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GPS: SSUSH 19
The student will identify the origins,
major developments, and the domestic
impact of World War II, especially the
growth of the federal system.
A. Explain A. Philip Randolph’s proposed march
on Washington, D.C., and President Franklin D.
Roosevelt’s response.
Continued…
C. Explain major events; include the lendlease program, the Battle of Midway, DDay, and the fall of Berlin.
D. Describe war mobilization, as indicated
by rationing, war-time conversion, and
the role of women in war industries.
E. Describe Los Alamos and the scientific,
economic, and military implications of
developing the atomic bomb.
A. Philip Randolph
A. Philip Randolph emerged as a respected figure in
America as he enabled a mass action civil rights movement.
He organized the March on Washington based on the
principle of nonviolent mass action. Its first victory was in
June 1941, when President Franklin Roosevelt issued an
Executive Order banning discrimination in the federal
government and the defense industry, after Randolph had
threatened to lead a march into the nation's capital.
In 1948, Randolph secured another historic Executive
Order from President Harry Truman to ban racial segregation
in the armed forces.
In the 1950s and 1960s, both Randolph and Martin Luther
King, Jr. worked to inspire the 1963 March on Washington
for Jobs and Freedom. Conceived by Randolph, the march
was the largest demonstration to date for racial and
economic equality. Randolph inspired mass nonviolent
action.
March on Washington: 1963
GPS: SSUSH 19
The student will identify the origins,
major developments, and the domestic
impact of World War II, especially the
growth of the federal system.
B. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
and the internment of Japanese- Americans,
German-Americans, and Italian-Americans.
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
Internment of Japanese Americans
On February 19, 1942, soon after the
beginning of World War II, Pres.
Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066.
The evacuation order commenced the
round-up of 120,000 Americans of
Japanese heritage to one of 10
internment camps—officially called
"relocation centers"—in California, Idaho,
Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado, and
Arkansas.
Why Were the Camps Established?
Roosevelt's executive order was fueled by
anti-Japanese sentiment among farmers who
competed against Japanese labor, politicians
who sided with anti-Japanese constituencies,
and the general public, whose frenzy was
heightened by the Japanese attack of Pearl
Harbor.
More than 2/3 of the Japanese who were
interned in the spring of 1942 were citizens of
the United States.
Legal Challenges to Internment
Important legal cases were brought
against the United States concerning the
internment.
In Korematsu v. United States (1944) the
defendants argued their fifth amendment
rights were violated by the U.S. government
because of their ancestry.
In both cases, the Supreme Court ruled in
favor of the U.S. government.
Government Apologies and Reparations
Forced into confinement by the United
States, 5,766 Nisei ultimately renounced their
American citizenship.
In 1968, nearly two dozen years after the
camps were closed, the government began
reparations to Japanese Americans for
property they had lost.
In 1988, the U.S. Congress passed
legislation which awarded formal payments of
$20,000 each to the surviving internees—
60,000 in all.
Other Groups in the Camps
While Japanese-Americans comprised the
overwhelming majority of those in the camps,
thousands of Americans of German, Italian,
and other European descent were also
forced to relocate there.
Many more were classified as "enemy
aliens" and subject to increased restrictions.
As of 2004, the U.S. Government has made
no formal apology or reparations to those
affected.
GPS: SSUSH 19
The student will identify the origins,
major developments, and the domestic
impact of World War II, especially the
growth of the federal system.
C. Explain major events; include the lend-lease
program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the
fall of Berlin.
Lend-lease program
In July 1940, after Britain had sustained the loss of 11
destroyers to the German Navy over a 10-day period, newly
elected British Prime Minister Winston Churchill requested
help from President Roosevelt.
Roosevelt responded by exchanging 50 destroyers for
99-year leases on British bases in the Caribbean and
Newfoundland.
As a result, a major foreign policy debate erupted over
whether the United States should aid Great Britain or
maintain strict neutrality.
The plan proposed by FDR was to "lend-lease
arms" and other supplies needed by any country
whose security was vital to the defense of the
United States.
Sec. of War Henry Stimson said, “We are
buying our own security while we prepare. By our
delay during the past six years, while Germany
was preparing, we find ourselves unprepared and
unarmed, facing a thoroughly prepared and
armed potential enemy."
Following debate, Congress passed the
Lend-Lease Act in 1941, meeting Great Britain’s
need for supplies and allowing the United States
to prepare for war while remaining officially
neutral.
FDR & the Lend-Lease Act: 1941
Arrangement for the transfer of war
supplies, including food, machinery, and
services, to nations whose defense was
considered vital to the defense of the United
States in World War II.
The Lend-Lease Act, passed (1941) by
the U.S. Congress, gave the President
power to sell, transfer, lend, or lease such
war materials.
Battle of Midway: June 4-7, 1942
(Naval Art Collection)
The Battle of Midway, fought over and
near the tiny U.S. mid-Pacific base at Midway
atoll, represents the strategic high water mark
of Japan's Pacific Ocean war. Prior to this
action, Japan possessed general naval
superiority over the United States and could
usually choose where and when to attack.
After Midway, the two opposing fleets were
essentially equals, and the United States
soon took the offensive.
D-Day: June 6, 1944
Invasion of Normandy, France
Fall of Berlin
The Battle of Berlin was one of the final battles of
the European Theater of WW II. In what was known
to the Soviets as the "Berlin Offensive Operation",
two massive Soviet army groups attacked Berlin
from the east and south, while a third overran
German forces positioned north of Berlin.
The battle of Berlin lasted from late April 1945
until early May. Before the battle was over, German
dictator Adolf Hitler and many of his followers
committed suicide. The city's defenders surrendered
on May 2, 1945.
Hitler with Child Soldiers:
April 20, 1945
Soviet Flag over Reichstag Building
GPS: SSUSH 19
The student will identify the origins,
major developments, and the domestic
impact of World War II, especially the
growth of the federal system.
D. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by
rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of
women in war industries.
America’s Homefront: WWII
• Describe war mobilization, as indicated
by rationing, war-time conversion, and
the role of women in war industries.
• Describe Los Alamos and the scientific,
economic, and military implications of
developing the atomic bomb.
War “Mobilization”
• The process by which the
armed forces or parts of
them are brought to a
state of readiness for
conflict, to meet a military
threat. This includes
assembling and
organizing personnel,
material and supplies for
active military services,
as well as training
Rationing
War-time conversion
The War Production Board
(WPB) was established in
1942 by executive order of
Franklin D. Roosevelt. The
purpose of the board was
to regulate the production
and allocation of materials
and fuel during World War
II in the United States. It
rationed such things as
gasoline, heating oil,
metals, rubber, and
plastics.
Role of women
GPS: SSUSH 19
The student will identify the origins,
major developments, and the domestic
impact of World War II, especially the
growth of the federal system.
E. Describe Los Alamos and the scientific,
economic, and military implications of
developing the atomic bomb.
Los Alamos
Prominent physicists, such as J. Robert Oppenheimer,
knew that the energy released by nuclear fission could be
transformed into an extraordinarily powerful bomb.
Scientists and political leaders in America grew
increasingly anxious as Hitler's armies marched into the
Rhineland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia. If German scientists
built an atomic bomb, the United States and her allies faced
almost certain defeat.
America's response was the creation of the Manhattan
Project and the Los Alamos Laboratory, Project Y.
On July 16, 1945, a bomb was
successfully tested near Alamogordo, New
Mexico. The production of this bomb
ushered in the atomic age.
The development of these weapons
represented the culmination of more than
three years of intense research and
development effort.
At Los Alamos, science and technology
combined to produce a weapon of incredible
power; enough even to end the most
destructive war in history.
Implications of Los Alamos:
Postwar to H-Bomb
The United States detonated the world's first
hydrogen, or thermonuclear, device on October 31,
1952. Codenamed "Mike", this device stood three
stories high and exploded with a force of 10.4
megatons.
The mushroom cloud rose to a height of over
100,000 feet and was clearly visible from a distance
of over fifty miles. The Mike shot opened a new era
in nuclear weaponry. The destructive power of
nuclear weapons increased from thousands of tons
of to millions of tons of TNT.
Further Implications:
Nuclear Weapons Race
• Element of the Cold War
• United States and Soviet Union
• Nuclear Weapon
• Nuclear Power
• Nuclear Medicine
Let us pray this picture is
all we ever see …