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James Madison: 4th President
The fourth president of the US is James Madison. He listened to the reasons westerns
were calling for war. The British had impressed (kidnaped) our sailors, they interfered with
our shipping and trading, and finally because they were helping the Native Americans are
the three reasons they gave for why we should go to war with Britain and get them out of
North America! Madison and Congress agreed and we declared war on Britain on June 18,
1. What three reasons did Americans give for declaring war on Britain?
The War of 1812
The war was fought in two major theatres. A theatre is defined as a
specific geographical area of armed conflict. The first theatre was along
the frontier between the United States and Canada, the second was
along the American Atlantic coast. The most important navy battle took
place on Lake Erie. The army too was victorious against the British
along the Canadian/American coast. These two victories secured the
northwest for the US.
After defeating Napoleon, the British gave all their attention to fighting the US. They
attacked Washington, DC and burned the Whitehouse down. Dolly Madison Presidents
Madison’s wife acted quickly to remove paintings and valuables from the Whitehouse
including a painting of George Washington. They moved on to Fort McHenry in the
Baltimore Harbor. It was here that a young man named Francis Scot Key was held
prisoner on a boat while the last battle waged. At dawn, Key saw that it was the American
flag that stood the fighting all night and we had won the war. It was with great pride that
he wrote a poem describing the events of the night and his writing later became the U.S.
national anthem called the Star Spangled Banner.
In the South, the British made the port of New Orleans their target. A U.S general named
Andrew Jackson put together an army to defend the important city. When the British
launched their attack, they were quickly defeated by Jackson’s soldiers. The Battle of New
Orleans made Jackson a hero, even though the entire battle was unnecessary; it boosted
patriotism and unity in the U.S. The War of 1812 had ended two weeks earlier but news
took a while to get down south.
2. Who wrote the Star Spangled Banner?
3. Who led the Battle of New Orleans?
4. What impact did the Battle of New Orleans have on the country?
The Legacy of the War of 1812
The treaty that ended the war showed that there was no clear winner. Neither side won
territory, nor was border and trade disputes solved. But there were three important
consequences. 1.) The United States proved it could defend itself against the mightiest
military of the time, the heroism of Americans increased patriotism. 2.) The war weakened
Native Americans, who had sided with the British. 3.) Because the war had interrupted
trade, Americans were forced to make many of their own goods. This encouraged the
growth of the U.S manufactures.
4. What is another word for Effect? ____________________________________
5. Fill in the effects of the War of 1812.