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Comparison Essays
Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and
Realignments, c. 1900 –Present
Key Concept 6.1:Science and the
New advances in
science (Green
Revolution, scientific
communication and
technology, medical
innovations, energy
Key Concept 6.1:Science and the
Increase of Global
Increased rate of
Global Warming
consequences of
Key Concept 6.1:Science and the
Diseases, scientific innovations and conflict
(impact on demographics)
Disease and poverty connection (malaria, cholera,
Epidemics (influenza, Ebola, HIV/AIDS)
Diseases assoc with changing lifestyles
Birth Control and impact on gender roles
Improved military technology, tactics and increased
casualties (For ex. Case studies: Airplanes, Firebombing,
Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts
and their Consequences
Domination by Europe at the beginning
of century though increasingly transregional by end
Collapse of land based empires (Russia, Qing,
and Ottoman– external and internal factors)
Negotiated Independence (India OR Gold
 Armed struggle of some colonies (Algeria
and Vietnam, Angola)
Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts
and their Consequences
Emerging anti-imperialist ideologies led
to decolonization and new states
Nationalist leaders in Asia and Africa (Gandhi, Ho
Chi Minh, OR Nkrumah)
Regional, religious and ethnic movements (Jinnah,
Quebecois, OR Biafra)
Transnational movements (Communism, PanArabism, Pan-Africanism, OR Bolivarianism)
Land and resource allocation reform in Africa, Asia,
and Latin America (ex. ______________)
Process of Decolonization and
Nation- Building
Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945.
Leaders used lessons in mass politicization
and mass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s.
Three patterns:
Civil war (China)
Negotiated independence (India and much of
Incomplete de-colonization (Palestine, Algeria
and Southern Africa, Vietnam)
1906 Dinshawai incident
aroused nationalist
 Actions post- Indep
(1936) not sufficient.
 Coup d’etat in 1952
Gamal Abdel Nasser
 Nationalization of Suez
1956 protested by
Israelis, British and
French but diplomacy
won over eventually.
 Nasser= symbol of panArab nationalism.
Africa for Africans
composed of exservicemen, urban
unemployed &
and the educated.
 Pan-Africanism and
 Senghor (Senegal)
and Dubois (AfricanAmerican)
De-colonization in Africa
1957, Gold Coast
(renamed Ghana)
independence, led
by westerneducated, Kwame
 By 1963, all of British
ruled Africa, except
Southern Rhodesia,
was independent.
De-colonization in
French-ruled Africa
Initially more resistant
than the British.
Encouraged closer
French tiesassimilation, not
Not willing to go far
enough in granting
With exception of
Algeria, by 1960 had
granted independence.
Leopold Sedar Senghor
Western educated
intellectual from
 Poet who became
first president of
 Advocated
democratic socialism
and negritude.
Negritude: validation
of African culture
and the African past
by the Negritude
poets. Recognized
attributes of French
culture but were not
willing to be
assimilated into
Black Theology
Archbishop Desmond Tutu one of main voices
 Goal to end apartheid in South Africa through
a theologically based social justice movement
 Opposed racial injustice as well as social and
economic inequity
 Role in Truth and Reconciliation Commission CNN coverage of Black Liberation Theology,
Wright and Obama
Black Theology
Violent and Incomplete
Presence of European immigrant groups
impeded negotiations, leading to
violence. For example, Kenya,
Palestine, Algeria, and southern Africa
 Vietnam’s de-colonization complicated
by France’s colonial ties and cold war
Presence of settlers
prevented smooth
transition of power.
Kenya (20,000
Europeans only) led to
violent revolt.
Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952,
led by Kikuyus
suppressed by British.
1963 independence
granted to black
majority, led by
Appeal of Arab
Large French settler
1954- 1962 war
between FLN
(nationalist party)
and French troops
“part of France”
300,000 lives
South Africa
4 million white residents
 Afrikaner-dominated
(white) National Party
won 1948 election
 Apartheid
 No protests tolerated
(African National
Congress, Mandela,
Sharpeville massacre
 1990’s black
government elected
Women as leaders in the Movement
Women fought alongside men in whatever
capacities were permitted in Algeria, Egypt,
China, Vietnam,India and elsewhere.
 China, 1942:
“ The fighting record of our women does not permit
us to believe that they will ever again allow
themselves to be enslaved whether by a national
enemy or by social reaction at home.”
Women given constitutional rights but social
and economic equality rarely achieved in
postcolonial developing nations.
Comparative Rebellions
Mau Mau revolt
 Peru -- Shining Path
 Nicaragua
 FLMN El Salvador
 Battle for Algiers
 Other topics??
Literature and Decolonization
Expressions of nationalism and rejections of
western superiority.
Gandhi, “ I make bold to say that the
Europeans themselves will have to remodel
their outlooks if they are not to perish under
the weight of the comforts to which they are
becoming slaves.”
Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart
Senghor, “Snow upon Paris”
Aime Cesaire, West Indian poet, founder of
Negritude “Return to my Native Land”
Fall of Empire: Fall out and
 Colonial
 Problems of
 Problems of
Challenges of Independence
Ethnic disputes
 Dependent economies
 Growing debt
 Cultural dependence on
west-> religious
revivalism as backlash
 Widespread social
 Military responses to
restore order
Population growth
Resource depletion
Lack of middle class in
some locales
Education deficit and
later, brain drain.
Neo-colonialism through
economic debt.
Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts
and their Consequences
Political changes had social and demographic
Population resettlements following colonial rule
(India/ Pakistan, Zionist Jewish settlement of
Palestine, OR mandates in Middle East)
Migration of former colonial subjects to imperial
metropoles (South Asians, Algerians, Filipinos)
Ethnic violence increase and refugee populations
(Armenia, The Holocaust, Cambodia, OR Rwanda)
and (Palestinians OR Darfurians)
Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts
and their Consequences
Military conflicts occurred on unprecedented
WWI and WWII as total wars (ideologies, colonial
peoples, civilians, propaganda, nationalism)
(Gurkha, ANZAC, Military conscription)
Sources of Global conflict in first half century varied (required
Cold War– shifting of power balance and involvement of Latin
America, Asia and Latin America
Ending of Cold war with dissolution of USSR
World War I
Promises of self-determination
 Use of colonial soldiers in trenches
 Locals filled posts left by colonial powers
during war
 Financial strain on empire
 Treaty of Versailles
World War II
Increased nationalist uprisings following WWI
and as a result of the global depression
Costs of empire
US support of anti-colonial liberation
Atlantic Charter (1941) “right of all people to
choose the form of government under which
they live”
Soviets condemned colonialism
African participation in WWII
Cold War Context
Third World alignment in Cold war politics
Case studies:
Impact of the Cuban revolution– Castro and “Che”
Guevara (Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy
and Khrushchev)
Lumumba and the Congo Crisis (US involvement in
coup, Poisonwood Bible excerpt)
Allende’s “peaceful road to socialism” led to coup by
Pinochet (CIA role)
Central America: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Dominican
Republic and Guatemala
See pp. 56 – 72 in Special Focus 2008
Increasing influence of Castro
brothers and Che from 1953
onward in leading armed
struggle against government
Overthrow of Batista
government in 1959
1961 failed Bay of Pigs
Nationalization of land,
business and religious
Land reform
Literacy campaign
Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
Cuba Today
Patrice Lumumba
Patrice Lumumba [From his
last letter before his
execution in 1961].
"'History will one day have its
say, but it will not be the
history that Brussels, Paris,
Washington, or the United
Nations will teach, but that
which they will teach in the
countries emancipated from
colonialism and its puppets.
Africa will write its own
history, and it will be, to the
north and to the south of the
Sahara, a history of glory and
Salvador Allende 9-11-73
"I don't see why we need to
stand by and watch a country
go communist due to the
irresponsibility of its own
people. The issues are much
too important for the Chilean
voters to be left to decide for
themselves." —Henry
"[Military rule aims] to make
Chile not a nation of
proletarians, but a nation of
entrepreneurs." — Augusto
Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts
and their Consequences
Resistance to Violence as a means of resolving conflicts,
while at the same time conflicts intensified across the globe
Groups and Individuals challenged wars (Picasso,
antinuclear movement, OR Thich Quang Duc) and
promoted non-violence (Gandhi OR King)
Groups and individuals proposed alternatives (Lenin and
Mao, Non-Aligned Movement, Anti-Apartheid Movement,
1968 movements, Tiananmen Sq protestors)
Militaries promoted further conflict (Military dictatorships,
New World Order, MIC and arms trade)
Movements use of violence against civilians (IRA, ETA OR
Al Qaeda)
Conflicts influence on popular culture (James Bond…)
Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations
of Global Economy, Society and Culture
Varied response to economic challenges
Communist economies control of national
economies (Five Year plans OR Great Leap
Government Intervention in national economies
(New Deal or Fascist corporatist economy)
Post WWII independent states role in guiding
development (Nasser or East Asia export econ.)
Encouragement by end of 20th c. of free market
economies (US, Britain, China, Chile)
Cold War
Provided inspiration a blend of capitalist
and socialist economies and agendas.
 Provided arms to those who sided with
one or the other (proxy wars and arms
 Encouraged violent recourse for some as
a result of the power politics of cold war
Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations
of Global Economy, Society and Culture
Increasingly interdependent actors in the
global community
New International organizations (League of
Nations, UN, or ICC)
New Economic Institutions (IMF, World Bank,
Humanitarian organizations (UNICEF, WHO,
Amnesty, Red Cross…)
Regional trade agreements (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN,
MNC’s (Shell, Coca Cola, Sony)
Protest Movements (Greenpeace, Green Belt,
Earth Day)
Role of International Organizations
Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations
of Global Economy, Society and Culture
New conceptualizations of society and culture
Human Rights (UNDHR, Womens rights, end of
White Australia policy)
Increased interactions between diverse peoples
New cultural identities: Negritude
Exclusionary reactions: Xenophobia, Race riots,
citizenship restrictions
New Forms of spirituality(New Age, Falun Gong,
Hare Krishna)
Application of religion to politics (Fundamentalist
movements OR Liberation Theology)
Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations
of Global Economy, Society and Culture
Popular and
consumer culture
became global
 Sports (World Cup
soccer, Olympics,
 Diffusion of Music
and Film (Reggae
OR Bollywood)
Music as Protest
South Africa and anti-apartheid music
Paul Simon
 Bob Marley
 Chile : Sting and Victor Jara
 Caribbean Merengue- Dominican
Art as Ideology
History of Venezuela:
Ian Pierce, Chilean
Art as Ideology- Diego Rivera
Art as Ideology
Marjorie Agosin:
Poetry and Textiles
 Stitching Truth Unit:
poetry and art by
women in Chile
Apartheid and Resistance: Music, art,
movies and literature in South Africa
Teaching History Through Current
 Venezuela, Bolivia, Brazil..
 Leadership Models
 Home-grown heroes vs. local activists
 Genocides: Rwanda and Darfur
Nations in Latin America have now held
independence for almost 200 years,
what obstacles stand in the way of
economic and political success?
 Recognizing the challenges that new
nations in Africa have faced over the
past 50 years, what are the solutions?
Conclusions about Decolonization
Decolonization was sometimes a violent
process- dependent in large part on how many
settlers had come to the colony.
 In many parts of world, decolonization was not
revolutionary. Power passed from one class
of elites to another. Little economic and social
reform occurred.
 Significant challenges faced independent
 Western economic dominance of the global
trade system continued unabated. WHY?
The role of international organizations in
the future of the Global South
 The impact of globalization (economic,
cultural, and political) on conflict,
migration, human rights, resource
nationalism, and elections.
 Other thoughts?