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Name: ___________________________
Period 4
World Cultural Geography Honors
Part I. Throughout its history, India was ruled by a series of (e)_______ builders. The
Muslim Mughal Empire was the last of these before the arrival of the (B)___________
East India (T)_________ Company in the 1600s.
1. The British East India Trading Company gradually established (d)_____________
over the country and laid the foundation for India to become part of the British
colonial empire.
2. Despite strong (r)_____________ to foreign rule, highlighted by the Great
Mutiny, the British government took control of India in 1857.
3. Britain’s colonial policies were based on a belief in its own cultural
(s)_____________ and a desire for (e)______________ gain.
4. The British government maintained a policy of “divide and conquer,” promoted
the caste system, and other discriminatory practices.
5. The British government took valuable (r)______ materials while dismantling
India’s prosperous (i)______________.
6. Nationalists in India reacted by founding the (I)_______________________
(three words) in 1885, and later the (M)_____________________ (two words),
presaging the future partition of the subcontinent.
7. Mahatma Gandhi became a strong nationalist leader and had a firm conviction in
the strategy of (n)_______________ protest.
8. Eventually, Gandhi would strive for an (i) ________________ and
(u)____________ India, working hard to try to balance the religious beliefs of
Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs.
9. The Amritsar massacre of 1919 transformed millions of Indians into
(r)________________ and sparked the Non-Cooperation Movement.
10. Later Gandhi organized a series of nonviolent protests: the great Salt March, a
boycott against British cloth, and the Quit India movement, which led to massive
protests and caused Britain to realize it was losing (c)___________ of its valuable
11. After World War II, long negotiations resulted in the historic and ultimately tragic
partition of India into two independent countries. These countries are
(I)_________ and (P)____________.
12. After India’s independence in August of 1947, (w)____________ between Hindus
and Muslims erupted and millions were (k)___________.
13. Gandhi obtained a pledge of peace between the warring sides, but was
(a)_______________ shortly thereafter.
14. For India, Gandhi left a (l)______________ of national pride. For the world, he
left the powerful force of nonviolent resistance.
Part II. Timeline: Read through the timeline to gain an understanding of the
sequence of significant events.
1608: The first British traders become active in India.
1757: The Battle of Plassey takes place.
1857: “The Great Mutiny,” also known as the Sepoy Rebellion, occurs.
1858: Queen Victoria declares India’s to be part of the British.
1885: The Indian National Congress is formed.
1906: The Muslim League is formed.
1919: The Amritsar Massacre sparks the Indian Independence Movement.
1930: The Salt March unites Indians.
1942: Gandhi launches the Quit India movement.
1947: India achieves independence.
1947: Violence between Hindus and Muslims erupts.
1948: Gandhi fasts to protest violence between Hindus and Muslims.
1948: Gandhi is assassinated.
Part III. Vocabulary:
empire –
imperialism –
colonialism —a policy in which a strong country exploits a weaker country, often using
the weaker country’s natural resources for its own benefit.
Mughal Empire —a Muslim empire, and last of the great Indian empires, which ruled
India from 1526 to 1857.
Industrial Revolution —mid-18th-century movement that replaced animal and water
power with machines, which dramatically changed the way people lived and worked. It
led to the development of infrastructure, factories, and the mass production of finished
British East India Trading Company — one of the most powerful commercial
enterprises in world history, which became a dominant force in India.
Battle of Plassey —British defeat of the Nawab of Bengal in 1757.The victory marked
the beginning of British East India Company rule in India.
The Great Mutiny (also called the Sepoy Rebellion) — an 1857–1858 Indian uprising
against the British East India Company’s control of the country. Following the mutiny,
Great Britain’s Queen Victoria declared India part of the British Empire.
The Raj —the Indian term for the rule of India by the British Government.
divide and conquer –
caste system —a division of social class in India based on ancient Hindu teachings
Mahatma —means “Great Soul”; it was a title bestowed on Mohandas K. Gandhi.
Indian National Congress —Indian political organization that led the independence
movement from Great Britain
Muslim League — now-defunct political party originally formed to protect the rights of
Muslims in India, which evolved into the main representative group for Muslims after
Pakistan was formed in 1947
nationalism —the strong belief of a political group fighting for its nation’s
Satyagraha —a Sanskrit word Gandhi used to describe his nonviolent approach, meaning
“hold fast to the truth.”
Amritsar Massacre —1919 shooting of hundreds of peaceful Indian protestors by
British troops. The massacre led to Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement.
boycott — a public campaign to refuse to deal with an authority, or to refuse to buy, sell
or use some product.
partition -civil disobedience —an organized, nonviolent opposition to a government policy or law
by refusing to comply with it on the grounds of conscience
Salt March —a nonviolent protest of the British monopoly on salt, led by Gandhi in
1930, that helped to galvanize the Indian independence movement
untouchables —a group of people who exist outside of the Hindu caste system and are
believed to contaminate anything or anyone with whom they come in contact
World War II —the second major war of the 20th century, which involved the allied
powers of England, France, the Soviet Union and the United States against the Axis
Powers of Germany, Japan and Italy
viceroy —the appointed governor of a colony or province who receives authority from,
and rules on behalf of, the home country.
Radcliffe Line —the 1947 boundary line separating India and Pakistan.
1. What does “empire” mean?
2. What does imperialism mean?
3. Why would one country seek to control the affairs of another country?
4. The British and other European powers used a strategy known as “divide and
conquer” to gain control over the indigenous populations they conquered. How
did this strategy work?
1.What was the British East India Trading Company?
2.Why was the Battle of Plassey significant?
3. How did India’s status change after the Great Mutiny in 1857?
4. Why were the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League formed?
5. What was Satyagraha?
6. How did the Amritsar Massacre affect India’s independence movement?
7. Why did Gandhi choose salt as the subject of a massive protest march?
8. Explain why the events of World War II worked to India’s advantage in its struggle for
independence from Britain.
9. What was the Radcliffe Line?
1. Who were the Mughals? Why was their empire significant?
2. What is social Darwinism? What was the purpose of social Darwinism? List
examples of social Darwinism in India. How did the British show their
attitudes of racism and superiority in India? Were the Europeans truly
“superior” to the Indians?
3. What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion?
4. How did British rule affect India’s local economies? Describe the short-term
and long-term effects. Focus on the list below.
British textiles
E. education
cotton crops
F. medicine
infrastructure: (railroad, telegraph, postal, and telephone services)
G. government
5. What factors contributed to Indian nationalism? Focus on the list below.
A. economic factors
B. social factors
C. other cultural factors
D. political factors – (include the Indian National Congress)
6. Who was Mohandas K. “Mahatma” Gandhi, and why was he able to bring
together India’s diverse populations?
1. social classes – those from different economic and education
2. different religious groups (especially Islam and Hinduism)
A. What factors in Gandhi’s life influenced his ideas and strategies?
(education, religion, family, world travels)
B. What methods did Gandhi use to win India’s independence?
C. Why was Gandhi killed?
D. Describe how Gandhi’s ideas have affected world history.
7. EVALUATING: Do you think the benefits of British rule to India outweighed
its costs? Support your answer. NOTE: This is an open-ended question with
many possible responses. The strength of your response depends on the
details and explanations that you use to support your opinion. This type of
question requires that you provide examples, as well as explanations to show
why these examples support your point of view.
8. What led to the creation of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh?
1. What is foreign policy, and why is it significant?
2. What is imperialism?
a. a type of foreign policy
b. when a strong nation, civilization, power takes over a
weaker nation or region and dominates its economic,
political, or cultural life
-controlling the economy and government for personal gain
Exploiting another country for its natural resources
c. a process of accumulating and acquiring land, resources, labor, and
supported by an ideology that suggested certain peoples and
certain territories
creation of empires was not a Western invention and overseas
conquest was nothing new
Chinese, Turks, Persians, Aztecs, Incas, and many African states
had empires
European imperialism was different from earlier efforts at conquest
because of its immensely large scale
Goal and result: creation of colonies politically submissive and
economically profitable to Europeans
3. Which countries practiced imperialism?
=>European countries, US, Japan
4. When? 1800s and early 1900s
5. What were some characteristics of European
a. characterized by an enormous disparity in power between the
colonizers and colonized
due to industrialization
b. European nationals was also a goal that motivated Europeans to
find and obtain cheap
and profitable raw materials and labor to become more self-sufficient
c. Sought out new lands to relieve their overpopulated cities
d. Sought out new markets for manufactured goods
e. sought to “civilize” the indigenous people with Western beliefs –
convert to Christianity
f. US and Japan followed European imperialism
g. Muslim Empires, Africans, Chinese, Indians and many other people
were collectively dominated during the Age of Imperialism
6. What were the economic, political, social, and other cultural
factors that led to imperialism?
A. How and why did industrialization lead to imperialism?
What was the relationship between industrialization and
1. demand for cheap raw materials
2. need for markets to buy manufactured goods
(finished goods)
B. Why were raw materials and markets needed in order to
maintain industrialized economies?
C. Provide two examples showing the relationship between
specific raw materials and the finished goods they are used to
1. iron=>steel
2. cotton=>textiles
D. Why did nationalism contribute to imperialism?
1. international prestige – race for global economic and
political dominance, spreading cultural influences
2. competition to control trade routes
3. need to maintain a balance of power in Europe
E. Why did Europeans view their cultures as superior to those
in Africa, Asia, and Latin America?
=> “benign imperialism”
a. moral obligation (White Man’s Burden)
b. religion – Christianity versus polytheism/paganism
=> Social Darwinism
a. racial theory of society in the 1870s; it rendered
benign imperialism obsolete
b. competition between individuals for limited
resources, popularly but inaccurately described by the
phrase – survival of the fittest
c. used to promote the idea that the white European race
was superior to others, and therefore, destined to rule
over them
FROM VIDEO: British Raj ("reign" in Hindustani)
FROM VIDEO: Viceroy: representative of the king or
queen; royal official who runs a country, colony, or city
The technology, economy, and government of the
"White European" were advanced in comparison to that of
other cultures. Looking at this apparent advantage, as well as
the economic and military structures, some argued that
natural selection was playing out, and that the race more
suited to survival was winning. Some even extended this
philosophy into a micro-economic issue, claiming that social
welfare programs that helped the poor and disadvantaged
were contrary to nature itself. Those who reject any and all
forms of charity or governmental welfare often use arguments
rooted in Social Darwinism.
At its worst, the implications of Social Darwinism were
used as scientific justification for the Holocaust. The Nazis
claimed that the murder of Jews in World War II was an
example of cleaning out the inferior genetics. Many
philosophers noted evolutionary echoes in Hitler's march to
exterminate an entire race of people. Various other dictators
and criminals have claimed the cause of Social Darwinism in
carrying out their acts.
6. What were the effects of imperialism?
A. cultural diffusion
B. spread of ideas about democracy and capitalism
C. spread of technology – medicine, science, and
D. spread of religion
E. spread of languages
F. loss of languages and culture
7. What came next?
A. nationalism among indigenous populations
B. revolutions
C. independence
D. nation-building
Notes from:
tm#I. British Imperialism in India