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Name:_________________________ Ms. Thompson ELA II American Literary Movements Study Guide- Review for Monday’s Test (9/22/14) *Note: These are not the only important parts of the literary time periods; rather these are just some highlights from the presentations seen in class. Also keep in mind that some time periods overlap, as well as some authors and poets can fit into more than one category. 1. Puritanism/Colonialism Time Period Date Range: 1650-1750 Reinforces authority of the Bible and Church Very plain writing Sermons, diaries, personal narratives Believe people are corrupt and need to be saved by God Instructive material ie: Edwards- “Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God” **The Crucible, the first play we read in class was written in the 1950s, but the setting takes place during the 1692 Salem Witch Trials and Puritan time period 2. Age of Reason/Enlightenment Date Range: 1750-1800 Instills pride and patriotism Mission to build American character Lots of political pamphlets to encourage Revolutionary War Support Persuasive Writing Founding Fathers very influential (Independence Day- July 4, 1776!) -->I still can’t believe many of you didn’t know this. Learn it. ie: Thomas Paine- Common Sense Benjamin Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac Constitution Federalist and AntiFederalist Papers Romanticism Date Range: 1800-1860 Values emotion over logical reasoning Poetry, short stories, character sketches Helped instill “proper” gender behavior for men and women Allowed people to over-exaggerate and reimagine the American past Freedom and creativity ie: Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson Poems Dunbar’s “We wear the mask” 3. 4. American Renaissance/Transcendentalism Date Range: 1840-1860 Valued self-reliance and individualism Valued freedom Idealists Nature important Nonconformists (don’t follow everyone in society) ie: Thoreau’s Walden Emerson’s Nature Anti-Transcendentalists- Poe, Hawthorne, & Melville (used symbolism) Realism Date Range: 1855-1900 Civil War made need for “truer” literature Novels and short stories Objective narrators Dialogue and slang (more realistic sounding) ie: Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass 5. 6. Modernism Date Range: 1900-1950 Reaction to WWI o Often themes involving alienation and isolation o Disillusionment due to war Highly experimental writing styles Use of stream of consciousness Fragmentation in writing In pursuit of the American Dream (begin to question things but optimistic in some respects) ie: The Great Gatsby- F. Scott Fitzgerald Poetry of TS Eliot, William Carlos Williams (born in Rutherford, NJ!), Ezra Pound Harlem Renaissance Date Range: 1920s In reaction to a huge migration of African-Americans from Northern urban centers Gave birth to “gospel music” Blues and Jazz big part of lifestyles Use structure of blues songs in poetry ie: Poetry, short stories and novels of Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston Postmodernism/Contemporary Date Range: 1950-Present Post-World War II Mixing of fantasy with nonfiction; blurs lines of reality for reader No heroes Narratives, metafiction, magical realism, usually humorless Erodes distinctions between classes of people ie: Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood, JD Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye Beat poets: Kerouac, Burroughs, & Ginsberg 7. 8.