Download Unit 4-3 Foreign Policy

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U.S. Foreign Policy Goals and the
Actions Taken to Meet Them
What Actions, Carrots and Sticks
does the U.S. use to achieve its
foreign policy goals?
1. Map indicating states and territories and their diplomatic relations with the
* Blue represents the United States.
* Green represents nations with which the US has diplomatic relations.
* Red represents nations with which the US does not have diplomatic relations.
* Yellow represents nations that are disputed areas.
Who Makes Foreign Policy?
Click Here to Learn More
National Security
9. Political Actions Used to Meet
US National Security Goals
Political Actions taken to meet national Security Goals:
 Created the Department of Homeland Defense. Train
military to combat terrorism.
 Warn foreign nations who harbor terrorists that they risk
invasion unless they stop supporting terrorism.
 Call for negotiations between two warring countries that
risk destabilizing an entire region like the Middle East
9. Economic Actions taken to meet
National Security Goals:
Freeze the bank accounts of terrorist
organizations and the those
organizations that help fund terrorism.
Mount an embargo or trade
sanctions/barriers on a country labeled
“terrorist friendly. EX. Iran, North
Korea, Iraq
Place nations on Most Favored Nation
status in order to better trade relations
with countries that share U.S. values
or might one day i.e. China
9. Ideological ways to meet US
national security goals:
Support those groups or nations with similar
values willing to combat the nations labeled
terrorist or enemy by declaring that they are
friendly nations and/ or providing economic
 Recognize and support organizations that
support democracy in foreign nations.
 Declare the legitimacy or illegitimacy of a
foreign country’s democracy.
9. Military Actions Taken to
meet the US’ National Security
 The US builds military bases to protect friendly
nations near enemy nations
The US blockades the ships of an enemy nation
The US enforces a no-fly zone denying the ability
for another country to launch aircrafts.
The US overthrows the government of a hostile
9. Diplomatic Ways the US
Meets its National Security Goals
Treaties signed to reduce weapons of mass destruction or
chemical weapons such as the START (Strategic Arms
Reduction Treaty) signed between Russia and the U.S.
License/forbid the selling or possession of arms to specific
countries. For example, the US and UN placed sanctions
on Iraq between 1992 and 2002.
U.S. and United Nations call upon International Atomic
Energy Agency of the UN to inspect countries unwilling to
follow previously signed treaties.
THE US participates in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
Organization) to meet its and its allies national security
Start Treaty (A treaty to end nuclear
proliferation between the USSR and the US)How does this benefit the common good?
10. Member Nations of NATO
11. Ways the US Meets its
Economic Foreign Policy Goals
Diplomatic Actions
 THE US participates in the World Trade
Organizations and use to participate GATT
(General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) in
order to promote free trade between nations by
reducing tariffs and taxes on imported goods.
The US supports developing nations through
membership and support of organizations like the
International Monetary Fund, the World Bank,
the International Red Cross through the US
Agency for International Development.
Ways the US Meets its Economic
Foreign Policy Goals
12. Ways the US Meets its
Ideological Foreign Policy Goals
Political Actions:
The US can recognize the sovereignty
(independence) of a new nation.
The US call foreign nations undemocratic or
labels nations as being part of an“Axis of
Ways the US Meets its Ideological
Foreign Policy Goals
12. Ways the US Meets its
Ideological Foreign Policy Goals
Diplomatic Actions:
 Use of Peace Corps or foreign aid (US AID) to prove
Americans are ‘nice’ and make it clear to nation that it will
lose aid if it does not abide.
 Break diplomatic ties by closing an embassy in a nation
that no longer supports democracy and free trade such as
 Warn US citizens not to visit a nation that does not support
human rights laws.
 Promotes fair elections.
 Embarrass nation by publicly scolding their actions or
using media to broadcast directly to the country’s people
about what is taking place.
Ways the US Meets its Ideological
Foreign Policy Goals
12. Ways the US Meets its
Ideological Foreign Policy Goals
Military Actions: Use force to change regimes or
support opposition leaders to use force
Economic Actions:
Trade Barriers or embargos towards country who
don’t ensure Human Rights. EX. Cuba, Libya
Cultural Actions: Begin a student exchange
program with students in a friendly country or
boycott the Olympics in protest of human rights
13. Ways the US Meets its
Humanitarian Goals
Political Actions:
 Support developing nations with organizations such as the Peace Corps
and US AID Agency for International Development, World Bank and
 Provide professional and military training
 Sign on to international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol
Publicly scold a country for not doing more to prevent pollution.
Economic Actions:
 Support by providing access to American markets
 Providing financial support through loans and grants.
 Place trade barriers on products produced in nations with bad
environmental track records.
13. Ways the US Meets its
Humanitarian Goals
Diplomatic Actions:
 Sign on to international treaties such as the
Kyoto Protocol to reduce global warming.\
 Work with the United Nations UNICEF to aid
refugees and the poor.
 Allow political refugees to immigrate to the US
Military Actions:
 Overthrow a government that abuses human rights
using military force.
14. Take the following surveys to
determine where you stand on foreign
policy issues.
15. Read about 4 schools of thought
regarding how to approach foreign
policy and then categorize which
school of though three Presidential
candidates allign with.
15. Foreign Policy Schools of ThoughtIsolationists
The term isolationist is most often used negatively; few people who share its
beliefs use it to describe their own foreign policy perspective. They believe in
"America first." For them, national sovereignty trumps international relations.
Many unions, libertarians, and anti-globalization protesters share isolationist
Are wary of US involvement in the United Nations
Oppose international law, alliances, and agreements
Believe the US should not act as a global cop
Support trade practices that protect American workers
Oppose liberal immigration
Oppose American imperialism
Desire to preserve what they see as America's national identity and character
Historical isolationist: President Calvin Coolidge
Modern isolationist: Author/Commentator Pat Buchanan
15. Foreign Policy Schools of
Thought- Liberal
Are wary of American arrogance and hypocrisy
Trace much of today's anti-American hatred to previous US foreign
Believe political solutions are inherently superior to military
Believe the US is morally bound to intervene in humanitarian crises
Oppose American imperialism
Support international law, alliances, and agreements
Encourage US participation in the UN
Believe US economic policies must help lift up the world's poor
Historical liberal: President Woodrow Wilson
Modern liberal: President Jimmy Carter
15. Foreign Policy Schools of
Thought- Neo-Conservative
Want the US to be the world's unchallenged superpower
Share unwavering support for Israel
Support American unilateral action
Support preemptive strikes to remove perceived threats to US
Promote the development of an American empire
Equate American power with the potential for world peace
Seek to democratize the Arab world
Push regime change in states deemed threats to the US or its allies
Historical neoconservative: President Teddy Roosevelt
Modern neoconservative: President Ronald Reagan
15. Foreign Policy Schools of
Thought- Realist
Are guided more by practical considerations than
ideological vision
Believe US power is crucial to successful diplomacy - and
vice versa
Don't want US policy options unduly limited by world
opinion or ethical considerations
Believe strong alliances are important to US interests
Weigh the political costs of foreign action
Believe foreign intervention must be dictated by
compelling national interest
Historical realist: President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Modern realist: Secretary of State Colin Powell
15. Categorize the foreign policy
platforms of three Presidential
John McCain- Republican
 Barak Obama- Democrat
 Hillary Clinton- Democrat
Analyze the following cartoons:
The End!