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Check Understanding 16.4 Evidence of Evolution Name ___________________________________ Period _____ Date _______________ Seat ____ Biogeography 1. ___________________________ is the study of past and present distribution of organisms. 2. Biogeography helped Darwin realize that the different finch species of the Galápagos Islands were ____________________________ from birds in South America. descended 3. Body parts in closely related organisms (like birds and reptiles) that are structurally similar but may not share the same function homologous structures are examples of ________________________________________. 4. Body parts of unrelated organisms (bees, bats, and birds) that serve the same function but are not structurally related are analogous structures examples of ___________________________________________. 5. Inherited structures that have lost much of their original function vestigial structures (like the whale pelvis) are called _______________________________________. embryonic 6. Similarities in early stages of _______________________cell growth among animals with backbones are evidence of common descent. 7. Radioactive dating suggests Earth is about ______________________ years old, which is 4.5 billion plenty of time for evolution to take place. 8. Scientists have found hundreds of examples of transitional fossils of animals that are “__________________________” species that lived in the past and those alive today. In between 9. Fossils of ancient whales show that the ancestors of whales ____________________ on land. walked 10. The shared _________________ code among all living things is powerful evidence that all genetic organisms evolved from a common ancestor that used this code. 11. Homologous proteins like ______________________, which is used in cellular respiration in cytochrome c almost all living things, provides evidence of common descent. 12. Peter and Rosemary Grant showed that natural selection can change _________________ beak sizes in wild Galápagos finch populations. 13. Vestigial structures, like the wings of an ostrich, are used as examples of evidence for evolution. Some people argue that ostrich wings are not vestigial because they use them in other ways, and thus cannot be used to support evolution. Evaluate this argument for accuracy. Evolutionary theory doesn't say that vestigial characters have no function. A trait can be vestigial and functional at the same time. It is vestigial not because it's functionless, but because it no longer performs the function for which it evolved (to fly). 14. How is it that flightless birds like the Galápagos cormorant, New Zealand Kiwi, New Zealand Kakapo, Hawaiian rail, Samoan island wood rail, Gough island moorhen, and the Auckland island teal could survive without being able to fly? Kiwi These birds evolved on islands that lack mammal and reptile predators that prey on birds. Flight is metabolically expensive, using up a lot of energy that otherwise could be diverted to reproduction.