoxia (the umbilical
cord being wrapped
around the neck) or
the use of forceps or
a vacuum. Last there
are postnatal causes
such as infections,
trauma, and
convulsions. Forty
percent of all CP
cases have an
unknown cause.
Classification of Cerebral Palsy
PhysiCians identify
cases of CP using
three criteria: place/
location, classification,
and severity.
There are four
place classifications:
monoplegia, where
one extremity is
effected, hemiplegia,
where two extremities
on the same side are
effected, paraplegia,
where two lower
extremities, and
89
quadriplegia, where
all four extremities
are effected.
Next is
classification which
describes five types
of disabilities.
Spasticity is the
hyperactivity of the
stretch reflex.
Athetosis in a type of
involuntary writhing
movements. Ataxia is
a discoordination and
tremors in both fine
and gross motor
skills. Tremors are a
rhythmic repetitive
involuntary
movement in the
extremities. The last
is rigidity which is
muscular resistance
to passive motion.
The final
classification is
severity: mild,
moderate, severe,
and profound.
PageZ
Symptoms of Cerebral Palsy
The early signs of cerebral
palsy usually appear before a
child reaches 3 years of
age. The most common forms
are a lack of muscle
coordination when performing
voluntary movements (ataxia);
stiff or tight muscles and exag­
gerated reflexes (spasticity);
walking with one foot or leg
dragging; walking on the toes,
a crouched gait, or a
"scissored" gait; and muscle
tone that is either too stiff or
too floppy.
Treatment of Cerebral Palsy
can begin therapy for
movement, learning, speech,
hearing, social, and emotional
development.
In addition, medication,
surgery, or braces can help
improve muscle function.
Surgery can help repair
dislocated hips and scoliosis
Currently there is no cure for
cerebral palsy, but there are a
variety of resources and
therapies can to improve a
patients quality of life. Different
kinds of therapy can help them
achieve maximum potential in
growth and development. As
soon as CP is diagnosed, a child
(curvature of the spine)- both
common problems associated
with CPo Severe muscle
spasticity can sometimes be
helped with medication taken
by mouth or administered via
a pump (the baclofen pump)
implanted under the skin of
children with CP.
Cerebral Palsy's Effects on Speech
Communicating is difficult for
children with cerebral palsy and
speech therapy can relieve the
frustration of communication
problems.
Speech therapy helps the
patient correct speech
disorders, restore speech, use
communication aids, learn sign
language, and improve listening
skills. Some people with
cerebral palsy have problems
moving their mouth to form
words correctly because of
muscle control. Hearing loss can
be evident as well in a person
with cerebral palsy, and
speech therapy can help with
speech clarity. Speech
therapists can also help clients
build their language skills by
learning new words, learning
to speak in sentences, or
improving their listening
skills.
To strengthen muscles used
in speaking, the patient might
be asked to say words, smile,
close their mouth, or stick out
their tongue. Picture cards
Works Cited
may be used to help the
patient remember everyday
objects and increase
vocabulary. The patient might
use picture boards of
everyday activities or objects
to communicate. Workbooks
might be used to help the
patient recall the names of
objects, practice reading,
writing, and listening.
Computer programs are also
available to help sharpen
speech, reading, recall, and
listening skills.
Additional Resources
4 my child. (2010) retrieved from http://
www.cerebralpalsy.org/what-is-cerebral-palsy/statistics/.
Cerebral palsy source. (2005). Retrieved from http://
www.cerebralpalsysource.comlTreatmen_and_Therapy/
speech_cp/index.html.
Danilova, L.A. (1983) . 23methods of improving the cognitive
and verbal development of children with cerebral palsy.
New York: World Rehabilitation Fund, Inc.
""ids health- cerebral palsy. (2010). Retrieved from http://
kidshealth.org/parentlmedical/brain/cerbratpalsy.html#.
90 4MyChild offers families of children
with special needs a kind of help and
hope that may change lives for the
better.
I-BOO-4MyChild (I-BOO-469-2445)
United Cerebral Palsy
1660 L Street, NW, Suite 700
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (800) 872-5827/(202) 776-0406
Fax: (202) 776-0414
E-Mail: [email protected]
Huntington'sDiseaseAffects
the
Brain's Basal Ganglia
AII-I- n - 0 ne Re sou rce 0 n­
Huntington's Disease Honors Thesis
Jordan Amor Basal
Ganglia
Ball State University Spring 2011
What is Huntington's Disease?
tistics:
In the United
States alone,
about 30,000
people have
Huntington's
disease.
• A child who
has a parent
with
Huntington's
disease has a
50% chance of
inheriting the
disease.
• 1-3 % of
Huntington's
disease cases
Huntington's
disease (HD) is also
known as Huntington
chorea. Huntington's
disease is a
progressive brain
disease.
The disease is
caused by a mutation
on chromosome
number 4. It only
takes one faulty gene
for a person to inherit
HD because the
disorder is dominate.
Signs and symptoms
typically first appear
in middle age. Some
parents may not know
they carry the gene
until they've already
had children and
possibly passed on
the trait. The
disease destroys
cells in the basal
ganglia causing
substantial brain
atrophy. The basal
ganglia is the part
of the brain that
controls movement,
emotion, and
cognitive abilities.
Signs and
symptoms usually
develop in middle
age. Younger
people with
Huntington's
disease often have
a more severe case,
and their
symptoms may
Symptoms
are sporadic,
meaning they
occur even
though there
is no family
history.
• The disease
was named for
Dr. George
Huntington
who first
described it in
1872.
progress more
quickly. Rarely,
children may
develop
Huntington's
disease.
Huntington's
disease is not
specific to anyone
population. Also it
is not more
prevalent within
any particular race,
ethnic group, or
gender. However,
the highest
incidence of
Huntington's
disease is in
Western Europeans.
Early signs can include:
Later signs include:
• Personality changes, such
as irritability, anger,
depression, or loss of
interest
• Sudden jerky,
involuntary movements
though out the body
• Decreased cognitive
abilities such as decision
making and learning new
information
• Severe balance and
coordination problems
• Jerky, rapid eye
movements
• Mild balance problems
• Hesitant, halting, or
slurred speech
• Involuntary facial
movements
• Swallowing speech
91
• Dementia
AII - in-One Resource on Huntington's Disease
Page 2
Treatment
There is no treatment to
permanently stop or reverse
Huntington's. There are,
however, several
medications to control
symptoms. The medications
tend to do one of four
things . One type increases
the dopamine in the brain to
reduce the involuntary
movements. Next are
tranquilizers to reduce
movements. Third are
anti psychotics to control
hallucinations. Last are
medications to help control
depression and the
obsessive-compulsive
Effects on Speech
Genetic Testing
One of the functions
of the Basal Ganglia is to
control muscle
movement. This includes
the movement of the
articulators. This leads
to slurred and imprecise
speech. Speech
Pathologists provide
their Huntington's
patients with coping
techniques including
over-articulation.
Genetic testing can
be used in two ways.
First tests can be used
to confirm the
diagnosis of HD.
Second a test is used to
determine if the
mutated gene has been
received before
symptoms begin to
appear. This is used by
some patients when
deciding whether or not
to conceive.
Works Cited
Genetic Science Learning Center (2010, October 8)
Huntington's Disease. Learn.Genetics. Retrieved December
2,2010, from http://Iearn.genetics.utah.edu/content/
disorders/whataregd/hunt/.
Hodges, J.R. (2001). Early-onset dementia. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009, May 8). Huntington's disease.
Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/
huntingtons-disease/DS00401.
Schoenstadt, MD, A. (2008m July 9). Huntington's disease.
Retrieved from http://nervous-system.emedtv.com/
h untington's-d isease/h u nti ngton's-d isease. html.
92 tendencies . As with any
medication there are side
affects that can range from
insomnia to nausea.
Physical and speech
therapy helps patients to
lead more normal lives.
Additional Resources
Huntington's Disease Society of
America is a health organization
dedicated to improving the lives
of people with HD;
www.HDSA.org
HD Lighthouse provides the
latest news about the diagnosis,
treatment, care, research and the
community of HD;
www.hdlighthouse.org
HOPES (Huntington's Outreach
Project for Education at
Stanford) is a student-run project
at Stanford University dedicated
to making scientific information
about HD more accessible to
patients and the public;
www.stanford.edu/group/hopes
Huntington's Disease Advocacy
Center is an on-line resource
center for HD families, by HD
families; www.HDAC.org
Huntington Project brings
together all parties involved and
affected by HD from scientists to
family members.
www.Huntington-Study-Group.org
Huntington's Disease Drug
Works provides information on
present treatment options, drug
developments and clinical trials.
www.hddrugworks.org
e Resource on Pick's Disease Honors Thesis
lordanAmor
Ball State University Spring 20 I I
What is Pick's Disease?
• Pick's Disease,
affects less than
200,000 people
in the US
population.
• Pick's disease
makes up about
2-3% of all
cases of
dementia
Pick's disease is now
known as
frontotemporal
dementia (FTD) .
Pick's causes
shrinldng of the
frontal, temporal, and
anterior lobes of the
brain. This new
classification includes
Pick's disease,
.
.
prunary progreSSIve
aphasia, and semantic
dementia. People
with Pick's disease
have abnormal
substances called pick
bodies inside nerve
cells in the damaged
areas of the brain.
Pick bodies contain
an abnormal form of
a protein. This
protein is found in all
nerve cells. But some
people with Pick's
disease have an
abnormal amount of
this protein. The
exact cause is
unknown. However,
there is a strong
genetic link. Many
di fferent abnormal
genes have been
found to cause Pick's
disease. Pick's
usually begins
between ages 40 and
60.
behavior; lack of
social tact; lack of
empathy;
distractibility; an
increased interest in
sex; changes in food
preferences; agitation
or, conversely,
blunted emotions;
neglect of personal
hygiene; repetitive or
compulsive behavior,
and decreased energy
and motivation.
Common symptoms
include language
disturbance including,
difficulty creating or
understanding speech.
Language problems
often occur in
conjunction with
behavioral symptoms.
Symptoms
The symptoms of
FTD fall into two
clinical patterns that
involve either
changes in behavior,
or problems with
language. Behavior
changes can be
subclassified as
either impUlsive or
bored and listless.
Symptoms include
inappropriate social
93
Page 2
All-in-One Resource on Pick's Disease Treatment
No treatment has
been shown to slow the
progression ofFTD.
Behavior modification
may help control
unacceptable or
dangerous behaviors.
Aggressive, agitated, or
dangerous behaviors
could require
medication. Anti­
depressants have been
shown to improve some
symptoms.
Sometimes patients
with Pick's take the
same medications used
to treat other types of
dementia, such as
medications that
decrease the breakdown
of the chemical
messenger,
acetylcholine
(anticholinesterase
inhibitors), and
memantine.
There is no
conclusive evidence
that these medications
help.
Effects on Speech
The person with
frontotemporal
dementia may
experience language
difficulties, including:
spontaneous
conversation
•
• problems finding
the right words
•
• a lack of
circumlocution,
using many words
to describe
something simple
a reduction in or
lack of speech
Speech Pathologists can
help the patients by
targeting their specific
problems. In addition
the patient is provided
with comfortable and
safe environment in
which to practice
speech skills.
Works Cited
Additional Resources
Association for Frontotemporal
Dementias (AFID)
Radnor Station Building #2 Suite
320
290 King of Prussia Road
Radnor, P A 19087
[email protected]
http://www.FTD-Picks.org
Tel: 267-514-7221 866-507-7222
Frontatemporal dementia (Pick's disease). (2010, February 16).
Retrieved from http://www.virtualmedica1centre.coml
diseases.asp?did=718.
Hodges, 1.R. (2001). Early-onset dementia. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Ninds frontotemporal dementia information page. (20 I 0,
November 19). Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/
disorders/picks/picks.htm.
Pick's disease. (2010, November 15). Retrieved from http://
www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000744.htm.
What is fronto-temporal dementia (including pick's disease)?
(20 I 0). Retrieved from http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/
scripts/documents_ info.php?
categoryID=200 171 &documentID= 167 &gclid=CKJj4caxzaUCF
Q08KgodtQvhlQ.
94
11--n-One Resource
on Shake 8aby­
Syndrome
Jordan Amor Honors Thesis
Ball State University Spring 2011
are relatively
large and
heavy, making
up about 25 0/0
of their total
body weight.
• Approximately
60% of
identified
victims of
shaking injury
are male.
• It is estimated
that the
perpetrators
in 65 to 90%
of cases are
males ­
usually either
the baby's
father or the
mother's
boyfriend.
• Approximately
30 per
100,000
children under
age 1 suffered
from brain
injuries.
• Approximately
1 of 4 babies
diagnosed with SBS dies.
• Approximately
1,200- 1,400
cases of SBS
are diagnosed each year.
What is Shaken Baby Syndrome?
This type of
traumatic brain
injury happens when
a baby is violently
shaken. A baby has
weak neck muscles
and a large, heavy
head. Shaking
makes the fragile
brain bounce back
and forth and rotate
inside the skull. This
causes shearing,
bruising, swelling,
and bleeding that
destroys brain
tissue. The shaking
action can result in
severe brain damage
or death. The
characteristic
injuries of shaken
baby syndrome are
subdural
hemorrhages
(bleeding in the
brain), retinal
hemorrhages
(bleeding in the
retina), damage to
the spinal cord and
neck, and fractu res
of the ribs and
bones. These
injuries may not be
immediately
noticeable. The
consequences of less
severe cases may
not be brought to
the attention of
medical
professionals and
may never be
diagnosed. Shaken
baby injuries usually
occur in children
younger than 2
years old, but may
be seen in children
up to the age of 5.
Symptoms
• Lethargy/ decreased muscle
tone • Extreme
irritability • Decreased
appetite, poor
feeding or vomiting
for no apparent reason • Grab-type
bruises on arms or
chest
• No smiling or
vocalization
• Poor sucking or
swallowing
• Rigidity or
posturing • Difficulty
breathing
•
Seizures
• Head or forehead
appears larger than
usual or soft-spot on
head appears to be
bulging
• Inability to lift
head
• Inability of eyes
to focus or track
movement or
unequal size of
pupils
Treatment Emergency treatment for a baby who has been shaken
usually includes life-sustaining measures such as respiratory
support and surgery to stop internal bleeding and bleeding in
the brain. Doctors may use brain scans, such as MRI and
CT, to make a more definite diagnosis.
95 Page 2
AII-in-One Resource on Shaken Baby
Shaken Baby Syndrome is 100 0/0 Preventable!
Here are some alternatives
when a baby won't stop
crying:
• Make sure the baby's basic
needs are met (for
example, being hungry and
doesn't needing to be
changed).
Check for signs of illness,
like fever or swollen gums.
Rock or walk with the
baby.
Sing or talk to the baby.
Offer the baby a pacifier or
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a noisy toy.
Take the baby for a ride in a
stroller or strapped into a
child safety seat in the car.
Hold the baby close against
your body and breathe calmly and slowly.
Call a friend or relative for
support or to take care of
the baby while you take a
break.
If nothing else works, put
the baby on his or her back
in the crib, close the door,
Effects on Speech
When a child has
been diagnosed
with shaken baby
syndrome the
Speech Language
Pathologist will
'Jerform two types
of assessment,
formal and
informal. Some of
the areas that
should be assessed
include levels of
attention, tolerance
of stress, deg ree of
cueing and
prompting needed,
processing time,
fatigue. Also the
clinician examines
all types of
language:
expressive,
receptive, written,
and auditory
comprehension.
Two major
disorders that are
often seen are
apraxia and
dysarthria.
Apraxia of speech is
and check on the baby in 10
minutes.
• Call your doctor if nothing
seems to be helping the
infant, in case there is a
medical reason for the
fussiness.
To prevent potential cases of
SBS, parents and caregivers of
infants need to learn how to
respond to their own stress.
It's important to talk to anyone
caring for your baby about the
dangers of shaking and how it
can be prevented.
Additional Resources
a motor speech
disorder in which
planning and
programming
required for speech
sound production
are disrupted
Dysarthria is a
weakness in the
muscles or an in
ability to control
aspects for
neuromuscular
execution of
speech.
Works Cited
The Arc of the United States
1010 Wayne Avenue
Suite 650
Silver Spring, MD 20910
[email protected]
http://www.thearc.org
Tel: 301-565-3842800-433-5255
Fax: 301-565-3843 or -5342
ThinkFirst National Injury
Prevention Foundation
29W120 Butterfield Road
Suite 105
Warrenville, IL 60555
[email protected]
http://www.thinkfirst.org
Tel: 630-393-1400 800-THINK-56
(844-6556)
fax: 630-393-1402
All about sbs/aht. (n.d.) retrieved from http://www.dontshake.org/
sbs.php?topNavID=3&subNavID=317.
Cabinum-foeller, E. (2008, June) Abusive head trauma (shaken baby syndrome). Retrieved from http://
kidshealth.org/parent/medicaljbrain/shaken. html#.
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2008). Long term consequences of child abuse and neglect. Re­
trieved from http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm#societ.
NINDS. (2010, May 6). Ninds shaken baby syndrome information page. Retrieved from http://
www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/shakenbaby/shakenbaby.htm.
Protecting children. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.americanhumane.org/protecting-children/?
gcl id =CLKfu rDBzaUCFUS5KgodC1aq kw.
Schoenbrodt, l. (2004). Childhood communication disorders: organic bases. Clifton Park: Thomson Del­
mar Learning.
96 Diagnosing and Treating Shaken Baby Syndrome Honors Thesis
Jordan Amor
Ball State University Spring 2011
Testing
When trying to
determine whether the
patient's injuries are a
result of Shaken Baby
Syndrome (SBS) a
detailed medical
history must be taken
including a specific
time line of symptoms.
A doctor will
compete a physical
exam to look for signs
of inj ury. Next, tests
are preformed including
a CT scan and possibly
an MRI to document the
injuries and identify if
they are a result of SBS.
These tests may be
repeated periodically to
monitor change. X-rays
are also routinely
performed to check for
any broken bones. Xrays are usually taken
of the skull,
extremities, spine, and
chest.
Initial Treatment
Works Cited
NINDS. (2010, May 6).
Ninds shaken baby
syndrome information
page. Retrieved from
http:/ I
www.ninds.nih.gov/
disordersl
shakenbabyl
shakenbaby . htm.
Shaken baby syndrome.
(n.d .). Retrieved from
http:/ I
www .cdphe.state.co.
usl psi cctfl
canmanuall
CurrentTopicsi nChild­
Maltx2.pdf.
It is crucial that the
incident is reported
immediately and that
the victim receives
treatment immediately.
The sooner the victim
receives treatment the
better his or her
chances for survival.
Emergency treatment
for a baby who has
been shaken usually
includes life sustaining
measures such as
respiratory support and
surgery to stop internal
bleeding including
bleeding in the brain.
Speech Therapy
When a child has
been diagnosed with
shaken baby syndrome
a Speech Language
Pathologist (SLP) is
often referred to the
case. There are many
areas in which the SLP
can be of assistance
depending on the age
of the patient and their
ability levels before
and after the injury.
It is quite possible
that an SLP would be in
charge of performing a
swallow study. This
information allows the
97
patient to be given a
diet that is most
appropriate for them at
that point in time.
For clients that are a
little older and have
begun speaking the SLP
can work on improving
thei r speech by
targeting specific
problems. It is possibly
that as a result of the
damage the child has a
problem with
dysarthria. A child's
speech may be slurred
and imprecise. The
speech pathologist
would help the client
place his or her
articulators to form the
desired sounds.
As the child enters
school it is likely that
he or she would
continue working with
an SLP. One area that
might receive
therapeutic attention is
pragmatics. Therapy
could 'include turn
taking and different
types of grammatical
morphemes.
Play these games to in1prove your child's
speech and language skills.
HONORS THESIS
JORDAN AMOR
SPRING 2011
BALL STATE UNI VERSITY
Games
Aggravation, Boggle, Candy Land, Checkers, Chinese
Checkers, Fish, I am thinking of. .. , Pictionary, Puzzles,
Rumn1Y, Scrabble, Shoots and Ladders, Uno, Word Searches
General Suggestions SpeechAlways use a carrier sentence with each tum.
Always be sure the child is saying the carrier phrase or
sentence each time. Also correct your child if they mispro­
nounce their target sound.
Language:
Be sure all players use complete sentences every time. Se­
lect a sentence that can be used for several games.
Use descriptive words, opposites, similar words, verbs, ad­
jectives, adverbs, etc.
Discuss with your child the different parts of speech you
.
are uSIng.
99 elpf I Hi t For C)-Die For Clin c
Things to Know
• Print flash cards on cardstock- it makes
them hold up better and they are harder to
see through. If possible laminate them.
• Keep electronic copies of the forms you
use on a regular basis.
• As one progresses the less structure is
required. You will become more
comfortable and not so reliant on a written
lesson plan.
• Keep your text books. You never know
when they might come in handy.
• Become familiar with the tests you might
have to administer. This will make the
process smoother.
• It is often easy to adapt games children
already know to what you are working on
in therapy.
• Try to have as much fun as possible with
your client (especially children). The more
engaged they are the more they will learn.
• Instead of using picture cards to work on
vocabulary use picture books.
• Use your supervisor, she or he is a great
source of knowledge and is available to
answer questions.
Things to Know
• Print flash cards on cardstock- it makes
them hold up better and they are harder to
see through. If possible laminate them.
• Keep electronic copies of the forms you
use on a regular basis.
• As one progresses the less structure is
required. You will become more
comfortable and not so reliant on a written
lesson plan.
• Keep your text books. You never know
when they might come in handy.
• Become familiar with the tests you might
have to administer. This will make the
process smoother.
• It is often easy to adapt games children
already know to what you are working on
in therapy.
• Try to have as much fun as possible with
your client (especially children). The more
engaged they are the more they will learn.
• Instead of using picture cards to work on
vocabulary use picture books.
• Use your supervisor, she or he is a great
source of knowledge and is available to
answer questions.
Supplies to Have
• Construction Paper
• Playing cards
• Crayons, markers, colored pencils
• Play dough
• Scissors, glue, and other art supplies
• A quality cook book for children (for
following directions)
• Word family cards (phonological processing) Supplies to Have
• Construction Paper
• Playing cards
• Crayons, markers, colored pencils
• Play dough
• Scissors, glue, and other art supplies
• A quality cook book for children (for
following directions)
• Word family cards (phonological processing) Jordan Amor- Honors Thesis, Spring 2011
Jordan Amor- Honors Thesis, Spring 2011
100 HONORS THESIS
BALL STATE
UNIVERSITY
SPRING 20 I I
Books Blockcolsky, M.S., CCC-SLP, V, Frazer, M.S., CCC-SLP, J, & Frazer, B.A., J.D., D. (1987). 40,000
selected words. San Antonio: Pearson. This is a book containing lists of words for every sound in all
possible positions. In addition the words are divided by number of syllables.
Roth, F, & Worthington, C. (2005). Treatment resource manual for speech-language pathology. Clifton
Park: Thomas Delmar Learning. This book is filled with specific therapy techniques and materials.
Secord, W. (2007). Eliciting sounds techniques and strategies. Clifton Park: Delmar Cengage Learning.
This book provides strategies for helping a client produce individual sounds.
Shipley, K, & McAfee, J. (2009). Assessment in speech-language pathology. Clifton Park: Delmar Cengage
Learning. This is an easy to navigate resource manual for a wide range of procedures and materials for
obtaining, interpreting, and reporting assessment data.
Therapy Materials
Articulation Chipper Chat- Super Duper, This is a series of board games involving some of the most
common error sounds. The game provides picture cards for initial, medial, and final sounds.
Expanding Expressions Tool Kit by Sara L. Smith, This provides students with a hands-on approach to
improving language organization.
Webber's Jumbo Articulation Drill Book- Super Duper, Includes word lists pictures, phrases, and sentences
for the most commonly erred sounds in all positions.
Websites
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) www.asha.org
Is a comprehensive site with information from education to careers and certifications.
Discover Education- http://www.discoveryeducation.comlfree-puzzlemakerl?
CFID=12224149&CFTOKEN=63525910 This site has an awesome puzzle maker.
EdHelper- http://www.edhelper.com/- This resource is especially valuable as a puzzle generators.
Speech Therapy Ideas & Activities- www.angelfire.comlnm2/speechtherapyideas/ This site contains
activities divided by category, disorder and some that are specific for schools.
Net Connections for Communication Disorders and Sciences- http://www.mnsu.edu/comdis/kuster2/
welcome.html- Is a comprehensive list of websites for information on disorders and activities to do.
Speaking of Speech- www.speakingofspeeech.com- Is a resource full ofa wide variety of materials, some
resources are free and others have to be purchased.
Super Duper- http://www.superduperinc.com/- Sells materials for speech pathologists. Games, flash cards,
and tests are available as are other supplies.
The Listen-Up Web- http://www.listen-up.orgledulspeech.htm This website is a comprehensive list other
websites and some brief descriptions.
The Sounds of Spoken Language- http://www.uiowa.edul''1lcadtech/phonetics/# This website is extremely
helpful with older children and adults. On the website there are animated libraries of the phonetic
sounds of English, German, and Spanish.
101
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Alzheimer's association ofAmerica. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.alzfdn.org/.
Aphasia. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/Aphasia.htm.
Arizona articulation proficiency scale, third edition (arizona-3) . (n.d.). Retrieved from
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Auditory continuous performance test (acpt) auditory continuous performance test (acpt).
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