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Comparison Essays Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments, c. 1900 –Present Questions? Key Concept 6.1:Science and the Environment New advances in science (Green Revolution, scientific paradigms, communication and technology, medical innovations, energy technologies) Key Concept 6.1:Science and the Environment Increase of Global Population Increased rate of impact Global Warming Environmental consequences of growth Key Concept 6.1:Science and the Environment Diseases, scientific innovations and conflict (impact on demographics) Disease and poverty connection (malaria, cholera, TB) Epidemics (influenza, Ebola, HIV/AIDS) Diseases assoc with changing lifestyles (diabetes…) Birth Control and impact on gender roles Improved military technology, tactics and increased casualties (For ex. Case studies: Airplanes, Firebombing, Nanjing) Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and their Consequences Domination by Europe at the beginning of century though increasingly transregional by end Collapse of land based empires (Russia, Qing, and Ottoman– external and internal factors) Negotiated Independence (India OR Gold Coast) Armed struggle of some colonies (Algeria and Vietnam, Angola) Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and their Consequences Emerging anti-imperialist ideologies led to decolonization and new states Nationalist leaders in Asia and Africa (Gandhi, Ho Chi Minh, OR Nkrumah) Regional, religious and ethnic movements (Jinnah, Quebecois, OR Biafra) Transnational movements (Communism, PanArabism, Pan-Africanism, OR Bolivarianism) Land and resource allocation reform in Africa, Asia, and Latin America (ex. ______________) Process of Decolonization and Nation- Building Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945. Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and mass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s. Three patterns: 1. 2. 3. Civil war (China) Negotiated independence (India and much of Africa) Incomplete de-colonization (Palestine, Algeria and Southern Africa, Vietnam) Decolonization--Egypt 1906 Dinshawai incident aroused nationalist passions. Actions post- Indep (1936) not sufficient. Coup d’etat in 1952 Gamal Abdel Nasser Nationalization of Suez 1956 protested by Israelis, British and French but diplomacy won over eventually. Nasser= symbol of panArab nationalism. Africa for Africans Nationalists composed of exservicemen, urban unemployed & under-employed, and the educated. Pan-Africanism and Negritude Senghor (Senegal) and Dubois (AfricanAmerican) De-colonization in Africa 1957, Gold Coast (renamed Ghana) independence, led by westerneducated, Kwame Nkrumah. By 1963, all of British ruled Africa, except Southern Rhodesia, was independent. De-colonization in French-ruled Africa Initially more resistant than the British. Encouraged closer French tiesassimilation, not autonomy. Not willing to go far enough in granting rights. With exception of Algeria, by 1960 had granted independence. Leopold Sedar Senghor Western educated Francophone intellectual from Senegal Poet who became first president of Senegal. Advocated democratic socialism and negritude. Negritude: validation of African culture and the African past by the Negritude poets. Recognized attributes of French culture but were not willing to be assimilated into Europe. Black Theology Archbishop Desmond Tutu one of main voices Goal to end apartheid in South Africa through a theologically based social justice movement Opposed racial injustice as well as social and economic inequity Role in Truth and Reconciliation Commission http://www.bethel.edu/~letnie/AfricanChristianity/SAContextual.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=928_TLwSl1I CNN coverage of Black Liberation Theology, Wright and Obama Black Theology Violent and Incomplete Decolonizations Presence of European immigrant groups impeded negotiations, leading to violence. For example, Kenya, Palestine, Algeria, and southern Africa Vietnam’s de-colonization complicated by France’s colonial ties and cold war politics. Kenya Presence of settlers prevented smooth transition of power. Kenya (20,000 Europeans only) led to violent revolt. Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952, led by Kikuyus suppressed by British. 1963 independence granted to black majority, led by Kenyatta. Algeria Appeal of Arab nationalism Large French settler population 1954- 1962 war between FLN (nationalist party) and French troops “part of France” 300,000 lives South Africa 4 million white residents Afrikaner-dominated (white) National Party won 1948 election Apartheid No protests tolerated (African National Congress, Mandela, Sharpeville massacre 1960) 1990’s black government elected Women as leaders in the Movement Women fought alongside men in whatever capacities were permitted in Algeria, Egypt, China, Vietnam,India and elsewhere. China, 1942: “ The fighting record of our women does not permit us to believe that they will ever again allow themselves to be enslaved whether by a national enemy or by social reaction at home.” Women given constitutional rights but social and economic equality rarely achieved in postcolonial developing nations. Comparative Rebellions Mau Mau revolt Peru -- Shining Path Nicaragua FLMN El Salvador Battle for Algiers Other topics?? Literature and Decolonization Expressions of nationalism and rejections of western superiority. Gandhi, “ I make bold to say that the Europeans themselves will have to remodel their outlooks if they are not to perish under the weight of the comforts to which they are becoming slaves.” Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart Senghor, “Snow upon Paris” Aime Cesaire, West Indian poet, founder of Negritude “Return to my Native Land” Fall of Empire: Fall out and Legacy Colonial footprint Problems of Transition Problems of Identity Challenges of Independence Ethnic disputes Dependent economies Growing debt Cultural dependence on west-> religious revivalism as backlash Widespread social unrest Military responses to restore order Population growth Resource depletion Lack of middle class in some locales Education deficit and later, brain drain. Neo-colonialism through economic debt. Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and their Consequences Political changes had social and demographic consequences Population resettlements following colonial rule (India/ Pakistan, Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine, OR mandates in Middle East) Migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (South Asians, Algerians, Filipinos) Ethnic violence increase and refugee populations (Armenia, The Holocaust, Cambodia, OR Rwanda) and (Palestinians OR Darfurians) Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and their Consequences Military conflicts occurred on unprecedented scale WWI and WWII as total wars (ideologies, colonial peoples, civilians, propaganda, nationalism) (Gurkha, ANZAC, Military conscription) Sources of Global conflict in first half century varied (required examples…) Cold War– shifting of power balance and involvement of Latin America, Asia and Latin America Ending of Cold war with dissolution of USSR World War I Promises of self-determination Use of colonial soldiers in trenches Locals filled posts left by colonial powers during war Financial strain on empire Treaty of Versailles World War II Increased nationalist uprisings following WWI and as a result of the global depression Costs of empire US support of anti-colonial liberation movements Atlantic Charter (1941) “right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live” Soviets condemned colonialism African participation in WWII Cold War Context Third World alignment in Cold war politics Case studies: Impact of the Cuban revolution– Castro and “Che” Guevara (Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy and Khrushchev) Lumumba and the Congo Crisis (US involvement in coup, Poisonwood Bible excerpt) Allende’s “peaceful road to socialism” led to coup by Pinochet (CIA role) Central America: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Dominican Republic and Guatemala See pp. 56 – 72 in Special Focus 2008 Cuba Increasing influence of Castro brothers and Che from 1953 onward in leading armed struggle against government Overthrow of Batista government in 1959 1961 failed Bay of Pigs invasion Nationalization of land, business and religious possessions. Land reform Literacy campaign Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 Cuba Today Patrice Lumumba Patrice Lumumba [From his last letter before his execution in 1961]. "'History will one day have its say, but it will not be the history that Brussels, Paris, Washington, or the United Nations will teach, but that which they will teach in the countries emancipated from colonialism and its puppets. Africa will write its own history, and it will be, to the north and to the south of the Sahara, a history of glory and dignity.' Salvador Allende 9-11-73 "I don't see why we need to stand by and watch a country go communist due to the irresponsibility of its own people. The issues are much too important for the Chilean voters to be left to decide for themselves." —Henry Kissinger "[Military rule aims] to make Chile not a nation of proletarians, but a nation of entrepreneurs." — Augusto Pinochet Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and their Consequences Resistance to Violence as a means of resolving conflicts, while at the same time conflicts intensified across the globe Groups and Individuals challenged wars (Picasso, antinuclear movement, OR Thich Quang Duc) and promoted non-violence (Gandhi OR King) Groups and individuals proposed alternatives (Lenin and Mao, Non-Aligned Movement, Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1968 movements, Tiananmen Sq protestors) Militaries promoted further conflict (Military dictatorships, New World Order, MIC and arms trade) Movements use of violence against civilians (IRA, ETA OR Al Qaeda) Conflicts influence on popular culture (James Bond…) Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society and Culture Varied response to economic challenges Communist economies control of national economies (Five Year plans OR Great Leap Forward) Government Intervention in national economies (New Deal or Fascist corporatist economy) Post WWII independent states role in guiding development (Nasser or East Asia export econ.) Encouragement by end of 20th c. of free market economies (US, Britain, China, Chile) Cold War Provided inspiration a blend of capitalist and socialist economies and agendas. Provided arms to those who sided with one or the other (proxy wars and arms races). Encouraged violent recourse for some as a result of the power politics of cold war competition. Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society and Culture Increasingly interdependent actors in the global community New International organizations (League of Nations, UN, or ICC) New Economic Institutions (IMF, World Bank, WTO) Humanitarian organizations (UNICEF, WHO, Amnesty, Red Cross…) Regional trade agreements (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, Mercosur) MNC’s (Shell, Coca Cola, Sony) Protest Movements (Greenpeace, Green Belt, Earth Day) Role of International Organizations Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society and Culture New conceptualizations of society and culture Human Rights (UNDHR, Womens rights, end of White Australia policy) Increased interactions between diverse peoples New cultural identities: Negritude Exclusionary reactions: Xenophobia, Race riots, citizenship restrictions New Forms of spirituality(New Age, Falun Gong, Hare Krishna) Application of religion to politics (Fundamentalist movements OR Liberation Theology) Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society and Culture Popular and consumer culture became global Sports (World Cup soccer, Olympics, cricket) Diffusion of Music and Film (Reggae OR Bollywood) Music as Protest South Africa and anti-apartheid music Paul Simon Bob Marley Chile : Sting and Victor Jara Caribbean Merengue- Dominican Republic Art as Ideology History of Venezuela: Bolivarianism Ian Pierce, Chilean muralist http://www.newint.org/features/2006/06/01/history/ http://encontrarte.aporrea.org/expo/e7.html Art as Ideology- Diego Rivera Art as Ideology Marjorie Agosin: Poetry and Textiles Stitching Truth Unit: poetry and art by women in Chile Apartheid and Resistance: Music, art, movies and literature in South Africa Examples: Teaching History Through Current events Nigeria Venezuela, Bolivia, Brazil.. Leadership Models Home-grown heroes vs. local activists Genocides: Rwanda and Darfur Questions Nations in Latin America have now held independence for almost 200 years, what obstacles stand in the way of economic and political success? Recognizing the challenges that new nations in Africa have faced over the past 50 years, what are the solutions? Conclusions about Decolonization Decolonization was sometimes a violent process- dependent in large part on how many settlers had come to the colony. In many parts of world, decolonization was not revolutionary. Power passed from one class of elites to another. Little economic and social reform occurred. Significant challenges faced independent nations. Western economic dominance of the global trade system continued unabated. WHY? Conclusions The role of international organizations in the future of the Global South The impact of globalization (economic, cultural, and political) on conflict, migration, human rights, resource nationalism, and elections. Other thoughts?